1st second and third person

First person inquiry provides an important basis for inquiring into one's own engagement with the value-laden and political nature of action research. Second. First person includes the speaker (English: I, we, me, and us), second person is the person or people spoken to (English: you), and third person includes all. Usually placing the subject FIRST and the verb SECOND will help change PV to active voice. Practice changing the following passive voice sentences to active.
1st second and third person

1st second and third person -

First, Second, and Third Person: Points of View in Writing

Main Takeaways:

  • First-person indicates the author is writing about his/her feelings and/or point of view.
  • First-person can be singular or plural and uses pronouns like I, me, and we.
  • The second person addresses the person being spoken to.
  • First-personPOV can be direct, using pronouns like you and your, or implied.
  • Third-person POV refers to outside entities like objects or people other than the author or the reader.

The concept of the first, second, and third person can be confusing. Your professor may request an essay in the third person, and you’re trying to figure out who else is in the room beside you and her. First-person—is that like Neil Armstrong being the first human to step on the moon?

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Kidding aside, finding the right point of view that serves both your topic and your purpose doesn’t have to be stressful. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll walk you through all three perspectives and even offer up examples. Get ready—you’re about to become an expert!

What are First, Second, and Third Person Points of View?

To begin with, a point of view refers to the perspective from which a piece of content is written. In writing, there are three types of points of view: the first, second, and third person. If you’re using the first person in your writing, it means that you’re the speaker. You narrate the story from your perspective. Now, if you’re using the second person POV, you are addressing your readers. Last but not least, the third-person perspective indicates that you are addressing the third party.

What is First Person?

Writing in first-person means you use pronouns that make it clear the text is about you. These may include “I,” “me,” and “my.”

First-person pronouns can also be plural and refer to several people. In that case, the speaker would be talking about the group as a plural first person. Plural first-person pronouns may include “we,” ‘us,” “our,” and “ourselves.”

Sometimes, authors turn to first-person narration as a way to draw in the reader and make a connection. It’s easier to identify with the protagonist of a novel, for example, when you read the dialogue in their voice. Understanding the star character’s perspective is important.

Need a trick to keep things straight? Remember this: You like to put yourself first. Therefore, “you” is first person!

What is Second Person?

Second person addresses the person being spoken to, likely the reader. Though the second person can be used in fiction writing, it’s rare. It’s also uncommon to use the second person in scripts, as it’s considered breaking the fourth wall. You’ll most frequently see the second person used in direct communications, such as a letter or email. It’s also ideal for blogs, instructional guides, and other content that’s designed to compel the reader into action.

Second personpronouns can also be singular or plural and may include “you,” “your,” “yours,” “yourself,” and “yourselves.”

Youcan wait in the lobby untilyourroom is ready.

There is also a form of second person called impliedsecond person. The POV is implied because you’re talking to the reader without ever saying “you” or “your.”

What is Third Person?

Third person removes the reader and writer from the equation. Instead, the content refers to outside objects, people, or places. Think of it like transferring ownership of the text to the person or thing being talked about.

Third-person pronouns include “she,” “her,” “hers,” “her,” “his,” “it,” “its,” “they,” “them,” “their,” and “theirs.”

Much like the second person, a third-person perspective can be implied. You may not see pronouns like “them” or “him,” but it will be clear that the author is talking about a third party.

Third-person is the go-to choice for many fiction writers who want the ability to narrate their stories freely. With the third person, authors can describe a character’s emotions or inner dialogue without claiming it. In other words, they invite the reader in without involving them directly. It also comes across as being more objective. A narrator who uses “I” or “me” would likely be biased. Therefore, writing in the third person indicates the author has little to no personal stake in the story.

Point of ViewSingularPlural
First PersonI, me, mine, mywe, us, our, ours
Second Personyou, your, yoursyou, your, yours
Third Personhe, she, him, her,
his, her, hers, it,its
they, them, their,theirs

Think of who You’re Writing for

Most of the time, choosing between first, second, and third-person depends on what you’re writing and for whom. The one thing you want to avoid 99% of the time is speaking in the third person. If your name is Laura and you catch yourself saying, “Laura really needs some coffee,” prepare to be teased.

Quick Grammar Quiz on First, Second, and Third Person

First, Second, Third Person Question #1

Correct!Oops! That's incorrect.

The answer is A. Point of view describes the perspective from which a piece of content is written.

Point of View Question #2

Correct!Oops! That's incorrect.

The answer is D. Fourth-person point of view doesn't exist.

Correct!Oops! That's incorrect.

The answer is B. The sentence is written from a third-person point of view.

Correct!Oops! That's incorrect.

The answer is C. “You” is a second-person pronoun.

Correct!Oops! That's incorrect.

The answer is TRUE. Third-person point of view allows authors to describe a character's emotions or inner dialogue without claiming it.

First, Second, and Third Person
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Point of View

What is 1st 2nd and 3rd person?

First person is the I/we perspective. Second person is the you perspective. Third person is the he/she/it/they perspective.

How do you use first second and third person in a sentence?

The usual order is second, third, first : You and I (not I and you), you and he, William and I, He and I. If the pronouns are plural, the order is : second, third, first : We, you, and they are going.

What are the 3 persons in English?

Person refers to the relationship that an author has with the text that he or she writes, and with the reader of that text. English has three persons (first, second, and third).

What is the 3rd person singular?

Noun. third-person singular (plural third-person singulars) (grammar) The form of a verb used (in English and other languages) with singular nouns and with the pronouns he, she, it and one (or their equivalents in other languages). “Is” is the third-person singular of “to be”.

Is the word they second person?

Second person pronouns refer to the reader or listener (you, your, yours). Third person pronouns refer to people or objects not directly involved (he, she, it, him, they, theirs, etc.). This lesson is about the second-person pronouns.

What is an example of 2nd person point of view?

Second person point of view is when the writer uses “you” as the main character in a narrative. Example using the first line of Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man: 1st person: “I am an invisible man.” 2nd person: “You are an invisible man.”

What are some second person words?

Second Person Second-person pronouns. Examples: you, your, yours. always refer to the reader, the intended audience. They include you, your, and yours.

How do you write in third person examples?

Third person pronouns include: he, she, it; his, her, its; him, her, it; himself, herself, itself; they; them; their; themselves. Names of other people are also considered appropriate for third person use. Example: “Smith believes differently. According to his research, earlier claims on the subject are incorrect.”

Can you use the word you in third person?

It differs from the first person, which uses pronouns such as I and me, and from the second person, which uses pronouns such as you and yours. The personal pronouns used in third-person writing are he, she, it, they, him, her, them, his, her, hers, its, their, and theirs.

How do you say I believe in third person?

Examples of personal opinion: “I believe…” “I think…” “In my opinion…” “I would say that…” The third person point of view is often used as an alternative to first person as the “voice” in academic writing.

How do you introduce a character in third person?

How to start a novel in third person: 7 tips

  1. 1: Choose between third person limited, objective and omniscient.
  2. 2: Begin with character action and description that raises questions.
  3. 3: Avoid introductory character descriptions that read as lists.
  4. 4: Remember not to use dialogue attribution in third person unless necessary.
  5. 5: Balance introducing character and setting.

Is it easier to write in first or third person?

Some guidelines: If you want to write the entire story in individual, quirky language, choose first person. If you want your POV character to indulge in lengthy ruminations, choose first person. If you want your reader to feel high identification with your POV character, choose first person or close third.

Can you switch from first person to third person in a story?

There is no rule that says that all parts of a story must be written in the same POV. Diana Gabaldon’s bestselling novel Dragonfly in Amber mixed first person and third person POV throughout the story. If you execute your story well, you can switch between first person and third person smoothly.

Why is third person used in academic writing?

If you are working on anything formal such as argumentative papers or a research essays, then you must use third person pronoun. This is because it gives your work a picture of objectivity rather than personal thoughts. This aspect of objectivity will make your work look more credible and less biased.

What’s an example of third person omniscient?

A prime example of the third-person omniscient point of view is Leo Tolstoy’s renowned and character-heavy novel “Anna Karenina” which is told from multiple points of view.

What can first person narrators not do?

If the first-person narrator lacks experience, he may misunderstand an action by another character. Since he can’t see into the minds of the other characters, he could misinterpret actions or make assumptions that aren’t true.

What is 2st person writing?

Writing in the second person requires use of the pronouns you, your, and yours. It is different from the first person, which uses pronouns including I and me, and different from the third person, which uses pronouns such as he and she.

How many types of first person are there?

If a writer chooses to use first person, their next most important decision is which character will be narrating the story. There are three common types of narrators: a reliable character telling their own story, a character telling another character’s story, and an unreliable character telling the story.

What is first person voice?

In writing, the first person point of view uses the pronouns “I,” “me,” “we,” and “us,” in order to tell a story from the narrator’s perspective. The storyteller in a first-person narrative is either the protagonist relaying their experiences or a peripheral character telling the protagonist’s story.

What is 1st active voice?

Active voice means that a sentence has a subject that acts upon its verb. Passive voice means that a subject is a recipient of a verb’s action.

Why do Japanese speak in third person?

Young children in Japan commonly refer to themselves by their own name. This is due to the Japanese way of speaking, in which referring to another in the third person is considered more polite than using any of the Japanese words for “you”.

Источник: https://www.mvorganizing.org/what-is-1st-2nd-and-3rd-person/
First, Second, & Third Person

Point of View Definition

In English, the point of view is the narrator's position or perspective through which the story is being communicated. An author's point of view tells the reader who the person is experiencing the event or the topic of the writing.

All types of writing — fiction, song lyrics, nonfiction — are written from a point of view.

First, Second, And Third Person

First, second, and third person are the three main types of point of view.

  • First person is the I / we perspective
  • Second person is the you perspective
  • Third person is the she / he / they / it perspective

The author chooses a point of view to relate the story as if you were experiencing it, to force you into the story, or to allow the author to show different points of view. Here are some examples of point of view:

  1. First Person POV (You are experiencing it) – "My heart leaped into my throat as I turned and saw a frightening shadow."
  2. Second Person POV (Force you into the story) – "You turn and see a frightening shadow."
  3. Third Person POV (Show different points of view) – "The children turned and saw the frightening shadow. They were unaware a cat had walked close to the low-hung lantern."

How To Identify Point Of View

Identifying a point of view in a writer's work can sometimes be challenging. The best way to find the point of view is to skip the dialogue, go to the narration, and look at the pronouns used in the narrative:

  • I, me, my, mine, myself, we, our, ours, ourselves — First person
  • You, your, yours, yourself — Second person
  • She, her, hers, herself, he, him, his, himself, they, them, themselves, their, theirs — Third person
1st, 2nd, 3rd PersonSubjectObjectPossessiveReflective
det.Pron.
Singular1stImemyminemyself
2ndyouyouyouryoursyourself
3rdmalehehimhishishimself
femalesheherherhersherself
neuteritititsitsitself
generic or 4th persononeoneone'soneself
Plural1stweuseouroursourselves
2ndyouyouyouryoursyourselves
3rdtheythemtheirtheirsthemselves

You skip the dialogue because a character in any voice can speak and will almost always speak in first person voice.

Identifying A Point Of View

First Person Point Of View

Usually, we speak in the first person when we talk about ourselves, our opinions, or our experiences.

Anytime a writer wants to share another person's life, you will see the first-person persoective. With a first-person view, every person reading the passage sees into the character's life.

First Person Point Of View

The first-person point of view is identified by singular pronouns such as; me, my, I, mine, and myself or plural first person pronouns like we, us, our, and ourselves.

SingularPlural
IOur
MeOurselves
MineWe
MyUs
Myself 

First Person Point Of View Examples

John Lennon and Paul McCartney wrote the song, “In My Life” in first person:

There are places I'll remember
All my life, though some have changed
Some forever, not for better
Some have gone and some remain
All these places had their moments
With lovers and friends, I still can recall
Some are dead and some are living
In my life, I've loved them all

New Yorker magazine writer and children's book author E.B. White often wrote in the first person, especially in his nonfiction essays. This excerpt is from "Goodbye to Forty-Eighth Street":

One day a couple of weeks ago, I sat for a while staring moodily at a plaque that had entered life largely as a result of some company's zest for promotion.

Choose first person when you want the reader to go along for the ride with you. You direct the action, sure, but the reader feels it. Consider these famous first-person plural words:

We the People of the United States in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Preamble Of US Constituion First Person POV Example

Novels from around 1900 to the present usually show this active, engaged point of view. Tasks ideal for the first person (singular or plural) include:

  • Autobiographies
  • Journals or diaries
  • Fiction
  • Essays
  • Blogs
  • Reading records
  • Song lyrics
  • Poems
  • Letters (formal or friendly)

Places to avoid the first person:

  • Academic work
  • Instructions

Types Of First Person

First person narration can take different forms:

  • Reliable - the writer's character speaks the truth
  • Unreliable - the writer's character is hiding something; they are an unreliable narrator
  • First-person Central – the narrator is the main character and central to the plot
  • First-person peripheral – the narrator is a witness, but not the main character

To read a gripping first-person narrative, revisit Suzanne Collins' "Hunger Games" trilogy.

Second Person Point Of View

Second person point of view is known as the “you” perspective. It is the perspective of the person or persons that the narrator is addressing. The second person perspective is identifiable by the author's use of second-person pronouns: you, yourself, your, yours, or yourselves.

SingularPlural
YouYou
YourYour
YoursYours
YourselfYourselves
 You all (y'all)

Many second-person pronouns are both singular and plural, depending on the context.

Second Person Point Of View

The second person point of view attempts to turn the reader into the character. It is seldom used in novels but does give an immediate jolt.

Second Person Point Of View Examples

The use of second-person perspective in novels or stories is rare, but it does exist. Consider this example from fiction, "Earth and Ashes" by Atiq Rahimi and Erdag Goknar:

With your back to the autumn sun, you are squatting against the iron railings of the bridge that links the two banks of the dry riverbed north of Pul-i-Khumri.

Second person helps to deeply immerse new readers in many children's books. The entirety of "How to Babysit a Grandpa" is written as a second-person book of instructions:

As soon as your grandpa says, “I give up,” jump out and shout, “Here I am!”

The second person point of view is perfectly natural for recipes and directions. Here is a way to make lemonade, written in the second person:

  1. You need six lemons, six cups of cold water, and one cup of sugar.
  2. You'll need a large pitcher for mixing everything and a juicer.
  3. Before you juice the lemons, you can make your work easier by rolling the lemons on the counter, hard.
  4. Then you just juice them normally.
  5. You combine the fresh lemon juice, water, and sugar in the pitcher.
  6. Stir; you may want to adjust sweetness or water to taste.

When To Use Second Person Point Of View

With instructions and directions, second person can be an “understood” point of view:

“Turn to page 178 and solve problems 6 through 10.”

The understood but unwritten subject of that sentence is “You”, the pronoun is just left out.

Never use the second person POV in academic writing.

Third Person Point Of View

The third-person point of view belongs to the people or person the narrator is referring to. Third-person pronouns are she, he, her, him, hers, his, herself, himself, it, its, itself, they, their, theirs, them and themselves.

SingularPlural
SheThey
HeThem
HerTheir
HimTheirs
HersThemselves
His 
Herself 
Himself 
It 
Its 
Itself 

For the writer who must tell several interwoven stories, provide psychological distance between the subject and the reader, or who needs to stay neutral, nothing beats the third-person viewpoint.

All academic writing, most advertising, many novels, and most quotations or aphorisms are written in the third person.

Third Person Point Of View

Third Person Limited

The third-person limited point of view is when the narrator only has some access to the experiences and thoughts of the characters. Many times, the third person limited perspective limits the narrators access to the thoughts and experiences of just one character.

Third Person Omniscient

The third-person omniscient point of view is when the narrator has access to all the experiences and thoughts of all the characters in the story. An omniscient narrator knows the main character's thoughts and those of every other character in the novel or short story.

Third Person Point Of View Examples

Here is a passage from J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, showing the power of third person:

Harry moved in front of the tank and looked intently at the snake. He wouldn't have been surprised if it had died of boredom itself...

In fiction, third person allows a writer to put the reader into the heads of all the characters, explain important plot points, and present information in a seemingly neutral way.

Speaking In Third Person

Speaking in the third person is not typical, but people do it. It can be an excellent  comedic effect or to grab someone's attention.

Here is an example of Larry speaking in the third person:

Sheila: Hey Jake, let's watch this movie! Larry loves this movie.

Jake: Oh yes, Larry is a huge fan of this one. Let's watch it!

Larry: What!? Larry does not like this movie.

Fourth Person Point Of View

The fourth person point of view is a term used for indefinite or generic referents. A common example in the English language is the word one as in “one would think that's how it works.” This example sentence is referring to a generic someone.

You may also see the fourth person point of view called the third person generic.

Choosing A Point Of View

We all like to write in a natural way. As a writer, you have a duty to your reader to think carefully about your point of view. Many writers rewrite their work if the point of view seems awkward.

That paragraph went from first person to second person to third person, all in just three sentences!

Choosing A Point Of View

The first-person point of view or a first-person narrator can fool a reader into trusting the narrator when the narrator is not a reliable reporter (great for mysteries, recounted tales, and fictional confessionals).

Many great novels such as "The Great Gatsby" are written from a first-person perspective. Another classic in first person pov is Herman Melville's "Moby Dick." It is clear who is narrating with the line "Call me Ishmael."

The second person is suitable for simple, direct storytelling (for children, recipes, assembly instructions, and the like).

A third person narrator creates the most distance between events and the reader. It is almost always seen as a reliable, neutral viewpoint. With the third person, the author can select the point of view of a single character or be omniscient (all-knowing, all present) and move in and out of the minds of all the characters.

What you learned:

After working your way through this lesson and video, you have learned:

  • The definition of point of view
  • Differences between first, second, and third person
  • Point of view pronouns
  • How to identify a point of view
  • When To use the different perspective

Instructor: Malcolm M.
Malcolm has a Master's Degree in education and holds four teaching certificates. He has been a public school teacher for 27 years, including 15 years as a mathematics teacher.

Источник: https://tutors.com/lesson/point-of-view-first-second-third-person

Grammatical person

Grammatical category

See also: Narrative mode

Several terms like "first person singular" and "second-person plural" redirect here. For other uses, see § Works.

In linguistics, grammatical person is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person). First person includes the speaker (English: I, we, me, and us), second person is the person or people spoken to (English: you), and third person includes all that are not listed above (English: he, she, it, they, etc.) [1] Grammatical person typically defines a language's set of personal pronouns. It also frequently affects verbs, and sometimes nouns or possessive relationships.

Related classifications[edit]

Number[edit]

Main article: Grammatical number

In Indo-European languages, first-, second-, and third-person pronouns are typically also marked for singular and plural forms, and sometimes dual form as well (grammatical number).

Inclusive/exclusive distinction[edit]

Main article: Clusivity

Some other languages use different classifying systems, especially in the plural pronouns. One frequently found difference not present in most Indo-European languages is a contrast between inclusive and exclusive "we": a distinction of first-person plural pronouns between including or excluding the addressee.

Honorifics[edit]

Main article: Honorifics (linguistics)

Many languages express person with different morphemes in order to distinguish degrees of formality and informality. A simple honorific system common among European languages is the T–V distinction. Some other languages have much more elaborate systems of formality that go well beyond the T–V distinction, and use many different pronouns and verb forms that express the speaker's relationship with the people they are addressing. Many Malayo-Polynesian languages, such as Javanese and Balinese, are well known for their complex systems of honorifics; Japanese, Korean and Chinese also have similar systems to a lesser extent.

Effect on verbs[edit]

Main article: Grammatical conjugation

In many languages, the verb takes a form dependent on the person of the subject and whether it is singular or plural. In English, this happens with the verb to be as follows:

  • I am (first-person singular)
  • you are/thou art (second-person singular)
  • he, she, one, it is/they are (third-person singular)
  • we are (first-person plural)
  • you are/ye are (second-person plural)
  • they are (third-person plural)

Other verbs in English take the suffix -s to mark the present tense third person singular, excluding singular 'they'.

In many languages, such as French, the verb in any given tense takes a different suffix for any of the various combinations of person and number of the subject.

Additional persons[edit]

The grammar of some languages divide the semantic space into more than three persons. The extra categories may be termed fourth person, fifth person, etc. Such terms are not absolute but can refer depending on context to any of several phenomena.

Some Algonquian languages and Salishan languages divide the category of third person into two parts: proximate for a more topical third person, and obviative for a less topical third person.[2] The obviative is sometimes called the fourth person.

The term fourth person is also sometimes used for the category of indefinite or generic referents, which work like one in English phrases such as "one should be prepared" or people in people say that..., when the grammar treats them differently from ordinary third-person forms.[citation needed] The so-called "zero person"[3][4] in Finnish and related languages, in addition to passive voice may serve to leave the subject-referent open. Zero person subjects are sometimes translated as "one," but the problem with that is that English language constructions involving one, e.g. "One hopes that will not happen," are rare[citation needed] and could be considered expressive of an overly academic tone to the majority of people, while Finnish sentences like "Ei saa koskettaa" ("Not allowed to touch") are recognizable to and used by young children in both languages.

English pronouns in the nominative case[edit]

Pronoun Person and number Gender
Standard
IFirst-person singular
weFirst-person plural
youSecond-person singular or second-person plural
heThird-person masculine singular masculine
sheThird-person feminine singular feminine
itThird-person neuter (and inanimate) singular neuter
oneThird-person gender-neutral singular common
theyThird-person plural or gender-neutralsingularepicene
Dialectal
meFirst-person singular, dialectal Caribbean English and colloquial special uses
theeSecond-person singular, literary, dialectal Yorkshire, and occasional use by Quakers
allyuhSecond-person plural, many English-based creole languages, dialectal Caribbean English
unu Second-person plural, many English-based creole languages, dialectal Caribbean English
y'allSecond-person plural, dialectal Southern American, Texan English, and African American English
yeSecond-person plural, dialectal Hiberno-English and Newfoundland English
yinzSecond-person plural, Scots, dialectal Scottish English, Pittsburgh English
you guysSecond-person plural, dialectal American English and Canadian English
you(r) lot Second-person plural, dialectal British English
youse Second-person plural, Australian English, many urban American dialects like New York City English and Chicago English, as well as Ottawa Valley English. Sporadic usage in some British English dialects, such as Mancunian.
yourseSecond-person plural, Scots, dialect Central Scottish Lowlands, Scouse, Cumbrian, Tyneside, Hiberno English.
us First-person plural subject, as in, us guys are going...
them Third-person plural subject, as in, them girls drove...
Archaic
thouSecond-person singular informal subject
theeSecond-person singular informal object
yeSecond-person plural

See also[edit]

Grammar[edit]

Works[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Hattum, Ton van (2006). "First, Second, Third Person: Grammatical Person". Ton van Hattum.
  2. ^Harrigan, Atticus G.; Schmirler, Katherine; Arppe, Antti; Antonsen, Lene; Trosterud, Trond; Wolvengrey, Arok (2017-10-30). "Learning from the computational modelling of Plains Cree verbs". Morphology. Springer Nature. 27 (4): 565–598. doi:10.1007/s11525-017-9315-x. ISSN 1871-5621. S2CID 10649070.
  3. ^Laitinen, Lea (2006). Helasvuo, Marja-Liisa; Campbell, Lyle (eds.). "0 person in Finnish: A grammatical resource for construing human evidence". Grammar from the Human Perspective: Case, Space and Person in Finnish. Amsterdam: Benjamins: 209–232. doi:10.1075/cilt.277.15lai.
  4. ^Leinonen, Marja (1983). "Generic zero subjects in Finnish and Russian". Scando-Slavica. 29 (1): 143–161. doi:10.1080/00806768308600841.

External links[edit]

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_person

Make It Personal: Writing in 1st, 2nd & 3rd Person Formats

I love reading about reading, and writing about writing. As a child I used to read dictionaries (no, I'm not making that up!).

1st, 2nd or 3rd?

It's not a race, but first, second, and third person does refer to a place, in that it is the perspective of the person telling the story. It is not limited to story telling though, it also covers all types of non-fiction writing. It even covers the cases in which there is no reference to an actual person.

As well as the perspective of the grammatical person, we also consider their number (is there one, or more than one of them?) and gender (see the end of the article for a bonus section on the politics of pronouns!)

First Person: It's All About Me

When writing in the first person, I talk about myself, what I did, or if with others, what we did and how it affected us. Writing in the first person can make an account seem more personal. If it is a piece of fiction, the narrator tells the story as they saw it. In non-fiction, such as a CV or report, it is a factual account of what the writer has done, in their own words.

When writing in the first person, we must consider whether we use the singular or plural form:

1st Person Pronouns

PronounPerson

I

First person singular

we

First person plural

us

First person plural *

Second Person: It's All About You

In standard English, the only word you need for the second person is "you". It is both the second person singular and plural forms. That's it - it's all about you.

Third Person: It's All About Them

The third person complicates things. First and second person are relatively easy to understand and use, but the third person has different forms based on the number of persons, and its gender (or lack of gender).

Generally, the third person is used to speak about someone, or something else; him, her, it, they. It is very commonly used, and you probably don't even think about it. Most newspaper articles are written in the third person, because they are describing events from afar, and are reporting news to everyone, rather than speaking directly to you, the reader. Some magazine articles will use the second person, giving a more informal feel.

3rd Person Pronouns

PronounPerson

he

third-person singular, masculine

she

third-person singular, feminine

it

third-person singular, neuter/inanimate *

they

third-person singular, gender-neutral

they

third-person plural

them

third-person plural **

* "it" used as third-person singular pronoun is never used for people. It would be highly offensive to refer to another human as "it". "It" in this context is for inanimate objects, concepts, and occasionally animals - although I still feel weird about referring to pets as "it" - I'd rather use a gendered or gender-neutral pronoun.

** "them" used in the third person is often informal / colloquial, but not always.

It's About More Than Us & Them

In addition to the personal pronouns, there are other types of pronoun that don't fall neatly into categories one, two, or three (although all pronouns are spoken in one of the three person categories). We also use these all the time without really considering them. These include:

  • Generic "You" (which would make an excellent song title)
  • Relative Pronouns
  • Demonstrative Pronouns
  • Indefinite Pronouns
  • Reflexive & Intensive Pronouns
  • Interrogative Pronouns
  • Possessive Pronouns
  • Subject & Object Pronouns

My One And Only (Generic) You

I use generic you in most of my HubPages articles. I'm using it now, to address you, the reader. I don't know who individual members of my audience are, but my message is delivered to all of you as the whole audience generally. To use generic you in the written form is considered informal, a more conversational style suitable for use in a magazine format. Spoken, it could be formal or informal - it is used day-to-day, and also in speechwriting, for example.

Generic you can also be used in place of the more formal "one", e.g.

"One can see the sea from the top floor of the building" vs. "You can see the sea from the top floor of the building"

The use of "one" in English writing and speech is usually reserved for more formal styles and occasions, but there are many times when a formal style would not require the use of "one". Unlike the French, we do not have separate second-person pronouns for single, plural, formal, and informal "you" *. So in the place of the plural and the formal, we have "generic you".

* Note: The French do have a pronoun similar to the English "one", that is different in meaning to "vous", and closer in meaning to our "one", but that really overcomplicates things! I think it's better to just say that we have no equivalent form of "vous" in English and leave it at that.

It's All Relative - Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns are words that link a noun to an adjective clause. What is an adjective clause? It's a phrase or group of words that perform the function of an adjective. In any sentence, an adjective can be used to describe a noun or pronoun. We can also write the sentence differently so that the noun or pronoun is described by the same definition, but with a different syntax, using an adjective clause. Here is a simple example to explain the function of an adjective clause. These sentences mean the same thing, but they use words in slightly different ways to convey that meaning.

Relative pronouns can refer to objects, concepts, or people, and include words such as:

that, which, who, whom, whose, whoever, whomever, whichever

Demonstrative Pronouns: This & That

Demonstrative pronouns are words used to identify objects or people. The choice of pronoun depends on both the number of them, and their proximity.

  • We use "this" (singular) and "these" (plural) for things or people that are nearby.
  • We use "that" (singular) and "these" (plural) for things and people that aren't in the immediate vicinity.

When we talk about distance, we can mean it in both a literal and figurative sense. We might refer to a group of people that we do not know ("who are those people?") even though they could be in the same room as us, for example.

Talking about things nearby:

  • "This is my jumper."
  • "Whose notes are these?"
  • "We have lived in this flat since January."
  • "Have you read all of these books?"

Talking about people who are nearby:

  • "This is Barry."
  • "These are my sisters, Edith and Matilda."
  • "Thank you for joining us at today's meeting; this is Richard, and this is Mary."
  • "Hello, this is Katy, may I speak to Julia?

Talking about things that are not nearby:

  • "What’s that?"
  • "This is my house, and that’s Julian’s house over there."
  • "Those are very expensive dresses."

Talking about people that are not nearby:

  • "Who owns that car?"
  • "Who are those people?"

"That" can be used to talk about concepts or actions:

  • "Would you like to go to the park?" "Yes, that’s a good idea."
  • "I’ve got a new job!" "That’s great!"
  • "I’m just so tired these days." "Why is that?"

Indefinite Pronouns

Definite pronouns are used when there is a known thing or person being described: him, her, it, that. Indefinite pronouns are when we describe something more vague, or talking about someone or something in more general terms. They are occasionally second-, and usually third-person, and can be singular or plural.

These include (singular): anybody, anyone, someone, something, anything, either, neither, everybody, everyone, each, everything, nobody, no-one, nothing, somebody, one, all, any, most, none, some.

And (plural): Few, both, many, several, all, any, some, none, most.

Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns are used to refer to the word that it immediately follows or precedes. They tend to end in "-self" or "-selves". A reflexive pronoun is normally used when the object of a sentence is the same as the subject, and is a modified form of a non-reflexive pronoun. Some examples:

PronounReflexive Form

I

myself

me

myself

we

ourselves

you

yourself / yourselves

him

himself

her

herself

it

itself

one

oneself

them

themselves

they

themselves

us

ourselves

Intensive Pronouns

Intensive pronouns are used to add emphasis to a statement, for example compare "I did it" with "I did it myself". Intensive pronouns use the same form as the reflexive pronouns, but they are used differently. If an intensive pronoun is removed from a sentence, the sentence should still make logical sense, even though its meaning has changed - this would not be the case for a sentence using the reflexive form.

Who, Whom, Whose, What, Which?

Interrogative Pronouns

These are the words who, whom, whose, what, and which. They are used to ask questions, and refer to a person or thing in order to gain more information about it. When used in a sentence, the interrogative pronoun is the object or subject of the sentence that we wish to know about. This can be seen more clearly with some example questions:

  • "Who saw you?"
  • "Dave saw me." ("Dave" is the subject of this sentence)
  • "Whom did you tell?"
  • "I told Lily." ("Lily" is the object of this sentence)

We use "whom" when we are enquiring about the object of inquiry, and "who" when we are asking about the subject of inquiry. There is more information on this in the section below. In general conversation, using "who" for both is usually acceptable, but it would not be appropriate in a formal context. Whom can be made even more formal, by preceding it with a preposition, such as "in, to, on, or with":

  • "To whom it may concern"
  • "the other suspects, with whom you are charged"

As mentioned earlier in this article, who and whom can be used as relative pronouns, to link parts of a sentence together.

If we are talking about a quantity of a thing, then whom often is necessary (and to use who is incorrect). This might be in the form of "all of", "most of", "some of", etc. For example:

  • "The children in detention, both of whom have been late every day this week, will need to study for two extra hours after school." (It would be incorrect to say "both of who".)

"What", "which", and "whose" can be used for the subject or object of a sentence. When using "what" and "which", we must consider the format of the answer that we are looking for. We use "what" when we ask about a specific item(s) from a broad range of possible answers. We use "which" we were asking about item(s) from a finite list of choices:

  • "What do you want?" "I want a cup of tea, please." ("Cup of tea" is the object of this sentence, and there are many undefined possibilities to choose from.)
  • "What just happened?" "An earthquake's happened." ("Earthquake" is the subject of this sentence, and there are many possibilities as to what could have just happened.)
  • "Which came first?" "The chicken, I reckon." ("Chicken" is the subject of this sentence, and presumably we are only choosing from chicken or egg.)
  • "Which will you use first?" "I will probably use the green paint, as there's enough to complete that small room." ("Green paint" is the object of this sentence, and the selection is from the available colours of paint.)
  • "There's one van missing. Whose hasn't arrived?" "Shirley's van isn't here." ("Shirley" is the subject of this sentence.)
  • "We've found everyone's name tags. Whose did you find?" "I found Rita's." ("Rita" is the object of this sentence.)

If we want to add emphasis to who, what, or which, we can add the suffix "-ever" like so:

  • Whatever did she say to make him cry like that?
  • Whoever would do such an awful thing?
  • They're all great! Whichever will you choose?

Possessive Pronouns

Possessive pronouns denote ownership. They include: my, mine, our, ours, your, yours, its, his, her, hers, their & theirs. If a possessive pronoun is used before a noun, it acts as an adjective. They can also be used on their own, and still convey the intended meaning.

Types of Possessive Pronoun

To use before a nounStandalone possessive pronouns

my

mine

our

ours

your

yours

its

--

his

his

her

hers

their

theirs

Here are some examples of possessive pronouns used in a sentence (Source: http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-possessive-pronouns.html)

  • The kids are yours and mine.
  • The house is theirs and its paint is flaking.
  • The money was really theirs for the taking.
  • We shall finally have what is rightfully ours.
  • Their mother gets along well with yours.
  • What's mine is yours, my friend.
  • The dog is mine.
  • The cat is yours.
  • The ring is hers.
  • The bag is theirs.

Subject & Object Pronouns

In a sentence, the subject is the thing or person performing an action. The object is the thing or person having an action performed on it.

Subject pronouns act as the subject and perform the action in a sentence. For example:

"On Tuesdays, I make bread." "I" is the subject pronoun, and "make" is the verb, carrying out the action.

Object pronouns act as the object, and have an action done to them. For example:

"I gave him some of my bread." In this sentence, the order is different. "Gave" is the verb, the action being done to "him", the object pronoun.

Subject PronounObject Pronoun

I

me

we

us

you

you

he

they

she

they

it

they

they

they

Political Language, and Third Person Singular "They"

I did promise an overview of this topic at the start of the article (I do hope that you were paying attention!). It has become more relevant nowadays because of increased awareness of transgender and non-binary people, for whom the standard gendered pronouns may not be accurate. There are many new pronoun systems, which I do find difficult to understand in terms of pronunciation, but I do try to use them correctly (it's a matter of being polite, and if you refuse then you're just being a jerk). There is a very good summary of the different types, and their history, here:

'Ze' or 'They'? A Guide to Using Gender-Neutral Pronouns

I tend to prefer third-person singular 'they', both for myself and when referring to others. Not because I think my way is better, but because it comes in very useful in many situations. Think of all the times you've needed to write 'he/she' or '(s)he' because you weren't sure of a person's gender. It can happen a lot: maybe you are talking about a professional that you intend to hire, an architect, or lawyer, maybe. When discussing that person prior to knowing who they are, it would make perfect sense to use third-person singular 'they' when referring to them (see, I did it there when I used 'them'). Or perhaps you know someone's name, and are corresponding with them only in the written form (you've never met them). They (I did it again!) just so happen to have an unfamiliar name and you don't want to embarrass yourself by misgendering them. Third-person singular 'they' can come to your rescue! It's extremely useful and versatile, as demonstrated in the video below:

Third Person Singular "They"

In Summary

I have covered a lot of ground in this article - all you could ever wish to know about pronouns, and then some more! Starting with the definition of first, second, and third person pronouns, we then moved on to other categories of pronoun, that are still one of the three personal types, but also have additional characteristics. Many pronouns will fall into more than one category. It can be difficult to keep track of, so here is a summary of the basics:

PronounExamples

First Person

I, we, us

Second Person

you

Third Person

he, she, it, they, them

Generic You

used when speaking to an audience

Relative Pronouns

that, which, who, whom, whose, whoever, whomever, whichever

Demonstrative Pronouns

this, those, that, these

Indefinite Pronouns

anybody, anyone, someone, something, anything, either, neither, everybody, everyone, each, everything, nobody, no-one, nothing, somebody, one, all, any, most, none, some, few, both, many, several, all, any, some, none, most.

Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns

myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, itself, oneself, themselves

Interrogative Pronouns

who, whom, whose, what, which

Possessive Pronouns (combined with a noun)

my, our, your, its, his, her, their

Possessive Pronouns (standalone)

mine, ours, yours, his, hers, theirs

Subject Pronouns

I, we, you, he, she, it, they

Object Pronouns

me, us, you, they

© 2017 Katy Preen

Comments

Katy Preen (author) from Manchester, UK on May 11, 2017:

Thank you!

Penny Leigh Sebring from Fort Collins on May 10, 2017:

Well written grammar guide on this subject Katy. Both in-depth and concise.

Источник: https://owlcation.com

What do first, second, and third person perspective mean? Why are they so called?

The grammatical terms first/second/third person are opaque (in the sense that, if you don't already know the meaning, you'd be very lucky to guess it). As it happens the terms used in Arabic are much more illuminating:

  • First person = "the speaker": the person (or people) talking (or writing), or the group on whose behalf they are talking.
  • Second person = "the addressed": the person to whom the speech/writing is directed.
  • Third person = "the absent": someone who is neither speaking nor being spoken to.

These terms are used to classify words according to who they refer to: as you mention in the question, when it comes to pronouns, I and we belong to the first person, you to the second, and he/she/it/they to the third person. But there are other uses for the terms too - for instance the verb form goes is exclusively used for the third person.

(That's more than enough about the use of the terms in grammar.)

The same terms have been borrowed from grammar to describe certain types of narrative in literature:

  • A first person narrative is one told from the perspective of someone who is inside the story (Reader, I married him). This name derives from the fact that such a narrative will often use forms such as "I saw ." and "It made me feel .", but note that by no means all of the verbs and pronouns in such a narrative will be first person - there will usually be plenty of third person forms too. Such a narrative will only give the perspective of that one character - so, for instance, it will not describe the thoughts and feelings of other characters, unless they are apparent to the narrator. (This is true in general, but of course some authors do like to play with the form and include prefab shipping container homes for sale in north carolina that the narrator character would not be privy to.)
  • A third person narrative, by contrast, is told from the perspective of someone outside the story (There was a boy called Eustace Clarence Scrubb, and he almost deserved it) - usually someone omniscient, who can see into the thoughts, feelings and motivations of all of the characters. Usually all of the pronouns and verbs (other than those in quoted speech) will be in the third person.

The term second person is not commonly used in this sense. (It might make sense to do so for some of those "adventure game" books, where you get to choose your own ending - You are in a long corridor. Turn to page 25 to go east, or 132 to go west - but this is not a standard usage.)

Moving on to video games:

  • First person, by analogy with the first person narrative, refers to a game in which the perspective given to the player is that of one of the characters inside the game's story.
  • Third person, then, refers to a view that is removed from any of the characters that exist within the game's story - a bird's eye view of the game's world, or a perspective view of it from a camera - would qualify for this definition.

Once again, second person is not commonly used: it could perhaps be apt for text adventures (You are in a maze of twisty passages, all alike. You are likely to be eaten by capital one securecode mastercard grue), but this is certainly nonstandard.

answered Apr 7 '11 at 21:15

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Источник: https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/19769/what-do-first-second-and-third-person-perspective-mean-why-are-they-so-called/19988

What is 1st 2nd and 3rd person?

First person is the I/we perspective. Second person is the you perspective. Third person is the he/she/it/they perspective.

How do you use first second and third person in a sentence?

The usual order is second, third, first : You and I (not I and you), you and he, William and I, He and I. If the pronouns are plural, the order is : second, third, first : We, you, and they are going.

What are the 3 persons in English?

Person refers to the relationship that an author has with the text that he or she writes, and with the reader of that text. English has three persons (first, second, and third).

What is the 3rd person singular?

Noun. third-person singular (plural third-person singulars) (grammar) The form of a verb used (in English and other languages) with singular nouns and with the pronouns he, she, it and one (or their equivalents in other languages). “Is” is the third-person singular of “to be”.

Is the word they second person?

Second person pronouns refer to the reader or listener (you, your, yours). Third person pronouns refer to lg wfb or objects not directly involved (he, she, it, him, they, theirs, etc.). This lesson is about the second-person pronouns.

What is an example of 2nd person point of view?

Second person point of view is when the writer uses “you” as the main character in a narrative. Example using the first line of Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man: 1st person: “I am an invisible man.” 2nd person: “You are an invisible man.”

What are some second person words?

Second Person Second-person pronouns. Examples: you, your, yours. always refer to the reader, the intended audience. They include you, your, and yours.

How do you write in third person examples?

Third person pronouns include: he, she, it; his, her, its; him, her, it; himself, herself, itself; they; them; their; themselves. Names of other people are also considered appropriate for third person use. Example: “Smith believes differently. According to his research, earlier claims on the subject are incorrect.”

Can you use the word you in third person?

It differs from the first person, which uses pronouns such as I and me, and from the second person, which uses pronouns such as you and yours. The personal pronouns used in third-person writing are he, she, it, they, him, her, them, his, her, hers, its, their, and theirs.

How do you say I believe in third person?

Examples of personal opinion: “I believe…” “I think…” “In my opinion…” “I would say that…” The third person point of view is often used as an alternative to first person as the “voice” in academic writing.

How do you introduce a character in third person?

How to start a novel in third 1st second and third person 7 tips

  1. 1: Choose between third person limited, objective and omniscient.
  2. 2: Begin with character action and description that raises questions.
  3. 3: Avoid introductory character descriptions that read as lists.
  4. 4: Remember not to use dialogue attribution in third person unless necessary.
  5. 5: Balance introducing character and setting.

Is it easier to write in first or third person?

Some guidelines: If you want to write the entire story in individual, quirky language, choose first person. If you want your POV character to indulge in lengthy ruminations, choose first person. If you want your reader to feel high identification with your POV character, choose first person or close third.

Can you switch from first person to third person in a story?

There is no rule that says that all parts of a story must be written in the same POV. Diana Gabaldon’s bestselling novel Dragonfly 1st second and third person Amber mixed first person and third person POV throughout the story. If you execute your story well, you can switch between first person and third person smoothly.

Why is third person used in academic writing?

If you are working on anything formal such as argumentative papers or a research essays, then you must use third person pronoun. This is because it gives your work a picture of objectivity rather than personal thoughts. This aspect of objectivity will make your work look more credible and less biased.

What’s an example of third person omniscient?

A prime example of the third-person omniscient point of view is Leo Tolstoy’s renowned and character-heavy novel “Anna Karenina” which is told from multiple points of view.

What can first person narrators not do?

If the first-person narrator lacks experience, he may misunderstand an action by another character. Since he can’t see into the minds of the other characters, he could misinterpret actions or make assumptions that aren’t true.

What is 2st person writing?

Writing in the second person requires use of the pronouns you, your, and yours. It is different from the first person, which uses pronouns including I and me, and different from the third person, which uses pronouns such as he and she.

How many types of first person are there?

If a writer chooses to use first person, their next most important decision is which character will be narrating the story. There are three common types of narrators: a reliable character telling their own story, a character telling another character’s story, and an unreliable character telling the story.

What is first person voice?

In writing, the first person point of view uses the pronouns “I,” “me,” “we,” and “us,” in order to tell a story from the narrator’s perspective. The storyteller in a first-person narrative is either the protagonist relaying their experiences or a peripheral character telling the protagonist’s story.

What is 1st active voice?

Active voice means that a sentence has a subject that acts upon its verb. Passive voice means that a subject is a 1st second and third person of a verb’s action.

Why do Japanese speak in third person?

Young children in Japan commonly refer to themselves by their own name. This is due to the Japanese way of speaking, in which referring to another in the third person is considered more polite than using any of the Japanese words for “you”.

Источник: https://www.mvorganizing.org/what-is-1st-2nd-and-3rd-person/

First, second, south florida state college panther central third person are ways of describing points of view. First person is the I/we perspective. Second person is the you perspective. Third person is the he/she/it/they perspective.


Click to see full answer

Similarly, you may ask, what is 2nd person examples?

Second person point of view is when the writer uses “you” as the main character in a narrative. Example using the first line of Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man: 1st person: “I am an invisible man.” 2nd person: “You are an invisible man.” 3rd person: “He is an invisible man.”

Similarly, what does it mean to write in the first person? Writing in first person means writing from the author's point of view or perspective. This point of view is used for autobiographical writing as well as narrative.

One may also ask, what is first and third person?

Point of view definition: First, second, and third person are categories of grammar to classify pronouns and verb forms. First person definition: first person indicates the speaker. Third person definition: third person indicates a third party individual other than the speaker.

How do you write in the 3rd person?

To write in third person, refer to people or characters by name or use third person pronouns like he, she, it; his, her, its; him, her, it; himself, herself, itself; they; them; their; and themselves. Avoid first and second person pronouns completely.

Источник: https://findanyanswer.com/what-is-the-1st-2nd-and-3rd-person-in-writing
First, Second, & Third Person

Point of View Definition

In English, the point of view is the narrator's position or perspective through which the story is being communicated. An author's point of view tells the reader who the person is experiencing the event or the topic of the writing.

All types of writing — fiction, song lyrics, nonfiction — are written from a point of view.

First, Second, And Third Person

First, second, and third person are the three main types of point of view.

  • First person is the I / we perspective
  • Second person is the you perspective
  • Third person is the she / he / they / it perspective

The author chooses a point of view to relate the story as if you were experiencing it, to force you into the story, or to allow the author to show different points of view. Here are some examples of point of view:

  1. First Person POV (You are experiencing it) – "My heart leaped into my throat as I turned and saw a frightening shadow."
  2. Second Person POV (Force you into the story) – "You turn and see a frightening shadow."
  3. Third Person POV (Show different points of view) – "The children turned and saw the frightening shadow. They were unaware a cat had walked close to the low-hung lantern."

How To Identify Point Of View

Identifying a point of view in a writer's work can sometimes be challenging. The best way to find the point of view 1st second and third person to skip the dialogue, go to the narration, and look at the pronouns used in the narrative:

  • I, me, my, mine, myself, we, our, ours, ourselves — First person
  • You, your, yours, yourself — Second person
  • She, her, hers, herself, he, him, his, himself, they, them, themselves, their, theirs — Third person
1st, 2nd, 3rd PersonSubjectObjectPossessiveReflective
det.Pron.
Singular1stImemyminemyself
2ndyouyouyouryoursyourself
3rdmalehehimhishishimself
femalesheherherhersherself
neuteritititsitsitself
generic or 4th persononeoneone'soneself
Plural1stweuseouroursourselves
2ndyouyouyouryoursyourselves
3rdtheythemtheirtheirsthemselves

You skip the dialogue because a character in any voice can speak and will almost always speak in first person voice.

Identifying A Point Of View

First Person Point Of View

Usually, we speak in the first person when we talk about ourselves, our opinions, or our experiences.

Anytime a writer wants to share another person's life, you will see the first-person persoective. With a first-person view, every person reading the passage sees into the character's life.

First Person Point Of View

The first-person point of view is identified by singular pronouns such as; me, my, I, mine, and myself or plural first person pronouns like we, us, our, and ourselves.

SingularPlural
IOur
MeOurselves
MineWe
MyUs
Myself 

First Person Point Of View Examples

John Lennon and Paul McCartney wrote the song, “In My Life” in first person:

There are places I'll remember
All my life, though some have changed
Some forever, not for better
Some have gone and some remain
All these places had their moments
With lovers and friends, I still can recall
Some are dead and some 1st second and third person living
In my life, I've loved them all

New Yorker magazine writer and children's book author E.B. White often wrote in the first person, especially in his nonfiction essays. This excerpt is from "Goodbye to Forty-Eighth Street":

One day a couple of weeks ago, I sat for a while staring moodily at a plaque that had entered life largely as a result of some company's zest for promotion.

Choose first person when you want the reader to go along for the ride with you. You direct the action, sure, but the reader feels it. Consider these famous first-person plural words:

We the People of the United States in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Preamble Of US Constituion First Person POV Example

Novels from around 1900 to the present usually show this active, engaged point of view. Tasks ideal for the first person (singular or plural) include:

  • Autobiographies
  • Journals or diaries
  • Fiction
  • Essays
  • Blogs
  • Reading records
  • Song lyrics
  • Poems
  • Letters (formal or friendly)

Places to avoid the first person:

  • Academic work
  • Instructions

Types Of First Person

First person narration can take 1st second and third person forms:

  • Reliable - the writer's character speaks the truth
  • Unreliable - the writer's character is hiding something; they are an unreliable narrator
  • First-person Central – the narrator is the main character and central to the plot
  • First-person peripheral – the narrator is a witness, but not the main character

To read a gripping first-person narrative, revisit Suzanne Collins' "Hunger Games" trilogy.

Second Person Point Of View

Second person point of view is known as the “you” perspective. It is the perspective of the person or persons that the narrator is addressing. The second person perspective is identifiable by the author's 1st second and third person of second-person pronouns: you, yourself, your, yours, or yourselves.

SingularPlural
YouYou
YourYour
YoursYours
YourselfYourselves
 You all (y'all)

Many second-person pronouns are both singular and plural, depending on the context.

Second Person Point Of View

The second person point of view attempts to turn the reader into the character. It is seldom used in novels but does give an immediate jolt.

Second Person Point Of View Examples

The use of second-person perspective in novels or stories is rare, but it does exist. Consider this example from fiction, "Earth and Ashes" by Atiq Rahimi and Erdag Goknar:

With your back to the autumn sun, you are squatting against the iron railings of the bridge that links the two banks of the dry riverbed north of Pul-i-Khumri.

Second person helps to deeply immerse new readers in many children's books. The entirety of "How to Babysit a Grandpa" is written as a second-person book of instructions:

As soon as your grandpa says, “I give up,” jump out and shout, “Here I am!”

The second person point of view is perfectly natural for recipes and directions. Here is a way to make lemonade, written in the second person:

  1. You need six lemons, six cups of cold water, and one cup of sugar.
  2. You'll need a large pitcher for mixing everything and a juicer.
  3. Before you juice the lemons, you can make your work easier by rolling the lemons on the counter, hard.
  4. Then you just juice them 1st second and third person combine the fresh lemon juice, water, and sugar in the pitcher.
  5. Stir; you may want to adjust sweetness or water to taste.

When To Use Second Person Point Of View

With instructions and directions, second person can be an “understood” point of view:

“Turn to page 178 and solve problems 6 through 10.”

The understood but unwritten subject of that sentence is “You”, the pronoun is just left out.

Never use the second person POV in academic writing.

Third Person Point Of View

The third-person point of view belongs to the people or person the narrator is referring to. Third-person pronouns are she, he, her, him, hers, his, herself, himself, it, its, itself, they, their, theirs, them and themselves.

SingularPlural
SheThey
HeThem
HerTheir
HimTheirs
HersThemselves
His 
Herself 
Himself 
It 
Its 
Itself 

For the writer who must tell several interwoven stories, provide psychological distance between the subject and the reader, or who needs to stay neutral, nothing beats the third-person viewpoint.

All academic writing, most advertising, many novels, and most quotations or aphorisms are written in the third person.

Third Person Point Of View

Third Person Limited

The third-person limited point of view is when the narrator only has some access to the experiences and thoughts of the characters. Many times, the third person limited perspective limits the narrators access to the thoughts and experiences of just one character.

Third Person Omniscient

The third-person omniscient point of view is when the narrator has access to all the experiences and thoughts of all the characters in the story. An omniscient narrator knows the main character's thoughts and those of every other character in the novel or short story.

Third Person 1st second and third person Of View Examples

Here is a passage from J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, showing the power of third person:

Harry moved in front of the tank and looked intently at the snake. He wouldn't have been surprised if it had died of boredom itself.

In fiction, third person allows a writer to put the reader into the heads of all the characters, explain important plot points, and present information in a seemingly neutral way.

Speaking In Third 1st second and third person in the third person is not typical, but people do it. It can be an excellent  comedic effect or to grab someone's attention.

Here is an example of Larry speaking in the third person:

Sheila: Hey Jake, let's watch this movie! Larry loves this movie.

Jake: Oh yes, Larry is a huge fan of this one. Let's watch it!

Larry: What!? Larry does not like this movie.

Fourth Person Point Of View

The fourth person point of view is a term used for indefinite or generic referents. A common example in the English language is the word one as in “one would think that's how it works.” This example sentence is referring to a generic someone.

You may also 1st second and third person the fourth person point of view called the third person generic.

Choosing A Point Of View

We all like to write in a natural way. As a writer, you have a duty to your reader to think carefully about your point of view. Many writers rewrite their work if the point of view seems awkward.

That paragraph went from first person to second person to third person, all in just three sentences!

Choosing A Point Of View

The first-person point of view or a first-person narrator can fool a reader into trusting the narrator when the narrator is not a reliable reporter (great for mysteries, recounted tales, and fictional confessionals).

Many great novels such as "The Great Gatsby" are written from a first-person perspective. Another classic in first person pov is Herman Melville's "Moby Dick." It is clear who is narrating with the line "Call me Ishmael."

The second person is suitable for simple, direct storytelling (for children, recipes, assembly instructions, and the like).

A third person narrator creates the most distance between events and the reader. It is almost always seen as a reliable, neutral viewpoint. With the third person, the author can select the point of view of a single character or be omniscient (all-knowing, all present) and move in and out of the minds of all the characters.

What you learned:

After working your way through this lesson and video, you have learned:

  • The definition of point of view
  • Differences between first, second, and third person
  • Point of view pronouns
  • How to identify a point of view
  • When To use the different perspective

Instructor: Malcolm M.
Malcolm has a Master's Degree in education and holds four teaching certificates. He has been a public school teacher for 27 years, including 15 years as a mathematics teacher.

Источник: https://tutors.com/lesson/point-of-view-first-second-third-person

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This is one that always baffles me when I make a feeble attempt at writing a book. First person, second person, or third person narrative. Which one to choose? Each one has their advantages.

First Person is very popular and always has been. This is when the narrator is the central character and tells the story from their point of view. When reading a book with first person narrative, there’s an instant connection between reader and character – like a gateway. They become almost inseparable, and to me there’s no doubt that this form of writing, if possible, is the best in most circumstances in terms of character development. First person narrative takes the reader into the mind of the character, not just into the surroundings of the character.

Second Person is probably the most bizarre and underused narrative mode that is used in literature today. Although used is a strong word, seeing as absolutely nobody writes with this form. For those of you wondering what this form is, it’s where the narrator refers to one of the characters as “you”, which I suppose makes the reader feel like the narrator is somehow a part of the plot and in the story.

Third Person is, in my opinion at least, the easiest narrative forms to write with. This is where the narrator simply tells the story of what happened to characters. There is no connection between narrator and story. This is hugely popular in modern day novels, and is a very good technique if the writer is trying to tell what is primarily a very exciting story.

It’s not easy to decide what form of narrative to use in writing, in my experience. They all seem like good ways of telling a story, but how do you know which will be the best for you? The last thing you want to happen is that you write your novel, and then say… “Well actually, first person narrative would have been better…”

I think the main question a writer must 1st second and third person themselves is this. Do you know your character well enough for first person narrative? Would you be able to write out a list of situations your protagonist could find themselves in and know exactly what your character would do to rectify them? First person takes a lot of research and knowledge about the character, because not only are you writing about the character, you have to become the character.

And then if you’re writing in third person, do you have a plot that’s exciting enough to carry events? Do you feel sometimes that your novel is more of a character study with different events happening around them? If so, then first person may be the way forward for you.

In my own experience, however, a good book is a good book because its characters are so believable and so three-dimensional, that after a while, they themselves begin to shape events, and plot synopsis’ just fly out the window.

What are your thoughts on the different narrative forms? Which is your favourite and why?

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Источник: https://sirpatrickofireland.wordpress.com/2012/07/25/1st-2nd-or-3rd-person-narrative/

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