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Grammarly 14.8 Keygen - Crack Key For U

Grammarly 14.8 Keygen - Crack Key For U


Grammarly 14.8 Keygen  - Crack Key For U

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: Grammarly 14.8 Keygen - Crack Key For U

Zemana anti malware lifetime license - Free Activators
Loaris Trojan Remover For Windows

Inactive-A Malware Virus

==================== Services (Whitelisted) ===================

(If an entry is included in the fixlist, it will be removed from the registry. The file will not be moved unless listed separately.)

S2 AdobeUpdateService; C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files\Adobe\Adobe Desktop Common\ElevationManager\AdobeUpdateService.exe [744640 2016-10-12] (Adobe Systems Incorporated -> Adobe Systems Incorporated)
S2 AGMService; C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files\Adobe\AdobeGCClient\AGMService.exe [3780296 2021-02-17] (Adobe Inc. -> Adobe Systems, Incorporated)
S2 AGSService; C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files\Adobe\AdobeGCClient\AGSService.exe [3548360 2021-02-17] (Adobe Inc. -> Adobe Systems, Incorporated)
R2 Apple Mobile Device Service; C:\Program Files\Common Files\Apple\Mobile Device Support\AppleMobileDeviceService.exe [83768 2016-08-05] (Apple Inc. -> Apple Inc.)
S2 AtherosSvc; C:\Program Files (x86)\Qualcomm Atheros\Bluetooth Suite\adminservice.exe [323152 2015-07-29] (Qualcomm Atheros -> Windows (R) Win 7 DDK provider) [File not signed]
R2 AzureAttestService; C:\Program Files\Microsoft\AzureAttestService\AzureAttestService.dll [151288 2019-07-24] (Microsoft Windows -> Microsoft Corporation)
S3 BEService; C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files\BattlEye\BEService.exe [7212480 2018-08-09] (BattlEye Innovations e.K. -> )
S2 CCDMonitorService; C:\Program Files (x86)\Acer\AOP Framework\CCDMonitorService.exe [2278688 2017-09-26] (Acer Incorporated -> Acer Incorporated)
S2 CDA; C:\Program Files (x86)\Jeppesen\CDA\CDA.exe [134088 2016-04-01] (Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc -> )
S3 EasyAntiCheat; C:\Program Files (x86)\EasyAntiCheat\EasyAntiCheat.exe [781440 2018-12-09] (EasyAntiCheat Oy -> EasyAntiCheat Ltd)
S3 ePowerSvc; C:\Program Files\Acer\Acer Power Management\ePowerSvc.exe [2573568 2015-05-14] (Acer Incorporated -> Acer Incorporated)
S3 Intel(R) Security Assist; C:\Program Files (x86)\Intel\Intel(R) Security Assist\isa.exe [335872 2015-05-19] (Intel Corporation) [File not signed]
S2 isaHelperSvc; C:\Program Files (x86)\Intel\Intel(R) Security Assist\isaHelperService.exe [7680 2015-05-19] () [File not signed]
S2 JWC; C:\Program Files (x86)\Jeppesen\JWC\JWC.exe [658016 2014-10-06] (Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc -> Jeppesen)
S2 LMSvc; C:\Program Files\Acer\Acer Launch Manager\LMSvc.exe [455912 2014-12-31] (Acer Incorporated -> Acer Incorporate)
S2 LogiRegistryService; C:\Program Files\Logitech Gaming Software\Drivers\APOService\LogiRegistryService.exe [206472 2018-10-05] (Logitech Inc -> Logitech Inc.)
R3 MBAMService; C:\Program Files\Malwarebytes\Anti-Malware\MBAMService.exe [7138296 2021-05-26] (Malwarebytes Inc -> Malwarebytes)
S3 mi-raysat_3dsmax2017_64; C:\Program Files\Autodesk\3ds Max 2017\raysat_3dsmax2017_64server.exe [86016 2011-09-15] () [File not signed]
S2 MSSQLSERVER; C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL15.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\Binn\sqlservr.exe [623504 2020-11-06] (Microsoft Corporation -> Microsoft Corporation)
S3 Origin Client Service; C:\Program Files (x86)\Origin\OriginClientService.exe [2522424 2020-11-10] (Electronic Arts, Inc. -> Electronic Arts)
S2 Origin Web Helper Service; C:\Program Files (x86)\Origin\OriginWebHelperService.exe [3476800 2020-11-10] (Electronic Arts, Inc. -> Electronic Arts)
S3 QASvc; C:\Program Files\Acer\Acer Quick Access\QASvc.exe [476904 2015-02-04] (Acer Incorporated -> Acer Incorporated)
S2 QMEmulatorService; C:\Program Files\TxGameAssistant\AppMarket\QMEmulatorService.exe [342776 2018-06-21] (Tencent Technology(Shenzhen) Company Limited -> Tencent)
S3 Rockstar Service; C:\Program Files\Rockstar Games\Launcher\RockstarService.exe [1716632 2021-05-12] (Rockstar Games, Inc. -> Rockstar Games)
S3 SQLSERVERAGENT; C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL15.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\Binn\SQLAGENT.EXE [689040 2020-11-06] (Microsoft Corporation -> Microsoft Corporation)
R2 SQLTELEMETRY; C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL15.MSSQLSERVER\MSSQL\Binn\sqlceip.exe [283536 2020-11-06] (Microsoft Corporation -> Microsoft Corporation)
S3 UEIPSvc; C:\Program Files\Acer\User Experience Improvement Program\Framework\UBTService.exe [251232 2015-09-14] (Acer Incorporated -> acer)
S3 uncheater_bgl; C:\Program Files\Common Files\Uncheater\uncheater_bgl.exe [2097008 2020-05-06] ( Co., Ltd. -> Co., Ltd.)
S3 vgc; C:\Program Files\Riot Vanguard\vgc.exe [10322376 2021-05-21] (Riot Games, Inc. -> Riot Games, Inc.)
S3 VSStandardCollectorService150; C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio\Shared\Common\DiagnosticsHub.Collection.Service\StandardCollector.Service.exe [147392 2019-04-30] (Microsoft Corporation -> Microsoft Corporation)
S3 WD Backup Drive Helper; C:\WINDOWS\SysWoW64\dllhost.exe /Processid:{4AB831D3-8315-414C-8A7A-303105288D0B} [19256 2021-03-27] (Microsoft Windows -> Microsoft Corporation)
S3 WD Backup Snapshot; C:\WINDOWS\SysWoW64\dllhost.exe /Processid:{302480DF-3AC5-4400-BE7B-DD77AF93B6DD} [19256 2021-03-27] (Microsoft Windows -> Microsoft Corporation)
S2 WDDriveService; C:\Program Files (x86)\Western Digital\WD Drive Manager\WDDriveService.exe [308088 2016-01-14] (Western Digital Technologies, Inc. -> Western Digital Technologies, Inc.)
R3 WdNisSvc; C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows Defender\Platform\4.18.2104.14-0\NisSrv.exe [2599328 2021-05-15] (Microsoft Windows Publisher -> Microsoft Corporation)
R2 WinDefend; C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows Defender\Platform\4.18.2104.14-0\MsMpEng.exe [128376 2021-05-15] (Microsoft Windows Publisher -> Microsoft Corporation)
S2 WirelessKB850NotificationService; C:\WINDOWS\system32\WirelessKB850NotificationService.exe [176624 2018-05-14] (Microsoft Corporation -> Microsoft Corporation)
R2 NVDisplay.ContainerLocalSystem; C:\WINDOWS\System32\DriverStore\FileRepository\nvaci.inf_amd64_40621b878a52ca15\Display.NvContainer\NVDisplay.Container.exe -s NVDisplay.ContainerLocalSystem -f %ProgramData%\NVIDIA\NVDisplay.ContainerLocalSystem.log -l 3 -d C:\WINDOWS\System32\DriverStore\FileRepository\nvaci.inf_amd64_40621b878a52ca15\Display.NvContainer\plugins\LocalSystem -r -p 30000 -cfg NVDisplay.ContainerLocalSystem\LocalSystem

===================== Drivers (Whitelisted) ===================

(If an entry is included in the fixlist, it will be removed from the registry. The file will not be moved unless listed separately.)

R2 aow_drv; C:\Program Files\TxGameAssistant\UI\2.0.6479.123\aow_drv_x64_ev.sys [853776 2018-09-14] (Tencent Technology(Shenzhen) Company Limited -> Tencent)
S3 AsusVBus; C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\AsusVBus.sys [39704 2015-10-07] (ASUSTeK Computer Inc. -> Windows (R) Win 7 DDK provider)
S3 ATP; C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\AsusTP.sys [84472 2015-10-07] (ASUSTeK Computer Inc. -> ASUS Corporation)
S3 dc3d; C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\dc3d.sys [47616 2016-01-21] (Hardware Group Test Cert -> Microsoft Corporation)
S3 DFX11_1; C:\WINDOWS\system32\drivers\dfx11_1x64.sys [28008 2018-03-09] (Power Technology -> Windows (R) Win 7 DDK provider)
R3 DFX12; C:\WINDOWS\system32\drivers\dfx12x64.sys [39048 2018-03-09] (Power Technology -> Windows (R) Win 7 DDK provider)
R1 dokan1; C:\WINDOWS\System32\DRIVERS\dokan1.sys [140280 2020-06-01] (ADAPP SASU -> Dokan Project)
R2 LGCoreTemp; C:\Program Files\Logitech Gaming Software\Drivers\LgCoreTemp\lgcoretemp.sys [14184 2015-06-22] (Logitech -> Logitech)
R3 LGJoyXlCore; C:\WINDOWS\system32\drivers\LGJoyXlCore.sys [67736 2018-10-05] (Logitech Inc -> Logitech Inc.)
R3 LMDriver; C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\LMDriver.sys [31000 2018-05-15] (Acer Incorporated -> Acer Incorporated)
R2 MBAMChameleon; C:\WINDOWS\System32\Drivers\MbamChameleon.sys [217088 2021-05-26] (Malwarebytes Inc -> Malwarebytes)
S0 MbamElam; C:\WINDOWS\System32\DRIVERS\MbamElam.sys [19912 2021-03-22] (Microsoft Windows Early Launch Anti-malware Publisher -> Malwarebytes)
R3 MBAMSwissArmy; C:\WINDOWS\System32\Drivers\mbamswissarmy.sys [248968 2021-05-26] (Malwarebytes Inc -> Malwarebytes)
R3 MpKsld75dfb79; C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows Defender\Definition Updates\{12E9BA01-07F0-451B-9974-5A3329C02A31}\MpKslDrv.sys [107744 2021-05-26] (Microsoft Windows -> Microsoft Corporation)
R2 NPF; C:\WINDOWS\system32\drivers\npf.sys [35344 2017-02-15] (CACE Technologies, Inc. -> CACE Technologies, Inc.)
R3 RadioShim; C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\RadioShim.sys [25368 2018-05-15] (Acer Incorporated -> Acer Incorporated)
S4 RsFx0600; C:\WINDOWS\System32\DRIVERS\RsFx0600.sys [286976 2019-09-24] (Microsoft Corporation -> Microsoft Corporation)
R3 ScpVBus; C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\ScpVBus.sys [44080 2017-10-27] (Shaul Eizikovich -> Nefarius Software Solutions)
R3 SnapCameraVirtualDevice; C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\SnapCameraVirtualDevice.sys [2800232 2020-10-12] (Snap Inc. -> Windows (R) Win 7 DDK provider)
S3 ssudmdm; C:\WINDOWS\system32\DRIVERS\ssudmdm.sys [166288 2017-05-18] (Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. -> Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.)
S3 tap0901; C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\tap0901.sys [27136 2016-04-21] (OpenVPN Technologies, Inc. -> The OpenVPN Project)
R3 tapprotonvpn; C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\tapprotonvpn.sys [49008 2020-04-06] (Microsoft Windows Hardware Compatibility Publisher -> The OpenVPN Project)
S3 USBAAPL64; C:\WINDOWS\System32\Drivers\usbaapl64.sys [54784 2016-03-28] (Microsoft Windows Hardware Compatibility Publisher -> Apple, Inc.)
R3 VBAudioVACMME; C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\vbaudio_cable64_win7.sys [41192 2014-09-02] (Vincent Burel -> Windows (R) Win 7 DDK provider)
S2 vcs; C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files\Avnex\vcs64.sys [4096 2019-11-20] () [File not signed]
R3 VCSVADHWSer; C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\vcsvad.sys [21504 2008-12-26] (AVSOFT CORP. -> Avnex)
R1 vgk; C:\Program Files\Riot Vanguard\vgk.sys [8182600 2021-05-21] (Riot Games, Inc. -> Riot Games, Inc.)
S3 vjoy; C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\vjoy.sys [57976 2017-04-06] (Shaul Eizikovich -> Shaul Eizikovich)
R3 VOICEMOD_Driver; C:\WINDOWS\system32\drivers\vmdrv.sys [45408 2018-01-10] (Voicemod Sociedad Limitada -> Windows (R) Win 7 DDK provider)
S0 WdBoot; C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\wd\WdBoot.sys [49560 2021-05-15] (Microsoft Windows Early Launch Anti-malware Publisher -> Microsoft Corporation)
S3 WDC_SAM; C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\wdcsam64.sys [26880 2015-11-12] (WDKTestCert wdclab,130885612892544312 -> Western Digital Technologies, Inc.)
R0 WdFilter; C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\wd\WdFilter.sys [421112 2021-05-15] (Microsoft Windows -> Microsoft Corporation)
R3 WdNisDrv; C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\wd\WdNisDrv.sys [73960 2021-05-15] (Microsoft Windows -> Microsoft Corporation)
S3 xhunter1; C:\WINDOWS\xhunter1.sys [74552 2020-06-01] ( Co., Ltd. -> Co., Ltd.)

==================== NetSvcs (Whitelisted) ===================

(If an entry is included in the fixlist, it will be removed from the registry. The file will not be moved unless listed separately.)

==================== One month (created) (Whitelisted) =========

(If an entry is included in the fixlist, the file/folder will be moved.)

2021-05-26 23:06 - 2021-05-26 23:06 - 000002037 _____ C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Malwarebytes.lnk
2021-05-26 23:06 - 2021-05-26 23:06 - 000002025 _____ C:\Users\Public\Desktop\Malwarebytes.lnk
2021-05-26 23:06 - 2021-05-26 23:06 - 000002025 _____ C:\ProgramData\Desktop\Malwarebytes.lnk
2021-05-26 23:05 - 2021-05-26 23:05 - 000217088 _____ (Malwarebytes) C:\WINDOWS\system32\Drivers\MbamChameleon.sys
2021-05-26 23:02 - 2021-05-26 23:02 - 000000000 ____D C:\Program Files\Malwarebytes
2021-05-26 22:49 - 2021-05-26 23:07 - 000048279 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Desktop\FRST.txt
2021-05-26 22:39 - 2021-05-26 22:39 - 000000000 ____D C:\Users\riosme\Desktop\FRST-OlderVersion
2021-05-26 22:38 - 2021-05-26 22:39 - 000006865 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Desktop\fixlist.txt
2021-05-26 22:37 - 2021-05-26 22:39 - 000000000 ____D C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\FRST-OlderVersion
2021-05-26 22:35 - 2021-05-26 23:04 - 000000000 ____D C:\FRST
2021-05-26 09:46 - 2021-05-26 09:46 - 016475435 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\Server_2012_20411B_ENU_Trainer_Handbook.pdf
2021-05-25 14:02 - 2021-05-25 14:02 - 000000000 ____D C:\WINDOWS\LastGood.Tmp
2021-05-25 13:51 - 2021-05-14 02:19 - 000626968 _____ (NVIDIA Corporation) C:\WINDOWS\system32\nvml.dll
2021-05-25 13:51 - 2021-05-14 02:17 - 005678360 _____ (NVIDIA Corporation) C:\WINDOWS\system32\nvcpl.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:22 - 001855184 _____ C:\WINDOWS\system32\vulkaninfo-1-999-0-0-0.exe
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:22 - 001855184 _____ C:\WINDOWS\system32\vulkaninfo.exe
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:22 - 001453360 _____ (Khronos Group) C:\WINDOWS\system32\OpenCL.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:22 - 001435880 _____ C:\WINDOWS\SysWOW64\vulkaninfo-1-999-0-0-0.exe
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:22 - 001435880 _____ C:\WINDOWS\SysWOW64\vulkaninfo.exe
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:22 - 001192752 _____ (Khronos Group) C:\WINDOWS\SysWOW64\OpenCL.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:22 - 001094864 _____ C:\WINDOWS\system32\vulkan-1-999-0-0-0.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:22 - 001094864 _____ C:\WINDOWS\system32\vulkan-1.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:22 - 000948968 _____ C:\WINDOWS\SysWOW64\vulkan-1-999-0-0-0.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:22 - 000948968 _____ C:\WINDOWS\SysWOW64\vulkan-1.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:19 - 001514800 _____ (NVIDIA Corporation) C:\WINDOWS\system32\NvIFR64.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:19 - 001166112 _____ (NVIDIA Corporation) C:\WINDOWS\SysWOW64\NvIFR.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:19 - 000715544 _____ C:\WINDOWS\system32\nvofapi64.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:19 - 000675104 _____ (NVIDIA Corporation) C:\WINDOWS\system32\NvIFROpenGL.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:19 - 000575768 _____ C:\WINDOWS\SysWOW64\nvofapi.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:19 - 000564000 _____ (NVIDIA Corporation) C:\WINDOWS\SysWOW64\NvIFROpenGL.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:18 - 002106144 _____ (NVIDIA Corporation) C:\WINDOWS\system32\NvFBC64.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:18 - 001590576 _____ (NVIDIA Corporation) C:\WINDOWS\SysWOW64\NvFBC.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:18 - 000811824 _____ (NVIDIA Corporation) C:\WINDOWS\system32\nvEncodeAPI64.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:18 - 000689952 _____ (NVIDIA Corporation) C:\WINDOWS\system32\nvidia-smi.exe
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:18 - 000445744 _____ (NVIDIA Corporation) C:\WINDOWS\system32\nvdebugdump.exe
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:17 - 008317232 _____ (NVIDIA Corporation) C:\WINDOWS\system32\nvcuvid.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:17 - 007434032 _____ (NVIDIA Corporation) C:\WINDOWS\SysWOW64\nvcuvid.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:17 - 004795184 _____ (NVIDIA Corporation) C:\WINDOWS\SysWOW64\nvcuda.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:17 - 002823472 _____ (NVIDIA Corporation) C:\WINDOWS\system32\nvcuda.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:16 - 000848688 _____ (NVIDIA Corporation) C:\WINDOWS\system32\MCU.exe
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-14 02:15 - 006159152 _____ (NVIDIA Corporation) C:\WINDOWS\SysWOW64\nvapi.dll
2021-05-25 13:50 - 2021-05-13 18:38 - 000087164 _____ C:\WINDOWS\system32\nvinfo.pb
2021-05-23 15:14 - 2021-05-23 15:50 - 989000187 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\Flight Factor-Airbus A350 1.6.16.rar
2021-05-22 22:29 - 2021-05-22 22:29 - 001854668 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\Module6-THC1107.pdf
2021-05-22 22:28 - 2021-05-22 22:28 - 001954987 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\Module4-THC110728129.pdf
2021-05-22 22:28 - 2021-05-22 22:28 - 001336910 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\Module5-THC1107.pdf
2021-05-20 23:22 - 2021-05-20 23:22 - 000829751 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\LHTLecture13C.pdf
2021-05-20 23:21 - 2021-05-20 23:21 - 000125471 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\LHTLecture13B.pdf
2021-05-20 23:20 - 2021-05-20 23:20 - 000150375 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\LHTLecture13A.pdf
2021-05-20 23:18 - 2021-05-20 23:19 - 000266964 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\LHTLecture10.pdf
2021-05-19 19:10 - 2021-05-26 22:39 - 002299904 _____ (Farbar) C:\Users\riosme\Desktop\FRST64.exe
2021-05-19 19:10 - 2021-05-26 22:37 - 002299904 _____ (Farbar) C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\FRST64.exe
2021-05-18 13:42 - 2021-05-18 13:42 - 564499833 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\ToLiss - A319 v1.6.1.7z
2021-05-17 21:42 - 2021-05-17 21:42 - 001481110 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\Preventive_Maintenance_Policies_and_Procedures (2).pdf
2021-05-17 18:30 - 2021-05-17 18:30 - 1418626751 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\A330 JarDesign (1).rar
2021-05-15 19:39 - 2021-05-15 19:39 - 000000000 ____D C:\Users\riosme\AppData\LocalLow\JUJUBEE_S_A
2021-05-14 23:49 - 2021-05-14 23:49 - 000100074 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Desktop\
2021-05-14 23:12 - 2021-05-14 23:12 - 893517045 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\SSG 747v2.rar
2021-05-14 22:14 - 2021-05-14 23:19 - 000000000 ____D C:\Users\riosme\Desktop\finals3c
2021-05-14 00:05 - 2021-05-14 00:05 - 000620839 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\
2021-05-13 22:16 - 2021-05-13 22:16 - 000291066 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\TestPlan.pdf
2021-05-13 22:05 - 2021-05-13 22:05 - 002113819 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\
2021-05-13 19:10 - 2021-05-14 23:37 - 000004894 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\main.dart
2021-05-12 13:00 - 2021-05-12 13:00 - 002999370 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\GELOMIO, RAFAEL-BC (1).pdf
2021-05-12 12:22 - 2021-05-12 12:22 - 000387944 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\Macky Rios_VCAS (1).pdf
2021-05-12 12:06 - 2021-05-12 12:06 - 000189279 _____ Grammarly 14.8 Keygen - Crack Key For U 2021-05-12 11:32 - 2021-05-12 11:32 - 000342309 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\Coursera UAZWRV7GYEAV.pdf
2021-05-12 00:00 - 2021-05-12 00:00 - 000000000 ____D C:\Users\riosme\.nuget
2021-05-11 22:59 - 2021-05-11 22:59 - 000015425 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\EquipmentsController.txt
2021-05-11 22:57 - 2021-05-11 22:57 - 000003565 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\
2021-05-11 21:36 - 2021-05-11 21:36 - 000083013 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\
2021-05-11 21:23 - 2021-05-11 21:23 - 000301187 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\Google_IT_Support_Certificate_Badge20210511-58-1gzv94n.pdf
2021-05-11 21:19 - 2021-05-11 21:19 - 000298945 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\Coursera Q7E3XRMY856Z.pdf
2021-05-11 19:42 - 2021-05-11 19:42 - 000298566 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\Coursera EX6SV6MBPF2M.pdf
2021-05-11 14:09 - 2021-05-11 14:09 - 000298859 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\Coursera GTUEMWVNS7QN.pdf
2021-05-11 10:29 - 2021-05-11 10:29 - 000298953 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\Coursera 3UUER2QKHSQQ.pdf
2021-05-11 09:29 - 2021-05-11 09:29 - 000070324 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\Week 3 - Graded Quiz Answers.pdf
2021-05-11 08:08 - 2021-05-11 08:08 - 000043434 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\Week 1 - Graded Quiz Answers.pdf
2021-05-11 07:32 - 2021-05-11 07:32 - 000298454 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\Coursera 2775RG5W7G9K.pdf
2021-05-11 00:43 - 2021-05-11 00:43 - 004967576 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\Sabtang Island.pdf
2021-05-10 20:54 - 2021-05-10 20:54 - 000260635 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\WeeklyProgressReport8.pdf
2021-05-10 20:54 - 2021-05-10 20:54 - 000260174 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\WeeklyProgressReport7.pdf
2021-05-10 20:54 - 2021-05-10 20:54 - 000259444 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\WeeklyProgressReport10.pdf
2021-05-10 20:54 - 2021-05-10 20:54 - 000259319 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\WeeklyProgressReport9.pdf
2021-05-10 20:54 - 2021-05-10 20:54 - 000258846 _____ FontCreator Pro Crack 2021-05-10 20:32 - 2021-05-10 20:32 - 000259562 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\WeeklyProgressReport4.pdf
2021-05-10 20:32 - 2021-05-10 20:32 - 000258386 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\WeeklyProgressReport5.pdf
2021-05-10 20:32 - 2021-05-10 20:32 - 000254530 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\WeeklyProgressReport6.pdf
2021-05-10 20:29 - 2021-05-10 20:30 - 000257194 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\WeeklyProgressReport3.pdf
2021-05-10 20:28 - 2021-05-10 20:29 - 000258839 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\WeeklyProgressReport2.pdf
2021-05-10 20:28 - 2021-05-10 20:28 - 000222222 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\WeeklyProgressReport1.pdf
2021-05-10 00:25 - 2021-05-10 00:25 - 004286073 _____ C:\Users\riosme\Downloads\New Society.pptx
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Practical Strategies for Technical Communication: A Brief Guide [Paperback ed.] 1319104320, 9781319104320

Citation preview


Introduction to Technical Communication      

What Is Technical Communication? Why Technical Communication Skills Are Important in Your Career The Challenges of Producing Technical Communication Skills and Qualities Shared by Successful Workplace Communicators A Process for Writing Technical Documents A Look at Three Technical Documents

THIS TEXTBOOK EXPLORES how people in the working world find, create, and deliver technical information. Even if you do not plan on becoming a technical communicator (a person whose main job is to produce documents such as manuals, reports, and websites), you will often find yourself writing documents on your own, participating in teams that write them, and contributing technical information for others who read and write them. The purpose of Practical Strategies for Technical Communication is to help you learn the skills you need to communicate more effectively and more efficiently in your professional life.

What Is Technical Communication? Technical information is frequently communicated through documents, such as proposals, emails, reports, podcasts, computer help files, blogs, and wikis. Although these documents are a key component of technical communication, so too is the process: writing and reading tweets and text messages, for example, or participating in videoconference exchanges with colleagues. Technical communication encompasses a set of activities that people do to discover, shape, and transmit information. Technical communication uses the four basic communication modes—listening, speaking, reading, and writing—to analyze a problem, find and evaluate evidence, and draw conclusions. These are the same skills and processes you use when you write in college, and the principles you have studied in your earlier writing courses apply to technical communication. The biggest difference between technical communication and the other kinds of writing you have done is that technical communication has a somewhat different focus on audience and purpose.

UNDERSTANDING AUDIENCE AND PURPOSE In most of your previous academic writing, your audience has been your instructor, and your purpose has been to show your instructor that you have mastered some body of information or skill. Typically, you have not tried to create new knowledge or motivate the reader to take a particular action—except to give you an A for that assignment. By contrast, in technical communication, your audience will likely include peers and supervisors in your company, as well as people outside your company. Your purpose will likely fall into one of two categories: 

To help others learn about a subject, carry out a task, or make a decision. For instance, the president of a manufacturing company might write an article in the company newsletter to explain to employees why management decided to phase out production of one of the company’s products. Administrators with the Department of Health and Human Services might hire a media-production company to make a video that explains to citizens how to manage their Medicare benefits. The board of directors of a community-service organization might produce a grant proposal to submit to a philanthropic organization in hopes of being awarded a grant.

To reinforce or change attitudes and motivate readers to take action. A wind-energy company might create a website with videos and text intended to show that building windmills off the coast of a tourist destination would have many benefits and few risks. A property owners’ association might create a website to make the opposite argument: that the windmills would have few benefits but many risks. In each of these two cases, the purpose of communicating the information is to persuade people to accept a point of view and encourage them to act— perhaps to contact their elected representatives and present their views about this public-policy issue.

These types of communication have a clearly defined audience—one or more people who are going to read the document, attend the oral presentation, visit the website, or view the video you produce. It’s also possible, even likely, that a piece of technical communication will have multiple audiences with different purposes. For example, suppose you are a public-health scientist working for a federal agency. You and your colleagues just completed a study showing that, for most adults, moderate exercise provides as much health benefit as strenuous exercise. After participating in numerous meetings with your colleagues and after writing, critiquing, and revising many drafts, you produce four different documents: 

a journal article for other scientists

a press release to distribute to popular print and online publications

a blog post and podcast for your agency’s website

In each of these documents, you present the key information in a different way to meet the needs of a particular audience.

Why Technical Communication Skills Are Important in Your Career Many college students believe that the most important courses they take are those in their major. Some biology majors think, for example, that if they just take that advanced course in genetic analysis, employers will conclude that they are prepared to do more-advanced projects and therefore will hire them. But knowledge in a particular field is not the only thing employers are looking for. It’s not even the most important skill or ability. Surveys over the past three or four decades have shown consistently that employers want people who can communicate. Look at it this way: When employers hire a biologist, they want a person who can communicate effectively about biology. When they hire a civil engineer, they want a person who can communicate about civil engineering. A 2013 survey of 500 business executives found that almost half—44 percent—think that recent hires are weak in soft skills (including communication and collaboration), whereas only 22 percent think recent hires are weak in technical skills (Adecco Staffing, 2013). According to another 2013 survey, by the Workforce Solutions Group at St. Louis Community College, more than 60 percent of employers believe that job seekers are weak in communication and interpersonal skills. This figure is up 10 percentage points from 2011 (Time, 2013). Job Outlook 2014, a report produced by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, found that communication skills were second only to problem-solving skills among the abilities employers seek (National Association, 2014, p. 8). On a 5-point scale, communication skills scored a 4.6, as did the ability to obtain and process information. Also scoring above 4 were the ability to plan, organize, and prioritize work (4.5); the ability to analyze quantitative data (4.4); technical knowledge related to the job (4.2); and proficiency with computer software programs (4.1). The ability to create and/or edit written reports and the ability to sell or influence others scored a 3.6 and a 3.7, respectively. Most of these skills relate to the previous discussion about the importance of process in technical communication.

A 2014 study of more than 400 freelancer profiles conducted by the online grammarchecking service Grammarly found a direct correlation between the number of errors in a freelancer’s client service profile on the website Elance and that freelancer’s client rating (Grammarly, 2014). This pattern held across eight industries. Grammarly also found that in most skill-driven jobs, better writers tended to earn more money from clients. This was especially true in the fields of engineering and manufacturing, finance and management, the law, and sales and marketing. You’re going to be producing and contributing to a lot of technical documents. The facts of life in the working world are simple: the better you communicate, the more valuable you are. This textbook can help you learn and practice the skills that will make you a better communicator.

The Challenges of Producing Technical Communication One of the most challenging activities you will engage in as a professional is communicating your ideas to audiences. Why? Because communication is a higher-order skill that involves many complex factors. The good news is that there are ways to think about these complex factors, to think through them, that will help you communicate better. No matter what document you produce or contribute to, you need to begin by considering five sets of factors: 

Audience-related factors. What problem (or problems) is your audience trying to solve? Does your audience know enough about your subject to understand a detailed discussion, or do you need to limit the scope, the amount of technical detail, or the type of graphics you use? Does your audience already have certain attitudes or expectations about your subject that you wish to reinforce or change? Does your audience speak English well, or should you present the information in more than one language? Does your audience share your cultural assumptions about such matters as how to organize and interpret documents, or do you need to adjust your writing approach to match a different set of assumptions? Does your audience include people with disabilities (of vision, hearing, movement, or cognitive ability) who have needs you want to meet?

Purpose-related factors. Before you can write, you need to determine your purpose: What do you want your audience to know or believe or do after having read your document? Do you have multiple purposes? If so, is one more important than the

others? Although much technical communication is intended to help people perform tasks, such as configuring privacy settings in Grammarly 14.8 Keygen - Crack Key For U social-media environment, many organizations large and small devote significant communication resources to the increasingly vital purpose of branding: creating an image that helps customers distinguish the company from competitors. Most companies now employ community specialists as technical communicators to coordinate the organization’s day-to-day online presence and its social-media campaigns. These specialists publicize new products and initiatives and respond to questions and new developments. They also manage the organization’s documents, including tweets, blog posts, Facebook pages, and company-sponsored discussion forums. 

Setting-related factors. What is the situation surrounding the problem you are trying to solve? Is there a lot at stake in this situation, such as the budget for a project, or is your document a more routine communication, such as technical notes for a software update? What is the context in which your audience will use your document? Will the ways in which they use it—or the physical or digital environment in which they use it—affect how you write? Will the document be used in a socially or politically charged setting? Does the setting include established norms of ethical behavior? Is the setting formal or informal? Settings can have a great deal of influence over how audiences think about and use technical communication.

Document-related factors. What type of content will the document include? How will the content aid problem solving? Does the subject dictate what kind of document (such as a report or a report or a blog post) you choose to write? Does your subject dictate what medium (print or digital) you choose for your documents? Do you need to provide audiences with content in more than one medium? If you’re using a document template, how should you modify it for your audiences and purposes? Does the application call for a particular writing style or level of formality? (For the sake of convenience, we will use the word document throughout this book to refer to all forms of technical communication, from written documents to oral presentations and online forms, such as podcasts and wikis.)

Process-related factors. What process will you use to produce the document? Is there an established process to support the work, or do you need to create a new one? Do you have sufficient time for planning tasks, choosing writing tools, and researching background information? Does your budget limit the number of people you can enlist to help you or limit the size or shape of the document? Does your schedule limit how much information you can include in the document? Does your schedule limit the type or amount of document testing you can do? Will the document require updating or maintenance?

Because all these factors interact in complicated ways, every technical document you create involves a compromise. If you are writing a set of instructions for installing a water heater

and you want those instructions to be easily understood by people who speak only Spanish, you will need more time and a bigger budget to have the document translated, and it will be longer and thus a little bit harder to use, for both English and Spanish speakers. You might need to save money by using smaller type, smaller pages, and cheaper paper, and you might not be able to afford to print it in full color. In technical communication, you do the best you can with your resources of time, information, and money. The more carefully you think through your options, the better able you will be to use your resources wisely and make a document that will get the job done.

Skills and Qualities Shared by Successful Workplace Communicators People who are good at communicating in the workplace share a number of skills and qualities. Three of them relate to the skills you have been honing in school and will continue to develop in your career: 

Ability to perform research. Successful communicators know how to perform primary research (discovering new information through experiments, observations, interviews, surveys, and calculations) and secondary research (finding existing information by reading what others have written or said). Successful communicators seek out information from people who use the products and services, not just from the manufacturers and service providers.

Ability to analyze information. Successful communicators know how to identify the best information—the most accurate, relevant, recent, and unbiased—and then figure out how it helps in understanding a problem and finding ways to solve it. Successful communicators know how to sift through mountains of data, identifying relationships among apparently unrelated facts. They know how to evaluate a situation, look at it from other people’s perspectives, and zero in on the most important issues.

Ability to speak and write clearly. Successful communicators know how to express themselves clearly and simply, both to audiences that know a lot about the subject and to audiences that do not. They take care to revise, edit, and proofread their documents so that the documents present accurate information, are easy to read, and make a professional impression. And they know how to produce different types of documents, from tweets to memos to presentations.

In addition to the skills just described, successful workplace communicators have seven qualities that you should model: 

Be honest. Successful communicators tell the truth. They don’t promise what they know they can’t deliver, and they don’t bend facts. When they make mistakes, they admit them and work harder to solve the problem.

Be willing to learn. Successful communicators know that they don’t know everything—not about what they studied in college, what their company does, or how to write and speak. Every professional is a lifelong learner.

Display emotional intelligence. Because technical communication usually calls for collaboration, successful communicators understand their own emotions and those of others. Because they can read people—through body language, facial expressions, gestures, and words—they can work effectively in teams.

Be generous. Successful communicators share information willingly. (Of course, they don’t share confidential information, such as trade secrets, information about new products being developed, or personal information about colleagues.)

Monitor the best information. Successful communicators seek out opinions from others in their organization and in their industry. They monitor the best blogs, discussion forums, and podcasts for new approaches that can spark their own ideas. They know how to use social media and can represent their organization online.

Be self-disciplined. Successful communicators are well organized and diligent. They know, for instance, that proofreading an important document might not be fun but is always essential. They know that when a colleague asks a simple technical question, answering the question as soon as possible is more helpful than answering it in a couple of weeks. They finish what they start, and they always do their best on any document, from the least important text message to the most important report.

Prioritize and respond quickly. Successful communicators know that the world doesn’t always conform to their own schedules. Because social media never sleep, communicators sometimes need to put their current projects aside in order to respond immediately when a stakeholder reports a problem that needs prompt action or publishes inaccurate information that can hurt the organization.

A Process for Writing Technical Documents Although every technical document is unique, in most of your writing you will likely carry out the tasks described in the Focus on Process box, Writing Technical Documents. This writing process consists of five steps: planning, drafting, revising, editing, and proofreading. The frustrating part of writing, however, is that these five steps are not linear. That is, you don’t plan the document, then check off a box and go on to drafting. At any step, you might double back to do more planning, drafting, or revising. Even when you think you’re almost done—when you’re proofreading—you still might think of something that would improve the planning. That means you’ll need to go back and rethink all five steps. As you backtrack, you will have one eye on the clock, because the deadline is sneaking up on you. That’s the way it is for all writers. A technical writer stops working on a user manual because she has to get it off to the print shop. An engineer stops working on a set of slides for a conference presentation because it’s time to head for the airport.

FOCUS ON PROCESS Writing Technical Documents PLANNING 

Analyze your audience. Who are your readers? What are their attitudes and expectations? How will they use the document? See Chapter 4 for advice about analyzing your audience.

Analyze your purpose. After they have read the document, what do you want your readers to know or to do? See Chapter 4 for advice about determining your purpose.

Generate ideas about your subject. Ask journalistic questions (who, what, when, where, why, and how), brainstorm, freewrite, talk with someone, or make clustering or branching diagrams.

Research additional information. See Chapter 5 for advice about researching your subject.

Organize and outline your document. See Chapter 6 for information about common organizational patterns.

Select an application, a design, and a delivery method. See Chapter 7 for advice about designing your document.

Devise a schedule and a budget. How much time will you need to complete each task of the project? Will you incur expenses for travel, research, or usability testing?


Draft effectively. Get comfortable. Start with the easiest topics, and don’t stop writing to revise.

Use templates—carefully. Check that their design is appropriate and that they help you communicate your information effectively to your readers.

Use styles. Styles are like small templates that apply to the design of elements such as headings and bullet lists. They help you present the elements of your document clearly and consistently.


Look again at your draft to see if it works. Revising by yourself and with the help of others, focus on three questions: 

Has your understanding of your audience changed?

Has your understanding of your purpose changed?

Has your understanding of your subject changed?

If the answer to any of these questions is yes, what changes should you make to the content and style of your document? See the Writer’s Checklist in each chapter for information about what to look for when revising. EDITING

Check your revised draft to improve six aspects of your writing: grammar, punctuation, style, usage, diction (word choice), and mechanics (matters such as use of numbers and abbreviations). See Appendix, Part B for more information about these topics. PROOFREADING

Check to make sure you have typed what you meant to type. Don’t rely on the spell-checker or the grammar-checker. They will miss some errors and flag correct words and phrases. See Appendix, Part B for more information about proofreading.

So, when you read about how to write, remember that you are reading about a messy process that goes backward as often as it goes forward and that, most likely, ends only when you run out of time. Later chapters will discuss how to vary this basic process in writing various applications such as proposals, reports, and descriptions. The Focus on Process boxes at the beginning of various chapters will highlight important steps in this process for each application. Should you use the process described here? If you don’t already have a process that works for you, yes. But your goal should be to devise a process that enables you to write effective documents (that is, documents that accomplish what you want them to do) efficiently (without taking more time than necessary).

A Look at Three Technical Documents Figures 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 present excerpts from technical documents. Together, they illustrate a number of the ideas about technical communication discussed in this chapter.

FIGURE 1.1 A Video That Educates the Public About a Technical Subject Information from U.S. Department of Energy, 2012:

FIGURE 1.2 A Graphic Comparing Two Communication Media Information from Williams, 2008:

FIGURE 1.3 A Corporate Blog Post Presenting a Public-Policy Viewpoint Left: Information from Patagonia, 2013: Right: Information from Topher Donahue.

EXERCISES For more about memos, see Chapter 9. 1. Form small groups and study the home page of your college or university’s website. Focus on three measures of excellence in technical communication: clarity, accessibility, and professional appearance. How effectively does the home page meet each of these measures of excellence? Be prepared to share your findings with the class. 2. Locate an owner’s manual for a consumer product, such as a coffee maker, bicycle, or hair dryer. In a memo to your instructor, discuss two or three decisions the writers and designers of the manual appear to have made to address audience-related factors, purpose-related factors, setting-related factors, document-related factors, or processrelated factors. For instance, if the manual is available only in English, the writers and designers presumably decided that they didn’t have the resources to create versions in other languages. 3. Using a job site such as or, locate three job ads for people in your academic major. In each ad, identify references to writing and communication skills, and then identify references to professional attitudes and work habits. Be prepared to share your findings with the class.

Case 1: Using the Measures of Excellence in Evaluating a Résumé Background It is the first day of the semester, and the instructor in your technical-communication class, Robin Shaftsbury, has asked for your assistance. Prof. Shaftsbury is planning to invite five guest speakers to the classroom during the semester to discuss topics such as the role of graphics in business documents, ethics in the workplace, writing effective proposals, and delivering oral presentations. “What I’d like your help with,” Prof. Shaftsbury says to you after class, “is the presentation on job-application materials. The speaker is Matt Ito, the Director of the Career Center.” “How can I help?” you ask. “I know that Matt has a standard presentation that he delivers in classes about the process of preparing job-application materials, strategies for looking for work, and so forth. But I spoke with him on the phone last week and asked him if he wouldn’t mind tailoring the presentation to our course. He said he’d be happy to. So I’d like you to meet


Understanding Ethical and Legal Obligations     

A Brief Introduction to Ethics Your Ethical and Legal Obligations The Role of Corporate Culture in Ethical and Legal Conduct Understanding Ethical and Legal Issues Related to Social Media Communicating Ethically Across Cultures

ETHICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES are all around you in your work life. If you look at the website of any bike manufacturer, for example, you will see that bicyclists are always shown wearing helmets. Is this because bike manufacturers care about safety? Certainly. But bike makers also care about product liability. If a company website showed cyclists without helmets, an injured cyclist might sue, claiming that the company was suggesting it is safe to ride without a helmet. Ethical and legal pitfalls lurk in the words and graphics of many kinds of formal documents. In producing a proposal, you might be tempted to exaggerate or lie about your organization’s accomplishments, pad the résumés of the project personnel, list as project personnel some workers who will not be contributing to the project, or present an unrealistically short schedule. In drafting product information, you might feel pressured to exaggerate the quality of the products shown in catalogs or manuals or to downplay their hazards. In creating graphics, you might be asked to hide a product’s weaknesses by manipulating a photo of it. One thing is certain: there are many serious ethical and legal issues related to technical communication, and all professionals need a basic understanding of them.

A Brief Introduction to Ethics Ethics is the study of the principles of conduct that apply to an individual or a group. For some people, ethics is a matter of intuition—what their gut feelings tell them about the rightness or wrongness of an act. Others see ethics in terms of their own religion or the Golden Rule: treat others as you would like them to treat you. Ethicist Manuel G. Velasquez (2011) outlines four moral standards that are useful in thinking about ethical dilemmas: 

Rights. This standard concerns individuals’ basic needs and welfare. Everyone agrees, for example, that people have a right to a reasonably safe workplace. When we buy a product, we have a right to expect that the information that accompanies

it is honest and clear. However, not everything that is desirable is necessarily a right. For example, in some countries, high-quality health care is considered a right that the government is required to provide; in others, it does not receive this designation. 

Justice. This standard concerns how the costs and benefits of an action or a policy are distributed among a group. For example, the cost of maintaining a high-speed broadband infrastructure should be borne, in part, by people who use it. However, because everyone benefits from the infrastructure, the standard of justice suggests that general funds can also be Tipard Blu-ray Copy Crack to pay for it. Another example: justice requires that people doing the same job receive the same pay, regardless of sex or color.

Utility. This standard concerns the positive and negative effects that an action or a policy has, will have, or might have on others. For example, if a company is considering closing a plant, the company’s leaders should consider not only the money they would save but also the financial hardship of laid-off workers and the economic effects on the community. One tricky issue in thinking about utility is figuring out the time frame to examine. An action such as laying off employees can have one effect in the short run—improving the company’s quarterly balance sheet—and a very different effect in the long run—hurting the company’s productivity or the quality of its products.

Care. This standard concerns the relationships we have with other individuals. We owe care and consideration to all people, but we have greater responsibilities to people in our families, our workplaces, and our communities. The closer a person is to us, the greater care we owe that person. Therefore, we have greater obligations to members of our family than we do to others in our community.

Although these standards provide a vocabulary for thinking about how to resolve ethical conflicts, they are imprecise and often conflict with each other. Therefore, they cannot provide a foolproof method of resolving ethical conflicts. Take the case of a job opportunity in your company. You are a member of the committee that will recommend which of six applicants to hire to redesign a customer portal that hosts tutorials and documentation. One of the six is a friend of yours who has been unable to secure a professional job since graduating from college two years ago. She therefore does not have as much website design experience as the other five candidates. However, she is enthusiastic about gaining experience in this particular field—and eager to start paying off her student loans. How can the four standards help you think through the situation? According to the rights standard, lobbying for your friend or against the other applicants would be wrong because all applicants have an ethical right to an evaluation process that considers only their qualifications to do the job. Looking at the situation from the perspective of justice yields the same conclusion: it would be wrong to favor your friend. From the perspective of utility,

lobbying for your friend would probably not be in the best interests of the organization, although it might be in your friend’s best interests. Only according to the care standard does lobbying for your friend seem reasonable. As you think about this case, you have to consider a related question: should you tell the other people on the hiring committee that one of the applicants is your friend? Yes, because they have a right to know about your personal relationship so that they can better evaluate your contributions to the discussion. You might also offer to recuse yourself (that is, not participate in the discussion of this position), leaving it to the other committee members to decide whether your friendship represents a conflict of interest. One more complication in thinking about this case: Let’s say your friend is one of the top two candidates for the job. In your committee, which is made up of seven members, three vote for your friend, but four vote for the other candidate, who already adobe illustrator cc 2019 crack - Free Activators a very good job. She is a young, highly skilled employee with degrees from prestigious universities. In other words, she is likely to be very successful in the working world, regardless of whether she is offered this particular job. Should the fact that your friend has yet to start her own career affect your thinking about this problem? Some people would say no: the job should be offered to the most qualified applicant. Others would say yes: society does not adequately provide for its less-fortunate members, and because your friend needs the job more and is almost as qualified as the other top applicant, she should get the offer. In other words, some people would focus on the narrow, technical question of determining the best candidate for the job, whereas others would see a much broader social question involving human rights. Because ethical questions can be complex, ethicists have described a general set of principles that can help people organize their thinking about the role of ethics within an organizational context. These principles form a web of rights and obligations that connect an employee, an organization, and the world in which the organization is situated.

Your Ethical and Legal Obligations In addition to enjoying rights, an employee assumes obligations, which can form a clear and reasonable framework for discussing the ethics of technical communication. The following discussion outlines four sets of obligations that you have as an employee: to your employer, to the public, to the environment, and to copyright holders.

OBLIGATIONS TO YOUR EMPLOYER You are hired to further your employer’s legitimate aims and to refrain from any activities that run counter to those aims. Specifically, you have five obligations:

Competence and diligence.Competence refers to your skills; you should have the training and experience to do the job adequately. Diligence simply means hard work. Unfortunately, a recent survey of over 1,000 workers revealed that more than half of employees waste up to one hour of their eight-hour day surfing the web, socializing with co-workers, and doing other tasks unrelated to their jobs (, 2013).

Generosity. Although generosity might sound like an unusual obligation, you are obligated to help your co-workers and stakeholders outside your organization by sharing your knowledge and expertise. What this means is that if you are asked to respond to appropriate questions or provide recommendations on some aspect of your organization’s work, you should do so. If a customer or supplier contacts you, make the time to respond helpfully.

Honesty and candor. You should not steal from your employer. Stealing includes such practices as embezzlement, “borrowing” office supplies, and padding expense accounts. Candor means truthfulness; you should report to your employer problems that might threaten the quality or safety of the organization’s product or service.

Issues of honesty and candor include what Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society, calls trimming, cooking, and forging (Sigma Xi, 2000, p. 11). Trimming is the smoothing of irregularities to make research data look extremely accurate and precise. Cooking is retaining only those results that fit the theory and discarding the others. And forging is inventing some or all of the data or even reporting experiments that were never performed. In carrying out research, employees must resist any pressure to report only positive findings. 

Confidentiality. You should not divulge company business outside of the company. If a competitor finds out that your company is planning to introduce a new product, it might introduce its own version of that product, robbing your company of its competitive advantage. Many other kinds of privileged information—such as information on quality-control problems, personnel matters, relocation or expansion plans, and financial restructuring—also could be used against the company. A well-known confidentiality problem involves insider information: an employee who knows about a development that will increase (or decrease) the value of the company’s stock, for example, buys (or sells) the stock before the information is made public, thus unfairly—and illegally—reaping a profit (or avoiding a loss).

Loyalty. You should act in the employer’s interest, not in your own. Therefore, it is unethical to invest heavily in a competitor’s stock, because that could jeopardize your objectivity and judgment. For the same reason, it is unethical (and illegal) to accept bribes or

kickbacks. It is unethical to devote considerable time to moonlighting (performing an outside job, such as private consulting), because the outside job could lead to a conflict of interest and because the heavy workload could make you less productive in your primary position. However, you do not owe your employer absolute loyalty; if your employer is acting unethically, you have an obligation to try to change that behavior—even, if necessary, by blowing the whistle. For more about whistle-blowing, see “The Role of Corporate Culture in Ethical and Legal Conduct.”

OBLIGATIONS TO THE PUBLIC Every organization that offers products or provides services is obligated to treat its customers fairly. As a representative of an organization, and especially as an employee communicating technical information, you will frequently confront ethical questions. In general, an organization is acting ethically if its product or service is both safe and effective. The product or service must not injure or harm the consumer, and it must fulfill its promised function. However, these commonsense principles provide little guidance in dealing with the complicated ethical problems that arise routinely. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (2015) estimates that more than 3,700 deaths and 15 million injuries occurred in the United States in 2015 because of consumer products—not counting automobiles and medications. Even more common, of course, are product and service failures: products or services don’t do what they are supposed to do, products are difficult to assemble or operate, they break down, or they require more expensive maintenance than the product information indicates. Although in some cases it is possible to blame either the company or the consumer for the injury or product failure, in many cases it is not. Today, most court rulings are based on the premise that the manufacturer knows more about its products than the consumer does and therefore has a greater responsibility to make sure the products comply with all of the manufacturer’s claims and are safe. Therefore, in designing, manufacturing, testing, and communicating about a product, the manufacturer has to make sure the product will be safe and effective when used according to the instructions. However, the manufacturer is not liable when something goes wrong that it could not have foreseen or prevented.

OBLIGATIONS TO THE ENVIRONMENT One of the most important lessons we have learned in recent decades is that we are polluting and depleting our limited natural resources at a high rate. Our excessive use of fossil fuels not only deprives future generations of them but also creates pollution problems. Everyone—government, businesses, and individuals—must work to preserve the environment to ensure the survival not only of our own species but also of the other species with which we share the planet. But what does this have to do with you? In your daily work, you probably do not cause pollution or deplete the environment in any extraordinary way. Yet you will often know how your organization’s actions affect the environment. For example, if you work for a manufacturing company, you might be aware of the environmental effects of making or using your company’s products. Or you might help write an environmental impact statement.

As communicators, we should treat every actual or potential occurrence of environmental damage seriously. We should alert our supervisors to the situation and work with them to try to reduce the damage. The difficulty, of course, is that protecting the environment can be expensive. Clean fuels often cost more than dirty ones. Disposing of hazardous waste properly costs more (in the short run) than merely dumping it. Organizations that want to reduce costs may be tempted to cut corners on environmental protection.

OBLIGATIONS TO COPYRIGHT HOLDERS As a student, you are often reminded to avoid plagiarism. A student caught plagiarizing would likely fail the assignment or the course or even be expelled from school. A medical researcher or a reporter caught plagiarizing would likely be fired, or at least find it difficult to publish in the future. But plagiarism is an ethical, not a legal, issue. Although a plagiarist might be expelled from school or be fired, he or she will not be fined or sent to prison.

By contrast, copyright is a legal issue. Copyright law is the body of law that relates to the appropriate use of a person’s intellectual property: written documents, pictures, musical compositions, and the like. Copyright literally refers to a person’s right to copy the work that he or she has created. The most important concept in copyright law is that only the copyright holder—the person or organization that owns the work—can copy it. For instance, if you work for Zipcar, you can legally copy information from the Zipcar website and use it in other Zipcar documents. This reuse of information is routine because it helps ensure that the information a company distributes is both consistent and accurate. However, if you work for Zipcar, you cannot simply copy information that you find on the Car2Go website and put it in Zipcar publications. Unless you obtained written permission from Car2Go to use its intellectual property, you would be infringing on Car2Go’s copyright. Why doesn’t the Zipcar employee who wrote the information for Zipcar own the copyright to that information? The answer lies in a legal concept known as work made for hire. Anything written or revised by an employee on the job is the company’s property, not the employee’s. Although copyright gives the owner of the intellectual property some rights, it doesn’t give the owner all rights. You can place small portions of copyrighted text in your own document without getting formal permission from the copyright holder. When you quote a

few lines from an article, for example, you are taking advantage of an aspect of copyright law called fair use. Under fair-use guidelines, you have the right to use material, without getting permission, for purposes such as criticism, commentary, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research. Unfortunately, fair use is based on a set of general guidelines that are meant to be interpreted on a case-by-case basis. Keep in mind that you should still cite the source accurately to avoid plagiarism.

GUIDELINES Determining Fair Use Courts consider four factors in disputes over fair use: 

The purpose and character of the use, especially whether the use is for profit. Profit-making organizations are scrutinized more carefully than nonprofits.

The nature and purpose of the copyrighted work. When the information is essential to the public—for example, medical information—the fair-use principle is applied more liberally.

The amount and substantiality of the portion of the work used. A 200-word passage would be a small portion of a book but a large portion of a 500-word brochure.

The effect of the use on the potential market for the copyrighted work. Any use of the work that is likely to hurt the author’s potential to profit from the original work would probably not be considered fair use.

A new trend is for copyright owners to stipulate which rights they wish to retain and which they wish to give up. You might see references to Creative Commons, a not-for-profit organization that provides symbols for copyright owners to use to communicate their preferences. A benefit of using materials with Creative Commons licenses is that you don’t have to track down the copyright holder to ask for permission. Note that many Internet search engines allow you to search for Creative Commons materials.

GUIDELINES Dealing with Copyright Questions Consider the following advice when using material from another source. 

Abide by the fair-use concept. Do not rely on excessive amounts of another source’s work (unless the information is your company’s own boilerplate).

Seek permission. Write to the source, stating what portion of the work you wish to use and the publication you wish to use it in. MacBooster 8.0.4 Free Download with License Key Crack source is likely to charge you for permission.

Cite your sources accurately. Citing sources fulfills your ethical obligation and strengthens your writing by showing the reader the range of your research.

Consult legal counsel if you have questions. Copyright law is complex. Don’t rely on instinct or common sense.

For more about documenting your sources, see Appendix, Part A.

ETHICS NOTE DISTINGUISHING PLAGIARISM FROM ACCEPTABLE REUSE OF INFORMATION Plagiarism is the act of using someone else’s words or ideas without giving credit to the original author. It doesn’t matter whether the user of the material intended to plagiarize. Obviously, it is plagiarism to borrow or steal graphics, video or audio media, written passages, or entire documents and then use them without attribution. Web-based sources are particularly vulnerable to plagiarism, partly because people mistakenly think that if information is on the web it is free to borrow and partly because this material is so easy to copy, paste, and reformat. However, writers within a company often reuse one another’s information without giving credit—and that is completely ethical. For instance, companies publish press releases when they wish to publicize news. These press releases typically conclude with descriptions of the company and how to get in touch with an employee who can answer questions about the company’s products or services. These descriptions, sometimes called boilerplate, are simply copied and pasted from previous press releases. Because these descriptions are legally the intellectual property of the company, reusing them in this way is completely honest. Similarly, companies often repurpose their writing. That is, they copy a description of the company from a press release and paste it into a proposal or an annual report. This reuse also is acceptable. When you are writing a document and need a passage that you suspect someone in your organization might already have written, ask a more-experienced co-worker whether the culture of your organization permits reusing someone else’s writing. If the answer is yes, check with your supervisor to see whether he or she approves of what you plan to do.

The Role of Corporate Culture in Ethical and Legal Conduct Most employees work within organizations, such as corporations and government agencies. We know that organizations exert a powerful influence on their employees’ actions. According to a study by the Ethics Resource Center of more than 6,500 employees in various

businesses (2014), organizations that value ethics and build strong cultures experience fewer ethical Grammarly 14.8 Keygen - Crack Key For U than organizations with weak ethical cultures. Companies can take specific steps to improve their ethical culture: 

The organization’s leaders can set the right tone by living up to their commitment to ethical conduct.

Supervisors can set good examples and encourage ethical conduct.

Peers can support those employees who act ethically.

The organization can use informal communication to reinforce the formal policies, such as those presented in a company code of conduct.

In other words, it is not enough for an organization to issue a statement that ethical and legal behavior is important. The organization has to create a culture that values and rewards ethical and legal behavior. That culture starts at the top and extends to all employees, and it permeates the day-to-day operations of the organization. An important element of a culture of ethical and legal conduct is a formal code of conduct. Most large corporations in the United States have one, as do almost all professional societies. (U.S. companies that are traded publicly are required to state whether they have a code of conduct—and if not, why not.) Codes of conduct vary greatly from organization to organization, but most of them address such issues as the following: 

adhering to local laws and regulations, including those intended to protect the environment

avoiding discrimination

maintaining a safe and healthy workplace

respecting privacy

avoiding conflicts of interest

protecting the company’s intellectual property

avoiding bribery and kickbacks in working with suppliers and customers

A code of conduct focuses on behavior, including such topics as adhering to the law. Many codes of conduct are only a few paragraphs long; others are lengthy and detailed, some consisting of several volumes.

An effective code of conduct has three major characteristics: 

It protects the public rather than members of the organization or profession. For instance, the code should condemn unsafe building practices but not advertising, which increases competition and thus lowers prices.

It is specific and comprehensive. A code is ineffective if it merely states that people must not steal or if it does not address typical ethical offenses such as bribery in companies that do business in other countries.

It is enforceable. A code is ineffective if it does not stipulate penalties, including dismissal from the company or expulsion from the profession.

Although many codes are too vague to be useful in determining whether a person has violated one of their principles, writing and implementing a code can be valuable because it forces an organization to clarify its own values and fosters an increased awareness of ethical issues. If you think there is a serious ethical problem in your organization, find out what resources your organization offers to deal with it. If there are no resources, work with your supervisor to solve the problem. What do you do if the ethical problem persists even after you have exhausted all the resources at your organization and, if appropriate, the professional organization in your field? The next step will likely involve whistle-blowing—the practice of going public with information about serious unethical conduct within an organization. For example, an engineer is blowing the whistle when she tells a regulatory agency or a newspaper that quality-control tests on a company product were faked. Ethicists such as Velasquez (2011) argue that whistle-blowing is justified if you have tried to resolve the problem through internal channels, if you have strong evidence that the problem is hurting or will hurt other parties, and if the whistle-blowing is reasonably certain to prevent or stop the wrongdoing. But Velasquez also points out that whistle-blowing is likely to hurt the employee, his or her family, and other parties. Whistle-blowers can be penalized through negative performance appraisals, transfers to undesirable locations, or isolation within the company. The Ethics Resource Center reports in its 2013 survey that 21 percent of whistle-blowers experienced retaliation (2013, p. 13).

Understanding Ethical and Legal Issues Related to Social Media There is probably some truth to social-media consultant Peter Shankman’s comment “For the majority of us, social media is nothing more than a faster way to screw up in front of a larger number of people in a shorter amount of time” (Trillos-Decarie, 2012). User-generated content, whether it is posted to Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube, Google Groups, Yelp, Pinterest, or any of the many other online services, presents significant new ethical and legal issues. Just as employers are trying to produce social-media policies that promote the interests of the organization without infringing on employees’ rights of free expression, all of us need to understand the basics of ethical and legal principles related to these new media. A 2014 report by the law firm Proskauer Rose LLP, “Social Media in the Workplace Around the World 3.0,” surveyed some 150 companies from the United States and many other countries. Here are some of the survey findings (Proskauer Rose LLP, 2014, p. 2): 

Almost 80 percent of employers have social-media policies.

One-third of employers block employee access to social media.

More than half of the employers reported problems caused by misuse of social media by employees. Over 70 percent of businesses have had to take disciplinary action against an employee for misuse of social media.

Over the next few years, organizations will revise their policies about how employees may use social media in the workplace, just as courts will clarify some of the more complicated issues related to social media and the law. For these reasons, what we now see as permissible and ethical is likely to change. Still, it is possible to identify a list of best practices that can help you use social media wisely—and legally—in your career.

GUIDELINES Using Social Media Ethically and Legally These nine guidelines can help you use social media to your advantage in your career. 

Keep your private social-media accounts separate from your company-sponsored accounts. After you leave a company, you don’t want to get into a dispute over who “owns” an account. Companies can argue, for example, that your collection of Twitter followers on a company-sponsored account is in fact a customer list and therefore the company’s intellectual

property. Regardless of whether you post from the workplace or at home, post only about business on your company-sponsored accounts. 

Read the terms of service of every service to which you post. Although you retain the copyright on original content that you post, most social-media services state that they can repost your content wherever and whenever they want, without informing you, getting your permission, or paying you. Many employers would consider this policy unacceptable.

Avoid revealing unauthorized news about your own company. A company that wishes to apply for a patent has, according to the law, only one year to do so after the product or process is first mentioned or illustrated in a “printed publication.” Because courts have found that a photo on Facebook or a blog or even in a tweet is equivalent to a printed publication (Bettinger,

2010), you could inadvertently start the clock ticking. Even worse, some other company could use the information to apply for a patent for the product or process that your company is developing. Or suppose that on your personal blog, you reveal that your company’s profits will dip in the next quarter. This information could prompt investors to sell shares of your company’s stock, thereby hurting everyone who owns shares. 

Avoid self-plagiarism. Self-plagiarizing is the act of publishing something you have already published. If you write an article for your company newsletter and later publish it on a personal blog, you are violating your company’s copyright, because your newsletter article was a work made for hire and therefore the company’s intellectual property.

Avoid defaming anyone. Defamation is the legal term for making false statements of fact about a person that could harm that person. Defamation includes libel (making such statements in writing, as in a blog post) and slander (making them in speech, as in a video posted online). In addition, you should not repost libelous or slanderous content that someone else has created.

Don’t live stream or quote from a speech or meeting without permission. Although you may describe a speech or meeting online, you mcafee antivirus free download full version with crack 2019 for pc - Free Activators not stream video or post quotations without permission.

Avoid false endorsements. The Federal Trade Commission has clear rules defining false advertising. The most common type of false advertising involves posting a positive review of a product or company in exchange for some compensation. Also common is endorsing your own company’s products without stating your relationship with the company (U.S. Federal Trade Commission, 2009).

Avoid impersonating someone else online. If that person is real (whether alive or dead), you could be violating his or her right of publicity (the right to control his or her name, image, or likeness). If that person is a fictional character, such as a character on a TV show or in a movie, you could be infringing on the copyright of whoever created that character.

Avoid infringing on trademarks by using protected logos or names. Don’t include copyrighted or trademarked names, slogans, or logos in your posts unless you have received permission to do so. Even if the trademark owner likes your content, you

probably will be asked to stop posting it. If the trademark owner dislikes your content, you are likely to face a more aggressive legal response.

Finally, although defamation laws forbid making untrue factual statements about your employer, you are in fact permitted to criticize your employer, online or offline. The National Labor Relations Board has ruled that doing so is legal because it is protected discussion about “working conditions.” Our advice: if you’re angry, first move away from the keyboard. Once you post something, you’ve lost control of it. However, if you think your employer is acting illegally or unethically, start by investigating the company’s own resources for addressing such problems. Then, if you are still dissatisfied, consider whistle-blowing as a first step.

Communicating Ethically Across Cultures Every year, the United States exports more than $2.2 trillion worth of goods and services to the rest of the world (U.S. Census Bureau, 2016). U.S. companies do not necessarily have the same ethical and legal obligations when they export as when they sell in the United States. For this reason, burnaware malware should understand the basics of two aspects of writing for people in other countries: communicating with cultures with different ethical beliefs and communicating in countries with different laws.

COMMUNICATING WITH CULTURES WITH DIFFERENT ETHICAL BELIEFS Companies face special challenges when they market their products and services to people in other countries (and to people in their home countries who come from other cultures). Companies need to decide how to deal with situations in which the target culture’s ethical beliefs clash with those of their own culture. For instance, in many countries, sexual discrimination makes it difficult for women to assume responsible positions in the workplace. If a U.S. company that sells cell phones, for example, wishes to present product information in such a country, should it reinforce this discrimination by excluding women from photographs of its products? Ethicist Thomas Donaldson argues that doing so is wrong

(1991). According to the principle he calls the moral minimum, companies are ethically obligated not to reinforce patterns of discrimination in product information. However, Donaldson argues, companies are not obligated to challenge the prevailing prejudice directly. A company is not obligated, for example, to include photographs that show women performing roles they do not normally perform within a particular culture, nor is it obligated to portray women wearing clothing, makeup, or jewelry that is likely to offend local standards. But there is nothing to prevent an organization from adopting a more activist stance. Organizations that actively oppose discrimination are acting admirably.

COMMUNICATING IN COUNTRIES WITH DIFFERENT LAWS When U.S. companies export goods and services to other countries, they need to adhere to those countries’ federal and regional laws. For instance, a company that wishes to wolfram mathematica 12.0 crack to Montreal must abide by the laws of Quebec Province and of Canada. A company that wishes to export to Germany must abide by the laws of Germany and of the European Union, of which it is a part. In many cases, the target region will not allow the importation of goods and services that do not conform to local laws. The hazardous-product laws of the European Union, in particular, are typically more stringent than those of the United States. Because exporting goods to countries with different laws is such a complex topic, companies that export devote considerable resources to finding out what they need to do, not only in designing and manufacturing products but also in writing the product information. For a good introduction to this topic, see Lipus adobe illustrator cc 2020 - Free Activators WRITER’S CHECKLIST 

Did you abide by copyright laws? (p. 21)

Did you abide by your organization’s professional code of conduct? (p. 24)

Did you abide by your organization’s policy on social media? (p. 25)

Did you take advantage of your employer’s ethics resources? (p. 23)

Did you tell the truth? (p. 19)

Did you avoid using misleading language? (p. 20)

Did you use design to highlight important ethical and legal information? (p. 30)

Were you clear? (p. 30)

Did you avoid language that discriminates? (p. 28)

EXERCISES For more about memos, see Ch. 9. 1. It is late April, and you need a summer job. On your town’s news website, you see an ad for a potential job. The only problem is that the ad specifically mentions that the job is “a continuing, full-time position.” You know that you will be returning to college in the fall. Is it ethical for you to apply for the job without mentioning this fact? Why or why not? If you believe it is unethical to withhold that information, is there any ethical way you can apply? Be prepared to share your ideas with the class. 2. You serve on the Advisory Committee of your college’s bookstore, which is a private business that leases space on campus and donates 10 percent of its profits to student scholarships. The head of the bookstore wishes to stock Simple Study Guides, a popular series of plot summaries and character analyses of classic literary works. In similar bookstores, the sale of Simple Study Guides yields annual profits of over $10,000. Six academic departments have signed a statement condemning the idea. Should you support the bookstore head or the academic departments? Be prepared to discuss your answer with the class. 3. Using the search term “social-media policy examples,” find a corporate policy statement on employee use of social media. In a 500-word memo to your instructor, explain whether the policy statement is clear, specific, and comprehensive. Does the statement include a persuasive explanation of why the policy is necessary? Is the tone

of the statement positive or negative? How would you feel if you were required to abide by this policy? If appropriate, include a copy of the policy statement (or a portion of it) so that you can refer to it in your memo. 4. TEAM EXERCISE Form small groups. Study the website of a company or other organization that has a prominent role in your community or your academic field. Find information about the organization’s commitment to ethical and legal conduct. Often, organizations present this information in sections with titles such as “Information for Investors,” “About the Company,” or “Values and Principles of Conduct.” o

One group member could identify the section that states the organization’s values. How effective is this section in presenting information that goes beyond general statements about the importance of ethical behavior?


A second group member could identify the section that describes the organization’s code of conduct. Does the organization seem to take principles of ethical and legal behavior seriously? Can you get a clear idea from the description of whether the organization has a specific, well-defined set of policies, procedures, and resources available for employees who wish to discuss ethical and legal issues?


A third group member could identify any information related to the organization’s commitment to the environment. What does the organization do, in its normal operations, to limit its carbon footprint and otherwise encourage responsible use of natural resources and limit damage to the environment?


As a team, write a memo to your instructor presenting your findings. Attach the organization’s code to your memo.

Case 2: The Ethics of Requiring Students to Subsidize a Plagiarism-Detection Service Background You are the chair of your university’s nine-member Student Council. The purpose of the Student Council is to give students a voice in university governance. The university’s administration often presents to the Student Council its ideas on ways to improve students’ academic and social lives. The Student Council then discusses these ideas and sometimes solicits the views of the entire student body before responding to the administration. The subject of this month’s meeting is a letter from the Provost, Mary Lingram, to you as the chair of the Student Council. In the letter (Document 2.1), Provost Lingram discusses the university’s plan to reduce plagiarism by purchasing a site license to, a plagiarism-detection service.


Writing Collaboratively     

Managing Projects Conducting Meetings Using Social Media and Other Electronic Tools in Collaboration Gender and Collaboration Culture and Collaboration

THE EXPLOSIVE GROWTH of social media over the last decade has greatly expanded the scope of workplace collaboration, reducing former barriers of time and space. Today, people routinely collaborate not only with members of their project teams but also with others within and outside their organization. Workplace collaboration takes numerous forms. For example, you and other members of your project team might use social media primarily to gather information that you will use in your research. You bring this information back to your team, and then you work exclusively with your team in drafting, revising, and proofreading your document. In a more complex collaboration pattern, you and other members of your team might use social media to gather information from sources around the globe and then reach out to others in your organization to see what they think of your new ideas. Later in the process, you create the outline of your document, in the form of a wiki, and authorize everyone in your organization to draft sections, pose questions and comments, and even edit what others have written. In short, you can collaborate with any number of people at one or at several stages of the writing process. Every document driver updater with registration key unique and will therefore call for a unique kind of collaboration. Your challenge is to think creatively about how you can work effectively with others to make your document as good as it can be. Being aware of the strengths and limitations of collaborative tools can prompt you to find people in your building and around the world who can help you think about your subject and write about it compellingly and persuasively.

Managing Projects At some point in your career, you will likely collaborate on a project that is just too big, too technical, too complex, and too difficult for your team to complete successfully without some advance planning and careful oversight. Often, collaborative projects last several weeks or months, and the efforts of several people are required at scheduled times for the project to proceed. For this reason, collaborators need to spend time managing the project to ensure that it not only meets the needs of the Jungle Scout Pro 4.3.1 Full Crack With Product [Version] Free Download 2021 but also is completed on time and, if relevant, within budget.

GUIDELINES Managing Your Project These seven suggestions can help you keep your project on track. 

Break down a large Helium Music Manager 15.0.17747.0 Premium Crack With Serial Key Free into several smaller tasks. Working backward from what you must deliver to your client or manager, partition your project into its component parts, making a list of what steps your team must take to complete the project. This task is not only the foundation of project management but also a good strategy for determining the resources you will need to complete the project successfully and on time. Once you have a list of tasks to complete, you can begin to plan your project, assign responsibilities, and set deadlines.

Plan your project. Planning allows collaborators to develop an effective approach and reach agreement before investing a lot of time and resources. Planning prevents small problems from becoming big problems when a deadline looms. Effective project managers use planning documents such as needs analyses, information plans, specifications, and project plans.

Create and maintain an accurate schedule. An accurate schedule helps collaborators plan ahead, allocate their time, and meet deadlines. Update your schedule when changes are made, and either place the up-to-date schedule in an easily accessible location (for example, on a project website) or send the schedule to each team member. If the team misses a deadline, immediately create a new deadline. Team members should always know when tasks must be completed.

Put your decisions in writing. Writing down your decisions, and communicating them to all collaborators, dvdfab player 5 ultra download - Activators Patch the team remember what happened. In addition, if questions arise, the team can refer easily to the document and, if necessary, update it.

Monitor the project. By regularly tracking the progress of the project, the team can learn what it has accomplished, whether the project is on schedule, and if any unexpected challenges exist.

Distribute and act on information quickly. Acting fast to get collaborators the information they need helps ensure that the team makes effective decisions and steady progress toward completing the project.

Be flexible regarding schedule and responsibilities. Adjust your plan and methods when new information becomes available or problems arise. When tasks are held up because earlier Panda Dome Essential 2020 Free Download with License Crack have been delayed or need reworking, the team should consider revising responsibilities to keep the project moving forward.

Conducting Meetings Collaboration involves meetings. Whether you are meeting face-to-face or using videoconferencing tools, the five aspects of meetings discussed in this section can help you use your time productively and produce the best possible document. To watch a tutorial on using online tools to schedule meetings, go to LaunchPad.

LISTENING EFFECTIVELY Participating in a meeting involves listening and speaking. If you listen carefully to other people, you will understand what they are thinking and you will be able to speak knowledgeably and constructively. Unlike hearing, which involves receiving and processing sound waves, listening involves understanding what the speaker is saying and interpreting the information.

GUIDELINES Listening Effectively Follow these five steps to improve your effectiveness as a listener. 

Pay attention to the speaker. Look at the speaker, and don’t let your mind wander.

Listen for main ideas. Pay attention to phrases that signal important information, such as “What I’m saying is. . .” or “The point I’m trying to make is. . .”

Don’t get emotionally involved with the speaker’s ideas. Even if you disagree, continue to listen. Keep an open mind. Don’t stop listening in order to plan what you are going to say next.

Ask questions to clarify what the speaker said. After the speaker finishes, ask questions to make sure you understand. For instance, “When you said that each journal recommends different protocols, did you mean that each journal recommends several protocols or that each journal recommends a different protocol?”

Provide appropriate feedback. The most important feedback is to look into the speaker’s eyes. You can nod your approval to signal that you understand what he or she is saying. Appropriate feedback helps assure the speaker that he or she is communicating effectively.

SETTING YOUR TEAM’S AGENDA It’s important to get your team off to a smooth start. In the first meeting, start to define your team’s agenda.

GUIDELINES Setting Your Team’s Agenda Carrying out these eight tasks will help your team work effectively and efficiently. 

Define the team’s task. Every team member has to agree on the task, the deadline, and the approximate length of the document. You also need to agree on more conceptual points, including the document’s audience, purpose, and scope.

Choose a team leader. This person serves as the link between the team and management. (In an academic setting, the team leader represents the team in communicating with the instructor.) The team leader also keeps the team on track, leads the meetings, and coordinates communication among team members.

Define tasks for each team member. There are three main ways to divide the tasks: according to technical expertise (for example, one team member, an engineer, is responsible for the information about engineering); according to stages of the writing process (one team member contributes to all stages, whereas another participates only during the planning stage); or according to sections of the document (several team members work on the whole document but others work only on, say, the appendixes). People will likely assume informal roles, too. One person might be good at clarifying what others have said, another at preventing arguments, and another at asking questions that force the team to reevaluate its decisions.

Establish working procedures. Before starting to work, collaborators need answers—in writing, if possible—to the following questions: o — When and where will we meet? o — What procedures will we follow in the meetings? o — What tools will we use to communicate with other team members, including the leader, and how often will we communicate?

Establish a procedure for resolving conflict productively. Disagreements about the project can lead to a better product. Give collaborators a chance to express ideas fully and find areas of agreement, and then resolve the conflict with a vote.

Create a style sheet. A style sheet defines the characteristics of the document’s writing style. For instance, a style sheet states how many levels of headings the document will have, whether it will have lists, whether it will have an informal tone (for example, using “you” and contractions), and so forth. If all collaborators draft using a similar writing style, the document will need less revision. And be sure to use styles to ensure a consistent design for headings and other textual features.

Establish a work schedule. For example, for a proposal to be submitted on February 10, you might aim to complete the outline by January 25, the draft by February 1, and the revision by February 8. These dates are called milestones.

Create evaluation materials. Team members have a right to know how their work will be evaluated. In college, students often evaluate themselves and other team members. In the working world, managers are more likely to do the evaluations.

To watch a tutorial Grammarly 14.8 Keygen - Crack Key For U creating styles and templates, go to LaunchPad. To download a work-schedule form, a team-member evaluation form, and a self-evaluation form, go to LaunchPad.

ETHICS NOTE PULLING YOUR WEIGHT ON COLLABORATIVE PROJECTS Collaboration involves an ethical dimension. If you work hard and well, you help the other members of the team. If you don’t, you hurt them. You can’t be expected to know and do everything, and sometimes unanticipated problems arise in other courses or in your private life that prevent you from participating as actively and effectively as you otherwise could. When problems occur, inform the other team members as soon as possible. For instance, call the team leader as soon as you realize you will have to miss a meeting. Be honest about what happened. Suggest ways you might make up for missing a task. If you communicate clearly, the other team members are likely to cooperate with you. If you are a member of a team that includes someone who is not participating fully, keep records of your attempts to get in touch with that person. When you do make contact, you owe it to that person to try to find out what the problem is and suggest ways to resolve it. Your goal is to treat that person fairly and to help him or her do better work, so that the team will function more smoothly and more effectively.

CONDUCTING EFFICIENT MEETINGS Human communication has nonverbal elements. Although people communicate through words and through the tone, rate, and volume of their speech, they also communicate through body language. For this reason, meetings provide the most information about what a person is thinking and feeling—and the best opportunity for team members to understand one another. To help make meetings effective and efficient, team members should arrive on time and stick to the agenda. One team member should serve as secretary, recording the important decisions made at the meeting. At the end of the meeting, the team leader should summarize the team’s accomplishments and state the tasks each team member is to perform before the next meeting. If possible, the secretary should give each team member this informal set of meeting minutes.

For a discussion of meeting minutes, see Ch. 12, “Writing Meeting Minutes.”

COMMUNICATING DIPLOMATICALLY Because collaborating can be stressful, it can lead to interpersonal conflict. People can become frustrated and angry with one another because of personality clashes or because of disputes about the project. If the project is to succeed, however, team members have to work together productively. When you speak in a team meeting, you want to appear helpful, not critical or overbearing.

CRITIQUING A TEAM MEMBER’S WORK In your college classes, you probably have critiqued other students’ writing. In the workplace, you will do the same sort of critiquing of notes and drafts written by other team members. Knowing how to do it without offending the writer is a valuable skill.

GUIDELINES Communicating Diplomatically These seven suggestions for communicating diplomatically will help you communicate effectively. 

Listen carefully, without interrupting. See the Guidelines box, Listening Effectively.

Give everyone a chance to speak. Don’t dominate the discussion.

Avoid personal remarks and insults. Be tolerant and respectful of other people’s views and working methods. Doing so is right—and smart: if you anger people, they will go out of their way to oppose you.

Don’t overstate your position. A modest qualifier such as “I think” or “it seems to me” is an effective signal to your listeners that you realize that everyone might not share your views. OVERBEARING

My plan is a sure thing; there’s no way we’re not going to kill Allied next quarter. DIPLOMATIC

I think this plan has a good chance of success: we’re playing off our strengths and Allied’s weaknesses.

Note that in the diplomatic version, the speaker says, “this plan,” not “my plan.” 

Don’t get emotionally attached to your own ideas. When people oppose you, try to understand why. Digging in is usually unwise—unless it’s a matter of principle—because, although it’s possible that you are right and everyone else is wrong, it’s not likely.

Ask pertinent questions. Bright people ask questions to understand what they hear and to connect it to other ideas. Asking questions also encourages other team members to examine what they hear.

Pay attention to nonverbal communication. Bob might say that he understands a point, but his facial expression might suggest that he doesn’t. If a team member looks confused, ask him or her about it. A direct question is likely to elicit a statement that will help the team clarify its discussion.

GUIDELINES Critiquing a Colleague’s Work Most people are very sensitive about their writing. Following these three suggestions for critiquing writing will increase the chances that your colleague will consider your ideas positively. 

Start with a positive comment. Even if the work is weak, say, “You’ve obviously put a lot of work into this, Joanne. Thanks.” Or, “This is a really good start. Thanks, Joanne.”

Discuss the larger issues first. Begin with the big issues, such as organization, development, logic, design, and graphics. Then work on smaller issues, such as paragraph development, sentence-level matters, and word choice. Leave editing and proofreading until the end of the process.

Talk about the document, not the writer. RUDE

You don’t explain clearly why this criterion is relevant. BETTER

I’m having trouble understanding how this criterion relates to the topic.

Your goal is to improve the quality of the document you will submit, not to evaluate the writer or the draft. Offer constructive suggestions. RUDE

Why didn’t you include the price comparisons here, Grammarly 14.8 Keygen - Crack Key For U you said you would? BETTER

I wonder if Loaris Trojan Remover For Windows report would be stronger if we included the price comparisons here.

In the better version, the speaker focuses on the goal (to create an effective report) rather than on the writer’s draft. Also, the speaker qualifies his recommendation by saying, “I wonder if. . .” This approach sounds constructive rather than boastful or annoyed.

Using Social Media and Other Electronic Tools in Collaboration Professionals use many types of electronic tools to exchange information and ideas as they collaborate. The following discussion highlights the major technologies that enable collaboration: word-processing tools, messaging technologies, videoconferencing, and wikis and shared document workspaces.

WORD-PROCESSING TOOLS Most word processors offer three powerful features that you will find useful in collaborative work: 

The comment feature lets readers add electronic comments to a file.

The revision feature lets readers mark up a text by deleting, revising, and adding words and graphics and indicates who made which suggested changes.

The highlighting feature lets readers use one of about a dozen “highlighting pens” to call the writer’s attention to a particular passage.

To watch tutorials on using the commenting and track-changes features in Word, Adobe Acrobat, and Google Drive, go to LaunchPad.

MESSAGING TECHNOLOGIES Two messaging technologies have been around for decades: instant messaging and email. Instant messaging (IM) is real-time communication between two or more people. In the working world, IM enables people in different locations to communicate information at the same time. Email is an asynchronous medium for sending brief messages and for transferring files such as

documents, spreadsheets, images, and videos. On mobile devices such as phones, the two most popular technologies are text messaging and microblogging.

For more about writing emails, see Ch. 9, “Writing Emails.” Text messaging enables people to use mobile devices to send messages that can include text, audio, images, and video. Texting is the fastest-growing technology for exchanging messages electronically because most people keep their phones nearby. Organizations use text messaging for such purposes as sending a quick update or alerting people that an item has been delivered or a task completed. On your campus, the administration might use a texting system to alert people about a campus emergency. Microblogging is a way of sending very brief textual messages to your personal network. You might use the world’s most popular microblog, Twitter, which now has more than 300 million users (SocialTimes, 2016). Although some organizations use Twitter, many use Twitterlike microblogs such as Yammer, which can be administered from within an organization.

VIDEOCONFERENCING Videoconferencing technology allows two or more people at different locations to simultaneously see and hear one another as well as exchange documents, share data on computer displays, and use electronic whiteboards. Systems such as Skype are simple and inexpensive, requiring only a webcam, free software, and an Internet connection. However, there are also organizational systems that involve more extensive components and provide more features. To watch a tutorial on using videoconferencing software to conduct online meetings, go to LaunchPad.

GUIDELINES Participating in a Videoconference Follow these six suggestions for participating effectively in a videoconference. 

Practice using the technology. For many people, being on camera is uncomfortable, especially the first time. Before participating in a high-stakes videoconference, become accustomed to the camera by participating in a few informal videoconferences.

Arrange for tech support at each site. Participants can quickly become impatient or lose interest when someone is fumbling to make the technology work. Each site should have a person who can set up the equipment and troubleshoot if problems arise.

Organize the room to encourage participation. If there is more than one person at the site, arrange the chairs so that they face the monitor and camera. Each person should be near a microphone. Before beginning the conference, check that each location has adequate audio and video as well as access to other relevant technology such as computer monitors. Finally, remember to introduce everyone in the room, even those off camera, to everyone participating in the conference.

Make eye contact with the camera. Eye contact is an important element of establishing your professional persona. The physical setup of some videoconferencing systems means you will likely spend most of your time looking at your monitor and not directly into the camera. However, this might give your viewers the impression that you are avoiding eye contact. Make a conscious effort periodically to look directly into the camera when speaking.

Dress as you would for a face-to-face meeting. Wearing inappropriate clothing can distract participants and damage your credibility.

Minimize distracting noises and movements. Sensitive microphones can magnify the sound of shuffling papers, fingers eset internet security 13.0 22.0 on tables, and whispering. Likewise, depending on your position in the picture frame, excessive movements can be distracting.

WIKIS AND SHARED DOCUMENT WORKSPACES Not all that long ago, people would collaborate on a document by using email to send it from one person to another. One person would write or assemble the document and then send it to another person, who would revise it and send it along to the next person, and so forth. Although the process was effective, it was inefficient: only one person could work on the document at any given moment. Today, two new technologies—wikis and shared document workspaces—make collaborating on a document much simpler and more convenient. To watch a tutorial on using wikis for collaborative work, go to LaunchPad. A wiki is a web-based document that authorized users can write and edit. The best-known wiki is Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia that contains millions of articles written and edited by people around the world. In the working world, people use software such as Jive and Socialtext to host wikis used for creating many kinds of documents, such as instructions, manuals, lists of frequently asked questions, and policy documents. The concept is that a wiki draws on the expertise and insights of people throughout the organization and, sometimes, outside the organization. A shared document workspace makes it convenient for a team of users to edit a file, such as a Prezi or PowerPoint slide set or a Word document. A shared document workspace such

as Microsoft SharePoint or Google Drive archives all the revisions made by each of the team members, so that the team can create a single document that incorporates selected revisions. Some shared document workspaces enable a user to download the document, revise it on his or her computer, and then upload it again. This feature is extremely convenient because the user does not need to be connected to the Internet to work on the document. To watch a tutorial on cross-platform word processing, go to LaunchPad. To watch a tutorial on using collaboration software, go to LaunchPad. TASER, a company that manufactures law-enforcement products, uses the shared document workspace Quip to collaborate on press releases and other documents. Figure 3.1 shows one of those press releases in development. In Quip, team members can edit a single version of a document simultaneously. Those edits are recorded in a chat thread, where team members can also add comments and questions. TASER PR Director Sydney Siegmeth notes that Quip helps the company overcome one of collaboration’s biggest disadvantages: inefficiency.

TASER’s press releases are developed by many teams, including some from outside the company. Before using Quip, Siegmeth’s team had to consolidate edits made to various versions of the document by other teams and make sure all the contributors received updates about the progress of the press release. Quip’s chat thread streamlines all communication regarding the document in a single place, ensuring that all parties are kept in the loop. TASER has also found that Quip motivates employees to make their contributions more quickly than they did when working with email and a word processor. “I’ve found that once someone goes in to make an edit or a comment, others will jump in there too and offer their approval or other edits,” Siegmeth says.

ETHICS NOTE MAINTAINING A PROFESSIONAL PRESENCE ONLINE According to a report from Cisco Systems (2010), half of the surveyed employees claim to routinely ignore company guidelines that prohibit the use of social media for non-work-related activities during company time. If you use your organization’s social media at work, be sure to act professionally so that your actions reflect positively on you and your organization. Be aware of several important legal and ethical issues related to social media. Although the law has not always kept pace with recent technological innovations, a few things are clear. You and your organization can be held liable if you make defamatory statements (statements that are untrue and damaging) about people or organizations, publish private information (such as trade secrets) or something that publicly places an individual “in a false light,” publish personnel information, harass others, or participate in criminal activity. In addition, follow these guidelines to avoid important ethical pitfalls: 

Don’t waste company time using social media for nonbusiness purposes. You owe your employer diligence (hard work).

Don’t divulge secure information, such as a login and password that expose your organization to unauthorized access, and don’t reveal information about products that have not yet been released.

Don’t divulge private information about anyone. Private information relates to such issues as religion, politics, and sexual orientation.

Don’t make racist or sexist comments or post pictures of people drinking.

If your organization has a written policy on the use of social media, study it carefully. Ask questions if anything in it is unclear. If the policy is incomplete, work to make it complete. If there is no policy, work to create one. For an excellent discussion of legal and ethical aspects of using your organization’s social media, see Kaupins and Park (2010). For more about maintaining a professional presence online, see Ch. 2, “Understanding Ethical and Legal Issues Related to Social Media.”

Although this section has discussed various collaboration tools as separate technologies, software companies are bundling programs in commercial products such as IBM Sametime, Adobe Creative Cloud, and Microsoft Office 365, which are suites of voice, data, and video services. These services usually share four characteristics: 

They are cloud based. That is, organizations lease the services and access them over the Internet. They do not have to acquire and maintain special hardware. This model is sometimes called software as a service.

They are integrated across desktop and mobile devices. Because employees can access these services from their desktops or mobile devices, they are free to collaborate in real time even if they are not at their desks. Some services provide presence awareness, the ability to determine a person’s online status, availability, and geographic location.

They are customizable. Organizations can choose whichever services they wish and then customize the services to work effectively with the rest of their electronic infrastructure, such as computer software and telephone systems.

They are secure. Organizations store the software behind a firewall, providing security: only authorized employees have access to the services.

Gender and Collaboration Effective collaboration involves two related challenges: maintaining the team as a productive, friendly working unit and accomplishing the task. Scholars of gender and collaboration see these two challenges as representing feminine and masculine perspectives. This discussion should begin with a qualifier: in discussing gender, we are generalizing. The differences in behavior between two men or between two women could very well be greater than the differences between men and women in general. Differences in how men and women communicate and work in teams have been traced to traditional family structures. Because women were traditionally the primary caregivers in American culture, they learned to value nurturing, connection, growth, and cooperation; because men were the primary breadwinners, they learned to value separateness, competition, debate, and even conflict (Karten, 2002). In collaborative teams, women appear to value consensus and relationships more than men do, to show more empathy, and to demonstrate superior listening skills. Women talk more about topics unrelated to the task (Duin, Jorn, & DeBower, 1991), but this talk is central to maintaining team coherence. Men appear to be more competitive than women and more likely to assume leadership roles. Scholars of gender recommend that all professionals strive to achieve an androgynous mix of the skills and aptitudes commonly associated with both women and men.

Culture and Collaboration Most collaborative teams in industry and in the classroom include people from other cultures. The challenge for all team members is to understand the ways in which cultural differences can affect team behavior. People from other cultures 

might find it difficult to assert themselves in collaborative teams

might be unwilling to respond with a definite “no”

might be reluctant to admit when they are confused or to ask for clarification

might avoid criticizing others

might avoid initiating new tasks or performing creatively

Even the most benign gesture of friendship on the part of a U.S. student can cause confusion. If a U.S. student casually asks a Japanese student about her major and the courses she is taking, the Japanese student might find the question too personal—yet she might consider it perfectly appropriate to talk about her family and her religious beliefs (Lustig & Koester, 2012). Therefore, you should remain open to encounters with people from other cultures without jumping to conclusions about what their actions might or might not mean. For more about multicultural issues, see Ch. 4, “Communicating Across Cultures.”

WRITER’S CHECKLIST In managing your project, did you 

break it down into several smaller tasks if it was large? (p. 35)

create a plan? (p. 35)

create and maintain an accurate schedule? (p. 35)

put your decisions in writing? (p. 35)

monitor progress? (p. 35)

distribute and act on information quickly? (p. 35)

act flexibly regarding schedule and responsibilities? (p. 35)

At your first team meeting, did you

define the team’s task? (p. 37)

choose a team leader? (p. 37)

define tasks for each team member? (p. 37)

establish working procedures? (p. 37)

establish a procedure for resolving conflict productively? (p. 37)

create a style sheet? (p. 37)

establish a work schedule? (p. 37)

create evaluation materials? (p. 37)

To help make meetings efficient, do you 

arrive on time? (p. 38)

stick to the agenda? (p. 38)

make sure that a team member records important decisions made at the meeting? (p. 38)

make sure that the leader summarizes the team’s accomplishments and that every member understands what his or her tasks are? (p. 38)

To communicate diplomatically, do you 

listen carefully, without interrupting? (p. 39)

give everyone a chance to speak? (p. 39)

avoid personal remarks and insults? (p. 39)

avoid overstating your position? (p. 39)

avoid getting emotionally attached to your own ideas? (p. 39)

ask pertinent questions? (p. 39)

pay attention to nonverbal communication? (p. 39)

In critiquing a team member’s work, do you

start with a positive comment? (p. 39)

discuss the larger issues first? (p. 39)

talk about the document, not the writer? (p. 40)

use the comment, revision, and highlighting features of your word processor, if appropriate? (p. 40)

When you participate in a videoconference, do you 

first practice using videoconferencing technology? (p. 42)

arrange for tech support at each site? (p. 42)

organize the room to encourage participation? (p. 42)

make eye contact with the camera? (p. 42)

dress as you would for a face-to-face meeting? (p. 42)

minimize distracting noises and movements? (p. 42)

EXERCISES For more about memos, see Ch. 9, “Writing Memos.” 1. Experiment with the comment, revision, and highlighting features of your word processor. Using online help if necessary, learn how to make, revise, and delete comments; make, undo, and accept revisions; and add and delete highlights. 2. Locate free videoconferencing software on the Internet. Download the software, and install it on your computer at home. Learn how to use the feature that lets you send attached files. 3. Using a wiki site such as, find a set of instructions on a technical process that interests you. Study one of the revisions to the instructions, noting the types of changes made. Do the changes relate to the content of the instructions, to the use of graphics, or to the correctness of the writing? Be prepared to share your findings with the class. 4. TEAM EXERCISE If you are enrolled in a technical-communication course that calls for you to do a large collaborative project, such as a recommendation report or an oral presentation, meet with your team members. Study the assignment for the

project, and then fill out the work-schedule form. (You can download the form in LaunchPad.) Be prepared to share your completed form with the class. 5. You have probably had a lot of experience working in collaborative teams in previous courses or on the job. Brainstorm for five minutes, listing some of your best and worst experiences participating in collaborative teams. Choose one positive experience and one negative experience. Think about why the positive experience went well. Was there a technique that a team member used that accounted for the positive experience? Think about why the negative experience went wrong. Was there a technique or action that accounted for the negative experience? How might the negative experience have been prevented—or fixed? Be prepared to share your responses with the class. 6. TEAM EXERCISE Your college or university wishes to update its website to include a section called “For Prospective International Students.” Along with members of your team, first determine whether your school’s website already has information of particular interest to prospective international students. If it does, write a memo to your instructor describing and evaluating the information. Is it accurate? Comprehensive? Clear? Useful? What kind of information should be added to the site to make it more effective? If the school’s site does not have this information, perform the following two tasks: 

Plan. What kind of information should this new section include? Does some of this information already exist elsewhere on the web, or does it all have to be created from scratch? For example, can you create a link to an external site with information on how to obtain a student visa? Write an outline of the main topics that should be covered.

Draft. Write the following sections: “Where To Live on or near Campus,” “Social Activities on or near Campus,” and “If English Is Not Your Native Language.” What graphics could you include? Are they already available? What other sites should you link to from these three sections?

In a memo, present your suggestions to your instructor.


Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose       

Understanding Audience and Purpose Using an Audience Profile Sheet Techniques for Learning About Your Audience Communicating Across Cultures Applying What You Have Learned About Your Audience Writing for Multiple Audiences Determining Your Purpose

DIGITAL STRATEGIST JASON FALLS writes frequently about how companies can use social media to create relationships with customers. What does he say is the key to using social media for business? Knowing your audience. The analytics report shown in Figure 4.1 provides basic information about the people who have visited a specific Facebook page in the previous four weeks: their gender, age, and geographic location. If you want more detailed information, you can purchase sophisticated tools and software that allow you to analyze the data on your own, or you can hire an expert to do it for you. Understanding your followers—your audience—can help you tailor your page to the people who are already visiting and broaden or adjust your content to reach more people.

FIGURE 4.1 Analysis of Facebook Users Information from Facebook, 2016:

Organizations of all sorts, not just businesses, analyze their audiences. Government agencies that want to appeal to the general public—to urge them to eat better, get vaccinated, or sign up for health insurance, to name just a few activities—start by analyzing their audiences to learn how to motivate them. Political campaigns analyze voters to determine the issues they want to see addressed. Charities such as the March of Dimes analyze their audiences to improve the effectiveness of their communications.

Understanding Audience and Purpose Projects of all sizes and types succeed only if they are based on an accurate understanding of the needs and desires of their audiences and have a clear, focused purpose. Because the documents and other communication you produce in the workplace will, more often than not, form the foundations of these projects, they too will succeed only if they are based on an accurate understanding of your audience and have a clear purpose. Although you might not realize it, you probably consider audience in your day-to-day communication. For example, when you tell your parents about a new job you’ve landed, you keep the discussion general and focus on the job details you know they care most about: its location, its salary and benefits, and your start date. But when you email a former internship supervisor with the news, you discuss your upcoming duties and projects in more detail. As you produce documents for this technical-communication course, you will of course consider your instructor’s expectations, just as you do when you write anything for any other course. But keep in mind that your instructor in this course is also playing the role of the audience that you would be addressing if you had produced the document outside of this college course. Therefore, to a large extent your instructor will likely evaluate each of your course assignments on how effectively you’ve addressed the audience and achieved the purpose specified in the assignment. Analyzing an audience means thinking about who your Grammarly 14.8 Keygen - Crack Key For U is, what they already know about your subject, how they feel about it, and how they are going to use the information you present. You analyze your audience as you plan your document so that it appeals to their interests and needs, is easy for them to understand, and motivates them to pay attention to your message and consider your recommendations. The word purpose refers to what you want to accomplish with the document you are producing. Most often, your purpose is to explain to your audience how something occurs (how regenerative braking systems work in hybrid cars), how to carry out a task (how to set up a Skype connection), or why some situation is either good or bad (why the new county guidelines for water use will help or hurt your company). When your purpose is to explain why a situation is either good or bad, you are trying to reinforce or change the audience’s attitudes toward the situation and perhaps urge them to take action. As you will see, in many cases your technical communication will have multiple purposes.

Before you can start to think about writing about your subject, analyze your audience and purpose. Doing so will help you meet your readers’ needs—and your own. For instance, you’re an engineer working for a consulting company. One document to which you might contribute is a report to the city planning board about how building a housing development would affect the natural environment as well as the city’s roads, schools, and sanitation infrastructure. That’s the subject of the report. The purpose is to motivate the planning board to approve the project so that it can begin. How does the audience affect how you analyze your purpose? You think about who the board members are. If most of them are not engineers, you don’t want to use specialized vocabulary and advanced engineering graphics and concepts. You don’t want to dwell on the technical details. Rather, you want to use general vocabulary, graphics, and concepts. You want to focus on the issues the board members are concerned about. Would the development affect the environment negatively? If so, is the developer including a plan to offset that negative effect? Can the roads handle the extra traffic? Can the schools handle the extra kids? Will the city have to expand its police force? Its fire department? Its sewer system? In other words, when you write to the planning board, you focus on topics they are most interested in, and you write the document so that it is easy for them to read and understand. If the project is approved and you need to communicate with other audiences, such as architects and contractors, you will have different purposes, and you will adjust your writing to meet each audience’s needs. What can go wrong when you don’t analyze your audience? McDonald’s Corporation found out when it printed takeout bags decorated with flags from around the world. Among them was the flag of Saudi Arabia, which contains scripture from the Koran. This was extremely offensive to Muslims, who consider it sacrilegious to throw out items bearing sacred scripture. As a result, McDonald’s lost public credibility. Throughout this chapter, the text will refer to your reader and your document. But all of the information refers as well to oral presentations, which are the subject of Chapter 15, as well as to nonprint documents, such as podcasts or videos.

Using an Audience Profile Sheet As you read the discussions in this chapter about audience characteristics and techniques for learning about your audience, you might think about using an audience profile sheet: a form that prompts you to consider various audience characteristics as you plan your document. For example, the profile sheet can help you realize that you do not know much about your primary reader’s work history and what that history can tell you about how to shape your document. For an audience profile sheet, which will help you think about audience characteristics, go to LaunchPad.

If your document has several readers, you must decide whether to fill out only one sheet (for your most important reader) or several sheets. One technique is to fill out sheets for one or two of your most important readers and one for each major category of other readers. For instance, you could fill out one sheet for your primary reader, Harry Becker; one for managers in other areas of your company; and one for readers from outside your company. When do you fill out an audience profile sheet? Although some writers like to do so at the start of the process as a way to prompt themselves to consider audience characteristics, others prefer to do so at the end of the process as a way to help themselves summarize what they have learned about their audience. Of course, you can start to fill out the sheet before you begin and then complete it or revise it at the end.

CHOICES AND STRATEGIES Responding to Readers’ Attitudes IF. . .


Your reader is neutral or positively inclined toward your subject

Write the document so that it responds to the reader’s needs; make sure that vocabulary, level of detail, organization, and style are appropriate.

Your reader is hostile to the subject or to your approach to it

Find out what the objections are, and then answer them directly. Explain why the objections are not valid or are less important than the benefits. For example, you want to hire an online-community manager to coordinate your company’s social-media efforts, but you know that one of your primary readers won’t like this idea. Try to find out why. Does this person think social media are a fad? That they are irrelevant and can’t help your company? If you understand the objections, you can explain your position more effectively. Organize the document so that your recommendation follows your explanation of the benefits. This strategy encourages the hostile reader to understand your argument rather than to reject it out of hand. Avoid describing the subject as a dispute. Seek areas of agreement and concede points. Avoid trying to persuade readers overtly; people don’t like to be persuaded, because it threatens their ego. Instead, suggest that there are new facts that need to be considered. People are more

likely to change their minds when they realize this.

Your reader was instrumental in creating the policy or procedure that you are arguing is ineffective

In discussing the present system’s shortcomings, be especially careful if you risk offending one of your readers. When you address such an audience, don’t write, “The present system for logging customer orders is completely ineffective.” Instead, write, “While the present system has worked well for many years, new developments in electronic processing of orders might enable us to improve logging speed and reduce errors substantially.”

For tips on critiquing a team member’s draft diplomatically, see Ch. 3, “Critiquing a Colleague’s Work.”

Techniques for Learning About Your Audience To learn about your audience, you figure out what you do and do not already know, interview people, read about them, and read documents they have written. Of course, you cannot perform extensive research about every possible reader of every document you write, but you should learn what you can about your most important readers of your most important documents.

DETERMINING WHAT YOU ALREADY KNOW ABOUT YOUR AUDIENCE Start by asking yourself what you already know about your most important readers: their demographics (such as age, education, and job responsibilities); their expectations and attitudes toward you and the subject; and the ways they will use your document. Then list the important factors you don’t know. That is where you will concentrate your energies. The audience profile sheet available in LaunchPad can help you identify gaps in your knowledge about your readers.

INTERVIEWING PEOPLE For your most important readers, make a list of people who you think have known those readers and their work the longest or who are closest to them on the job. These people might include those who joined the organization at about the same time your readers did, people who work in the same department as your readers, ant download manager mac - Activators Patch people at other organizations who have collaborated with your readers. Prepare a few interview questions that are likely to elicit information about your readers and their preferences and needs. For instance, you are writing a proposal for a new project at work. You want to present return-on-investment calculations to show how long it will take the company to recoup what it invested, but you’re not sure how much detail to present because you don’t know whether an important primary reader has a background in this aspect of accounting. Several of this reader’s colleagues will know. Interview them in person, on the phone, or by email. For a discussion of interviewing, see Ch. 5, “Interviews.”

READING ABOUT YOUR AUDIENCE ONLINE If you are writing for people in your own organization, start your research there. If your primary reader is a high-level manager or executive, search the organization’s website or internal social network. Sections such as “About Us,” “About the Company,” and “Information for Investors” often contain a wealth of biographical information, as well as links to other sources. In addition, use a search engine to look for information on the Internet. You are likely to find newspaper and magazine articles, industry directories, websites, and blog posts about your audience.

SEARCHING SOCIAL MEDIA FOR DOCUMENTS YOUR AUDIENCE HAS WRITTEN Documents your readers have written can tell you a lot about what they like to see with respect to design, level of detail, organization and development, style, and vocabulary. If your primary audience consists of those within your organization, start searching for documents they’ve produced within the company. Then broaden the search to the Internet. Although some of your readers might have written books or articles, many or even most of them might be active users of social media, such as Facebook. Pay particular attention to LinkedIn, a networking site for professionals. LinkedIn profiles are particularly useful because they include a person’s current and former positions and education, as well as recommendations from other professionals. For an employee’s LinkedIn profile, see Ch. 10. A typical LinkedIn entry directs you to a person’s websites and blogs and to the LinkedIn groups to which the person belongs. You can also see the person’s connections (his or her personal network). And if you are a LinkedIn member, you can see whether you and the person share any connections. In addition, the person you are researching might have a social-media account on which he or she posts about matters related to his or her job. Reading a person’s recent posts will give you a good idea of his or her job responsibilities and professionalism.

ANALYZING SOCIAL-MEDIA DATA Private companies and public agencies alike analyze social media to better understand their audiences. Private companies use these data primarily to determine who adobe illustrator cs6 free download with crack kickass - Crack Key For U customers are, how they feel about various marketing messages, and how these messages influence their buying behavior. Public agencies use these data to help them refine their own messages. For instance, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a U.S. federal agency, analyzes social media to improve the quality and effectiveness of its public health information. The agency starts by classifying people into various categories by age (such as tweens, teens, baby boomers) and determining which media each group uses most. On the basis of these data, the agency designs and implements health campaigns on such topics as cancer screening, HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, vaccines, and smoking cessation.

Then the CDC monitors social media to determine how many people are seeing the agency’s information, how they are engaging with the information (whether they share the information or follow links to other sites), and whether the information is changing their behavior (Centers for Disease Control, 2013). Among the data the CDC analyzes each month are the following: 

the number of visitors to each of the CDC web pages

the most popular keywords searched on CDC pages as well as on selected other sites and popular search engines such as Google

the numbers of Facebook fans and Twitter followers

the number of click-throughs to CDC web pages from Facebook and Twitter

On the basis of these data, the CDC adjusts its social-media campaigns to use its campaign resources most effectively.

Communicating Across Cultures Our society and our workforce are becoming increasingly diverse, both culturally and linguistically, and businesses are exporting more goods and services. As a result, professionals often communicate with individuals from different cultural backgrounds, many of whom are nonnative speakers of English, both in the United States and abroad, and with speakers of other languages who read texts translated from English into their own languages. The economy of the United States depends on international trade. In 2012, according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis (2014b), the United States exported over $3 trillion of goods and services. In that year, direct investment abroad by U.S. companies totaled more than $4.6 trillion (Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2014a). In addition, the population of the United States itself is truly multicultural. Each year, the United States admits a million immigrants. In 2012, 13 percent of the U.S. population was foreign born; of those foreign born, more than a third had entered the country since 2000 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2014). Effective communication requires an understanding of culture: the beliefs, attitudes, and values that motivate people’s behavior.

UNDERSTANDING THE CULTURAL VARIABLES “ON THE SURFACE” Communicating effectively with people from another culture requires understanding a number of cultural variables that lie on the surface. You need to know, first, what language or languages to use. You also need to be aware of political, social, religious, and economic factors that can affect how readers will interpret your documents. Understanding these factors is not an exact science, but it does require that you learn as much as you can about the culture of those you are addressing. A brief example: Microsoft’s search engine had trouble catching on in China, in part because of its name—Bing—which means “sickness” in Chinese (Yan, 2015). In International Technical Communication, Nancy L. Hoft (1995) describes seven major categories of cultural variables that lie on the surface: 

Political. This category relates to trade issues and legal issues (for example, some countries forbid imports of certain foods or chemicals) and laws about intellectual property, product safety, and liability.

Economic. A country’s level of economic development is a critical factor. In many developing countries, most people cannot afford devices for accessing the Internet.

Social. This category covers many issues, including gender and business customs. In most Western cultures, women play a much greater role in the workplace than they do in many Middle Eastern and Asian cultures. Business customs—including forms of greeting, business dress, and gift giving—vary from culture to culture.

Religious. Religious differences can affect diet, attitudes toward particular colors, styles of dress, holidays, and hours of business.

Educational. In the United States, 40 million people are only marginally literate. In other cultures, the rate can be much higher or much lower. In some cultures, classroom learning with a teacher is considered the most acceptable way to study; in others, people tend to study on their own.

Technological. If you sell high-tech products, you need to know whether your readers have the hardware, the software, and the technological infrastructure to use them.

Linguistic. In some countries, English is taught to all children starting in grade school; in other countries, English is seen as a threat to the national language. In many cultures, the orientation of text on a page and in a book is not from left to right.

In addition to these basic differences, you need to understand dozens of other factors. For instance, the United States is the only major country that has not adopted the metric system. Whereas Americans use periods to separate whole numbers from decimals, and commas to separate thousands from hundreds, much of the rest of the world reverses this usage. UNITED STATES




Also, in the United States, the format for writing out and abbreviating dates is different from that of most other cultures: March 2, 2019


2 March 2019


2019 March 2





These cultural variables are important in obvious ways: for example, you can’t send a file to a person who doesn’t have access to the Internet. However, there is another set of cultural characteristics—those beneath the surface—that you also need to understand.

UNDERSTANDING THE CULTURAL VARIABLES “BENEATH THE SURFACE” Scholars of multicultural communication have identified cultural variables that are less obvious than those discussed in the previous section but just as important. Writing scholars Elizabeth Tebeaux and Linda Driskill (1999) explain five key variables and how they are reflected in technical communication.

Focus on individuals or groups. Some cultures, especially in the West, value individuals more than groups. The typical Western employee doesn’t see his or her identity as being defined by the organization for which he or she works. Other cultures, particularly those in Asia, value groups more than individuals. The typical employee in such cultures sees himself or herself more as a representative of the organization than as an individual who happens to work there.

Communication in individualistic cultures focuses on the writer’s and reader’s needs rather than on those of their organizations. Writers use the pronoun I rather than we. Communication in group-oriented cultures focuses on the organization’s needs by emphasizing the benefits to be gained through a cooperative relationship between organizations. Writers emphasize the relationship between the writer and the reader rather than the specific technical details of the message. Writers use we rather than I. 

Distance between business life and private life. In some cultures, especially in the West, many people separate their business lives from their private lives. When the workday ends, they are free to go home and spend their time as they wish. Although many employees are increasingly expected to be available by email or phone outside official working hours, those in the West still usually think of themselves primarily as individuals rather than as part of an organizational body. In other cultures, particularly in Asia, people see a much smaller distance between their

business lives and their private lives. Even after the day ends, they still see themselves as employees of their organization. Cultures that value individualism tend to see a great distance between business and personal lives. In these cultures, communication focuses on technical details, with relatively little reference to personal information about the writer or the reader. Cultures that are group oriented tend to see a smaller distance between business life and private life. In these cultures, communication contains much more personal information—about the reader’s family and health—and more information about general topics—for example, the weather and the seasons. The goal is to build a formal relationship between the two organizations. Both the writer and the reader are, in effect, on call after business hours and are likely to transact business during long social activities such as elaborate dinners or golf games. 

Distance between ranks. In some cultures, the distance in power and authority between workers within an organization is small. Supervisors work closely with their subordinates. In other cultures, the distance in power and authority between workers within an organization is great. Supervisors do not consult with their subordinates. Subordinates use formal names and titles—“Mr. Smith,” “Dr. Perez”—when addressing people of higher rank. Individualistic cultures that separate business and private lives tend to have a smaller distance between ranks. In these cultures, communication is generally less formal. Informal documents (emails and memos) are appropriate, and writers often sign their documents with their first names only. Keep in mind, however, that many people in

these cultures resent inappropriate informality, such as letters or emails addressed “Dear Jim” when they have never met the writer. In cultures with a great distance between ranks, communication is generally formal. Writers tend to use their full professional titles and to prefer formal documents (such as letters) to informal ones (such as memos and emails). Writers make sure their documents are addressed to the appropriate person and contain the formal design elements (such as title pages and letters of transmittal) that signal their respect for their readers. 

Need for details to be spelled out. Some cultures value full, complete communication. The written text must be comprehensive, containing all the information a reader needs to understand it. These cultures are called low-context cultures. Other cultures value documents in which some of the details are merely implied. This implicit information is transmitted by other forms of communication that draw on the personal relationship between the reader and the writer, as well as social and business norms of the culture. These cultures are called high-context cultures.

Attitudes toward uncertainty. In some cultures, people are comfortable with uncertainty. They communicate less formally and rely less on written policies. In many cases, they rely more on a clear set of guiding principles, as communicated in a code of conduct or a mission statement. In other cultures, people are uncomfortable with uncertainty. Businesses are structured formally, and they use written procedures for communicating.  In cultures that tolerate uncertainty, written communication tends to be less detailed. Oral communication is used to convey more of the information that is vital to the relationship between the writer and the readers. In cultures that value certainty, communication tends to be detailed. Policies are lengthy and specific, and forms are used extensively. Roles are firmly defined, and there is a wide distance between ranks.

As you consider this set of cultural variables, keep four points in mind: 

Each variable represents a spectrum of attitudes. Terms such as high-context and low-context, for instance, represent the opposite end points on a scale. Most cultures occupy a middle ground.

The variables do not line up in a clear pattern. Although the variables sometimes correlate—for example, low-context cultures tend to be individualistic—in any one culture, the variables do not form a consistent pattern. For example, the dominant culture in the United States is highly individualistic rather than group oriented but only about midway along the scale in terms of tolerance of uncertainty.

Different organizations within the same culture can vary greatly. For example, one software company in Germany might have a management style that does not tolerate uncertainty, whereas another software company in that country might tolerate a lot of uncertainty.

An organization’s cultural attitudes are fluid, not static. How an organization operates is determined not only by the dominant culture but also by its own people. As new people join an organization, its culture changes. The IBM of 2020 is not the IBM of 2000.

For you as a communicator, this set of variables therefore offers no answers. Instead, it offers a set of questions. You cannot know in advance the attitudes of the people in an organization. You have to interact with them for a long time before you can reach even tentative conclusions. The value of being aware of the variables is that they can help you study the communication from people in that organization and become more aware of underlying values that affect how they will interpret your documents.

CONSIDERING CULTURAL VARIABLES AS YOU WRITE The challenge of communicating effectively with a person from another culture is that you are communicating with a person, not a culture. You cannot be sure which cultures have influenced that person (Lovitt, 1999). For example, a 50-year-old Japanese-born manager at the computer manufacturer Fujitsu in Japan has been shaped by the Japanese culture, but she also has been influenced by the culture of her company and of the Japanese industry in general. Because she works on an export product, it is also likely that she has traveled extensively outside of Japan and has absorbed influences from other cultures. A further complication is that when you communicate with a person from another culture, to that person you are from another culture, and you cannot know how much that person is trying to accommodate your cultural patterns. As writing scholar Arthur H. Bell (1992) points out, the communication between the two of you is carried out in a third, hybrid culture. When you write to a large audience, the complications increase. No brief discussion of cultural variables can answer questions about how to write for a particular multicultural audience. You need to study your readers’ culture and, as you plan your document, seek assistance from someone native to the culture who can help you avoid problems that might confuse or offend your readers. Start by reading some of the basic guides to communicating with people from other cultures, and then study guides to the particular culture you are investigating. In addition, numerous sites on the Internet provide useful guidelines that can help you write to people from another culture. If possible, study documents written by people in your audience. If you don’t have access to

these resources, try to locate documents written in English by people from the culture you are interested in. For books and other resources about writing to people from other cultures, see the Selected Bibliography, located in LaunchPad. Figure 4.2 provides a useful glimpse into cultural variables. The excerpt, from a training manual used by Indian Railways, describes a medical exam that prospective applicants are required to take.

FIGURE 4.2 Statement from an Indian Railways Training Manual Information from Indian Railways, 2000.

GUIDELINES Writing for Readers from Other Cultures The following eight suggestions will help you communicate more effectively with multicultural readers. 

Grammarly 14.8 Keygen - Crack Key For U your vocabulary. Every word should have a narrow range of meaning, as called for in Simplified English and in other basic-English languages.

Keep sentences short. There is no magic number, but try for an average sentence length of no more than 20 words.

Define abbreviations and acronyms in a glossary. Don’t assume that your readers know what a GFI (ground fault interrupter) is, because the abbreviation is derived from English vocabulary and word order.

Avoid jargon unless you know your readers are familiar with it. For instance, your readers might not know what a graphical user interface is.

Avoid idioms and slang. These terms are culture specific. If you tell your Japanese readers that your company plans to put on a “full-court press,” most likely they will be confused.

Use the active voice whenever possible. The active voice is easier for nonnative speakers of English to understand than ESET NOD32 Antivirus Crack License Key Free Download 2021 passive voice.

Be careful with graphics. The question-mark icon for “information” does not translate well, because outside the United States a lower-case i is often used to represent “information.”

Be sure someone from the target culture reviews your document. Even if you have had help in planning the document, have it reviewed before you publish and distribute it.

For more about voice, see Ch. 6.

For more about graphics, see Ch. 8.

USING GRAPHICS AND DESIGN FOR MULTICULTURAL READERS One of the challenges of writing to people from another culture is that they are likely to be nonnative speakers of English. One way to overcome the language barrier is to use effective graphics and appropriate document design. However, the most appropriate graphics and design can differ from culture to culture. Business letters written in Australia use a different size paper and a different format from those in the United States. An icon for a file folder in a software program created in the United States could confuse European readers, who use file folders of a different size and shape (Bosley, 1999). A series of graphics arranged left to right could confuse readers from the Middle East, who read from right to left. For this reason, you should study samples of documents written by people from the culture you are addressing to learn the important differences. For more about design for multicultural readers, see Ch. 7. For more about graphics for international readers, see Ch. 8.

Applying What You Have Learned About Your Audience You want to use what you know about your audience to tailor your communication to their needs and preferences. Obviously, if your most important reader does not understand the details of DRAM Registry Tweak - Crack Key For U, you cannot use the concepts, vocabulary, and types of graphics used in that field. If she uses one-page summaries at the beginning of her documents, decide whether one will work for your document. If your primary reader’s paragraphs always start with clear topic sentences, yours should, too. The samples of technical communication shown in Figure 4.3 illustrate some of the ways writers have applied what they know about their audiences in text and graphics.

ETHICS NOTE MEETING YOUR READERS’ NEEDS RESPONSIBLY A major theme of this chapter is that effective technical communication meets your readers’ needs. What this theme means is that as you plan, draft, revise, and edit, you should always be thinking of who your readers are, why they will read your document, and how they will read the

document. For example, if your readers include many nonnative speakers of English, you will adjust your vocabulary, sentence structure, and other textual elements so that those readers can understand your document easily. If your readers will access the document on a mobile device, you will ensure that the design is optimized for their screen. Meeting your readers’ needs does not mean writing a misleading or inaccurate document. If your readers want you to slant the information, omit crucial data, or downplay bad news, they are asking you to act unethically. You should not do so. For more information on ethics, see Chapter 2.

Writing for Multiple Audiences Many documents of more than a few pages are addressed to more than one reader. Often, an audience consists of people with widely different backgrounds, needs, and attitudes. If you think your document will have a number of readers, consider making it modular: break it up into components addressed to different readers. A modular report might contain an executive summary for managers who don’t have the time, knowledge, or desire to read the whole report. It might also contain a full technical discussion for expert readers, an implementation schedule for technicians, and a financial plan in an appendix for budget officers. Figure 4.4 shows the table of contents for a modular report.

Determining Your Purpose Once you have identified and analyzed your audience, it is time to examine your purpose. Ask yourself this: “What do I want this document to accomplish?” When your readers have finished reading what you have written, what do you want them to know or believe? What do you want them to do? Your writing should help your readers understand a concept, adopt a particular belief, or carry out a task. In defining your purpose, think of a verb that represents it. (Sometimes, of course, you have several purposes.) The following list presents verbs in two categories: those used to communicate information to your readers and those used to convince them to accept a particular point of view. Communicating verbs  authorize  define  describe  explain  illustrate  inform  outline  present  review  summarize Convincing verbs  assess  evaluate  forecast  propose  recommend  request This classification is not absolute. For example, review could in some cases be a convincing verb rather than a communicating verb: one writer’s review of a MacPaw CleanMyPC Crack + License Code Free 2021 situation might be very different from another’s. Here are a few examples of how you can use these verbs to clarify the purpose of your document (the verbs are italicized).

This wiki presents the draft of our policies on professional use of social media within the organization.

This letter authorizes the purchase of six new tablets for the Jenkintown facility.

This report recommends that we revise the website as soon as possible.

Sometimes your real purpose differs from your expressed purpose. For instance, if you want to persuade your reader to lease a new computer system rather than purchase it, you might phrase the purpose this way: to explain the advantages of leasing over purchasing. As mentioned earlier, many readers don’t want to be persuaded but are willing to learn new facts or ideas. In situations like this, stick to the facts. No matter how much you want to convince your readers, it is unacceptable to exaggerate or to omit important information. Trust that the strength and accuracy of your writing will enable you to achieve your intended purpose.

WRITER’S CHECKLIST Following is a checklist for analyzing your audience and purpose. Remember that your document might be read by one person, several people, a large group, or several groups with various needs. 

Did you fill out an audience profile sheet for your primary and secondary audiences? Grammarly 14.8 Keygen - Crack Key For U. 53)

In analyzing your audience, did you consider the following questions about each of your most important readers: 

What is your reader’s educational background? (p. 56)

What is your reader’s professional experience? (p. 56)

What is your reader’s job responsibility? (p. 56)

What are your reader’s cultural characteristics? (p. 56)

What are your reader’s personal characteristics? (p. 56)

What are your reader’s personal preferences? (p. 56)

Why will the reader read your document? (p. 56)

What is your reader’s attitude toward you? (p. 57)

What is your reader’s attitude toward the subject? (p. 57)

What are your reader’s expectations about the document? (p. 57)

How will your reader read your document? (p. 57)

What is your reader’s reading skill? (p. 57)

In what physical environment and on what digital platforms will your reader read your document? (p. 57)

In learning about your readers, did you 

determine what you already know about them? (p. 54)

interview people? (p. 54)

read about your audience online? (p. 55)

search social media for documents your audience has written? (p. 55)

analyze social-media data, if available? (p. 55)

In planning to write for an audience from another culture, did you consider the following cultural variables: 

political? (p. 59)

economic? (p. 59)

social? (p. 59)

religious? (p. 59)

educational? (p. 59)

technological? (p. 59)

linguistic? (p. 59)

In planning to write for an audience from another culture, did you consider other cultural variables:

focus on individuals or groups? (p. 60)

distance between business life and private life? (p. 60)

distance between ranks? (p. 61)

need for details to be spelled out? (p. 61)

attitudes toward uncertainty? (p. 61)

In writing for a multicultural audience, did you 

limit your vocabulary? (p. 63)

keep sentences short? (p. 63)

define abbreviations and acronyms in a glossary? (p. 63)

avoid jargon unless you knew that your readers were familiar with it? (p. 63)

avoid idioms and slang? (p. 64)

use the active voice whenever possible? (p. 64)

use graphics carefully? (p. 64)

have the document reviewed by someone from the reader’s culture? (p. 64)

In writing for multiple audiences, did you consider creating a modular document? (p. 69)

Did you state your purpose in writing and express it in the form of a verb or verbs? (p. 69)

EXERCISES For more about memos, see Ch. 9. 1. Choose a 200-word passage from a technical article related to your major course of study and addressed to an expert audience. (You can find a technical article on the web by using Google Scholar or the Directory of Open Access Journals. In addition, many federal government agencies publish technical articles and reports on the web.) Rewrite the passage so that it will be clear and interesting to a general reader. Submit the original passage to your instructor along with your revision.

2. The following passage is an advertisement for a translation service. Revise the passage to make it more appropriate for a multicultural audience. Submit the revision to your instructor. If your technical documents have to meet the needs of a global market but you find that most translation houses are swamped by the huge volume, fail to accommodate the various languages you require, or fail to make your deadlines, where do you turn? Well, your search is over. Translations, Inc. provides comprehensive translations in addition to full-service documentation publishing. We utilize ultrasophisticated translation programs that can translate a page in a blink of an eye. Then our crack linguists comb each document to give it that personalized touch. No job too large! No schedule too tight! Give us a call today! 3. Study the website of a large manufacturer of computer products, such as HewlettPackard, Acer, Dell, or Lenovo. Identify three different pages that address different audiences and fulfill different purposes. Here is an example: Name of the page: Lenovo Group Fact Page Audience: prospective investors Purpose: persuade the prospective investor to invest in the company Be prepared to share your findings with the class. 4. TEAM EXERCISE Form small groups and study two websites that advertise competing products. For instance, you might choose the websites of two car makers, two television shows, or two music producers. Have each person in the group, working alone, compare and contrast the two sites according to these three criteria: a. the kind of information they provide: hard, technical information or more emotional information b. the use of multimedia such as animation, sound, or video c. the amount of interactivity they invite—that is, the extent to which you can participate in activities while you visit the site d. After each person has separately studied the sites and taken notes about the three criteria, come together as a group. After each person shares his or her findings, discuss the differences as a group. Which aspects of these sites

caused the most difference in group members’ reactions? Which aspects seemed to elicit the most consistent reactions? In a brief memo to your instructor, describe and analyze how the two sites were perceived by the different members of the group.

Audience Profile Sheet As you plan your documents, use this sheet to evaluate what you need to discover about your intended audiences.

Download this form.


Researching Your Subject     

Understanding the Differences Between Academic and Workplace Research Understanding the Research Process Choosing Appropriate Research Methods Conducting Secondary Research Conducting Primary Research

IN THE WORKPLACE, you will conduct research all the time. As a buyer for a clothing retailer, for example, you might need to conduct research to help you determine whether a new line of products would be successful in your store. As a civil engineer, you might need to perform research to determine whether to replace your company’s traditional surveying equipment with 3D-equipped stations. And as a pharmacist, you might need to research whether a prescribed medication might have a harmful interaction with another medication a patient is already taking. In the workplace, you will also conduct research using a variety of methods. You will consult websites, blogs, and discussion boards, and you might listen to podcasts or watch videos. Sometimes you will interview people, and you will likely distribute surveys electronically to acquire information from customers and suppliers. Regardless of which technique you use, your challenge will be to sort the relevant information from the irrelevant, and the accurate from the bogus. This chapter focuses on conducting primary research and secondary research. Primary research involves discovering or creating technical information yourself. Secondary research involves finding information that other people have already discovered or created. This chapter presents secondary research first. Why? Because you will probably do secondary research first. To design the experiments or the field research that constitutes primary research, you need a thorough understanding of the information that already exists about your subject.

Understanding the Differences Between Academic and Workplace Research Although academic research and workplace research can overlap, in most cases they differ in their goals.

In academic research, your goal is to find information that will help answer a scholarly question: “What would be the effect on the trade balance wise registry cleaner pro - Activators Patch the United States and China if China lowered the value of its currency by 10 percent?” or “At what age do babies learn to focus on people’s eyes?” Academic research questions are often more abstract than applied. That is, they get at the underlying principles of a phenomenon. Academic research usually requires extensive secondary research: reading scholarly literature in academic journals and books. If you do primary research, as scientists do in labs, you do so only after extensive secondary research. In workplace research, your goal is to find information to help you answer a practical question: “Should we replace our sales staff’s notebook computers with tablets?” or “What would be the advantages and disadvantages to our company of adopting a European-style privacy policy for customer information?” Workplace research questions frequently focus on improving a situation at a particular organization. These questions call for considerable primary research because they require that you learn about your own organization’s processes and how the people in your organization would respond to your ideas. Sometimes, workplace research questions address the needs of customers or other stakeholders. You will need a thorough understanding of your organization’s external community in order to effectively align your products or services with their needs. Regardless of whether you are conducting academic or workplace research, the basic research methods—primary and secondary research—are fundamentally the same, as is the goal: to help you answer questions.

Understanding the Research Process When you perform research, you want the process to be effective and efficient. That is, you want to find information that answers the questions you need to answer. And you don’t want to spend any more time than necessary getting that information. To meet these goals, you have to think about how the research relates to the other aspects of the overall project. The Focus on Process box provides an overview of the research process. Although all these tasks are described as part of the planning stage, remember that you might also need to perform additional research during the drafting, revising, editing, and proofreading stages. Whenever you need additional information to help you make your argument clear and persuasive, do more research.


Analyze your audience. Who are your most important readers? What are their personal characteristics, their attitudes toward your subject, their motivations for reading? If you are writing to an expert audience that might be skeptical about your message, you need to do a lot of research to gather the evidence for a convincing argument. See Chapter 4.

Analyze your purpose. Why are you writing? Understanding your purpose helps you understand the types of information readers will expect. Think in terms of what you want your readers to know or believe or do after they finish reading your document. See Chapter 4.

Analyze your subject. What do you already know about your subject? What do you still need to find out? Using techniques such as freewriting and brainstorming, you can determine those aspects of the subject you need to ant download manager mac - Activators Patch

Visualize the deliverable. What application will you need to deliver: a proposal, a report, a website? What kind of oral presentation will you need to deliver?

Work out a schedule and a budget for the project. When is the deliverable due? Do you have a budget for database searches or travel to libraries or other sites?

Determine what information will need to be part of the deliverable. Draft an outline of the contents, focusing on the kinds of information that readers will expect to see in each part.

Determine what information you still need to acquire. Make a list of the pieces of information you don’t yet have.

Create questions you need to answer in your deliverable. Writing the questions in a list forces you to think carefully about your topic. One question suggests another, and soon you have a lengthy list that you need to answer.

Conduct secondary research. Study journal articles and web-based sources such as online journals, discussion boards, blogs, and podcasts.

Conduct primary research. You can answer some of your questions by consulting company records, by interviewing experts in your organization, by distributing questionnaires, and by interviewing other people in your organization and industry. Other questions call for using social media to gather information from your customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders.

Evaluate your information. Once you have your information, you need to evaluate its quality: is it accurate, comprehensive, unbiased, and current?

Do more research. If the information you have acquired doesn’t sufficiently answer your questions, do more research. And if you have thought of additional questions that need to be answered, do more research. When do you stop doing research? You will stop only when you think you have enough high-quality information to create the deliverable.

Choosing Appropriate Research Methods Different research questions require different research methods. Once you have determined the questions you need to answer, think about the various research techniques you could use to answer them. For example, your research methods for finding out how a current situation is expected to change would differ from your research methods for finding out how well a product might work for your organization. That is, if you want to know how outsourcing will change the computer-support industry over the next 10 to 20 years, you might search for long-range predictions in journal and magazine articles and on reputable websites and blogs. By contrast, if you want to figure out whether a specific scanner will produce the quality of scan that you need and will function reliably, you might do the same kind of secondary research and then observe the operation of the scanner at a vendor’s site; schedule product demos at your site; follow up by interviewing others in your company; and perform an experiment in which you try two different scanners and analyze the results. The Choices and Strategies feature provides a good starting point for thinking about how to acquire the information you need. You are likely to find that your research plan changes as you conduct your research. You might find, for instance, that you need more than one method to get the information you need or that the one method you thought would work doesn’t. Still, having a plan can help you discover the most appropriate methods more quickly and efficiently.

CHOICES AND STRATEGIES Choosing Appropriate Research Techniques TYPE OF QUESTION



What is the theory behind this process or technique?

How do greenhouse gases contribute to global warming?

Encyclopedias, handbooks, and journal articles present theory. Also, you can find theoretical information on websites from reputable professional organizations and universities. Search using keywords such as “greenhouse gases” and “global warming.”

What is the history of this phenomenon?

When and how did engineers first try to extract shale oil?

Encyclopedias and handbooks present history. Also, you can find historical information on websites from reputable professional organizations and universities. Search using keywords such as “shale oil” and “petroleum history.”

What techniques are being used now to solve this problem?

How are companies responding to the federal government’s new laws on healthinsurance portability?

If the topic is recent, you will have better luck using digital resources such as websites and social media than using traditional print media. Search using keywords and tags such as “health-insurance portability.” Your search will be most effective if you use standard terminology in your search, such as “HIPAA” for the health-insurance law.

How is a current situation expected to change?

What changes will outsourcing cause in the computersupport industry over the next 10 to 20 years?

For long-range predictions, you can find information in journal articles and magazine articles and on reputable websites. Experts might write forecasts on discussion boards and blogs.

What products are available to perform a task or provide a service?

Which vendors are available to upgrade and maintain our company’s website?

For current products and services, search websites, discussion boards, and blogs. Reputable vendors— manufacturers and service providers— have sites describing their offerings. But be careful not to assume vendors’ claims are accurate. Even the specifications they provide might be exaggerated.

What are the strengths and weaknesses of competing products and services?

Which portable GPS system is the lightest?

Search for benchmarking articles from experts in the field, such as a journal article—either in print or on the web— about camping and outfitting that compares the available GPS systems according to reasonable criteria. Also check discussion boards for reviews and blogs for opinions. If appropriate, do field research to answer your questions.

Which product or service do experts recommend?

Which fourwheel-drive SUV offers the best combination of features and quality for our needs?

Experts write journal articles, magazine articles, and sometimes blogs. Often, they participate in discussion boards. Sometimes, you can interview them, in person or on the phone, or write inquiries.

What are the facts about how we do our jobs at this company?

Do our chemists use gas chromatography in their analyses?

Sometimes, you can interview someone, in person or on the phone, to answer a simple question. To determine whether your chemists use a particular technique, start by asking someone in that department.

What can we learn about what caused a problem in our organization?

What caused the contamination in the clean room?

You can interview personnel who were closest to the problem and inspect the scene to determine the cause of the problem.

What do our personnel think we should do about a situation?

Do our qualitycontrol analysts think we need to revise our sampling quotient?

If there are only a few personnel, interview them. If there are many, use questionnaires to get the information more quickly.

How well would this product or service work in our organization?

Would this scanner produce the quality of scan that we need and interface well with our computer equipment?

Read product reviews on reputable websites. Study discussion boards. Observe the use of the product or service at a vendor’s site. Schedule product demos at your site. Follow up by interviewing others in your company to get their thinking. Do an experiment in which you try two different solutions to a problem, then analyze the results.

GUIDELINES Researching a Topic Follow these three guidelines as you gather information to use in your document. 

Be persistent. Don’t be discouraged if a research method doesn’t yield useful information. Even experienced researchers fail at least as often as they succeed. Be prepared to rethink how you might find the information. Don’t hesitate to ask reference librarians for help or to post questions on discussion boards.

Record your data carefully. Prepare the materials you will need. Write information down, on paper or electronically. Record interviews (with the respondents’ permission). Paste the URLs of the sites you visit into your notes. Bookmark sites so that you can return to them easily.

Triangulate your research methods. Triangulating your research methods means using more than one or two methods. If a manufacturer’s website says a printer produces 17 pages per minute, an independent review in a reputable journal also says 17, and you get 17 in a demo at your office with your documents, the printer probably will produce 17 pages per minute. When you need to answer important questions, don’t settle for only one or two sources.

If you are doing research for a document that will be read by people from other cultures, think about what kinds of evidence your readers will consider appropriate. In many nonWestern cultures, tradition or the authority of the person making the claim can be extremely important, in some cases more important than the kind of scientific evidence that is favored in Western cultures. And don’t forget that all people pay particular attention to information that comes from their own culture. If you are writing to European readers about telemedicine, for instance, try to find information from European authorities and about European telemedicine. This information will interest your readers and will likely reflect their cultural values and expectations.

Conducting Secondary Research When you conduct secondary research, you are Grammarly 14.8 Keygen - Crack Key For U to learn what experts have to say about a topic. Whether that expert is a world-famous scientist revising an earlier computer model about the effects of climate change on agriculture in Europe or the head of your Human Resources Department checking company records to see how the Affordable Care Act changed the way your company hired part-time workers, your goal is the same: to acquire the

best available information—the most accurate, most unbiased, most comprehensive, and most current. Sometimes you will do research in a library, particularly if you need specialized handbooks or access to online subscription services that are not freely available on the Internet. Sometimes you will do your research on the web. As a working professional, you might find much of the information you need in your organization’s information center. An information center is an organization’s library, a resource that collects different kinds of information critical to the organization’s operations. Many large organizations have specialists who can answer research questions or who can get articles or other kinds of data for you.

USING TRADITIONAL RESEARCH TOOLS There is a tremendous amount of information in the different media. The trick is to learn how to find what you want. This section discusses six basic research tools.

Online Catalogs An online catalog is a database of books, microform materials, films, compact discs, phonograph records, tapes, and other materials. In most cases, an online catalog lists and describes the holdings at one particular library or a group of libraries. Your college library has an online catalog of its holdings. To search for an item, consult the instructions, which explain how to limit your search by characteristics such as types of media, date of publication, and language. The instructions also explain how to use punctuation and words such as and, or, and not to focus your search effectively.

Reference Works Reference works include general dictionaries and encyclopedias, biographical dictionaries, almanacs, atlases, and dozens of other research tools. These print and online works are especially useful when you are beginning a research project because they provide an overview of the subject and often list the major works in the field.

How do you know if there is a dictionary of the terms used in a given field? The following reference books—the guides to the guides—list YTD Video Downloader Pro 7.3.7 Crack With Serial Key Free Download of the many resources available:  Hacker, D., and Fister, B. (2015). Research and documentation in the digital age (6th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s.  Kennedy, X. J., Kennedy, D. M., and Muth, M. F. (2014). The Bedford guide for college writers with reader, research manual, and handbook (10th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s.  Lester, R. (Ed.). (2008). The new Walford guide to reference resources (Vol. 1: Science, Technology and Medicine; Vol. 2: Social Sciences). London: Neal-Schuman. To find information on the web, go to the “reference” section of a library website or search engine. There you will find links to excellent collections of reference works online, such as Infomine and ipl2.

Periodical Indexes Periodicals are excellent sources of information because they offer recent, authoritative discussions of specific subjects. The biggest challenge in using periodicals is identifying and locating the dozens of articles relevant to any particular subject that are published each month. Although only half a dozen major journals might concentrate on your field, a useful article could appear in one of hundreds of other publications. A periodical index, which is a list of articles classified according to title, subject, and author, can help you determine which journals you want to locate. There are periodical indexes in all fields. The following brief list will give you a sense of the diversity of titles: 

Applied Science & Technology Index

Business Source Premier

Engineering Village

Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature

You can also use a directory search engine. Many directory categories include a subcategory called “journals” or “periodicals” that lists online and printed sources. Once you have created a bibliography of printed articles you want to study, you have to find them. Check your library’s online catalog, which includes all the journals your library receives. If your library does not have an article you want, you can use one of two techniques for securing it:

Interlibrary loan. Your library finds a library that has the article. That library scans the article and sends it to your library. This service can take more than a few days.

Document-delivery service. If you are in a hurry, you can log on to a document-delivery service, such as IngentaConnect, a free database of 5 million articles in 10,000 periodicals. There are also fee-based document-delivery services.

Newspaper Indexes Many major newspapers around the world are indexed by subject. The three most important indexed U.S. newspapers are 

the New York Times, perhaps the most reputable U.S. newspaper for national and international news

the Christian Science Monitor, another highly regarded general newspaper

the Wall Street Journal, an authoritative news source on business, finance, and the economy

Many newspapers available on the web can be searched electronically, although sometimes there is a charge for archived articles. Keep in mind that the print version and the electronic version of a newspaper can vary greatly. If you wish to quote from an article in a newspaper, be sure that your citation format references the medium you’re using. For more about abstracts, see Ch. 13.

Abstract Services Abstract services are like indexes but also provide abstracts: brief technical summaries of the articles. In most cases, reading the abstract will enable you to decide whether to seek out the full article. The title of an article alone can often mislead you about its contents. Some abstract services, such as Chemical Abstracts Service, cover a broad field, but many are specialized rather than general. Figure 5.1 shows an abstract from AnthroSource, an abstract service covering anthropology journals. Note that it provides statistical information about the full article that would not be evident from just reading the title.

Government Information The U.S. government is the world’s biggest publisher. In researching any field of science, engineering, or business, you are likely to find that a federal agency or department has produced a relevant brochure, report, or book. Government publications are cataloged and shelved separately from other kinds of materials. They are classified according to the Superintendent of Documents system, not the Library of Congress system. A reference librarian or a government-documents specialist at your library can help you use government publications. For more about RFPs, see Ch. 11. You can also access various government sites and databases on the Internet. For example, if your company wishes to respond to a request for proposals (RFP) published by a federal government agency, you will find that RFP on a government site. The major entry point for federal government sites is (, which links to hundreds of millions of pages of

government information and services. It also features tutorials, a topical index, online transactions, and links to state and local government sites.

USING SOCIAL MEDIA AND OTHER INTERACTIVE RESOURCES Social media and other interactive resources enable people to collaborate, share, link, and generate content in ways that traditional websites offering static content cannot. The result is an Internet that can harness the collective intelligence of people around the globe—and do so quickly. However, the ease and speed with which new content can be posted, as well as the lack of formal review of the content, creates challenges for people who do research on the Internet. Everyone using social-media resources must be extra cautious in evaluating and documenting sources. To watch a tutorial on using online tools to organize your research, go to LaunchPad. This discussion covers three categories of social media and web-based resources used by researchers—discussion forums, wikis, and blogs—as well as two techniques for streamlining the process of using these resources: tagged content and RSS.

Discussion Forums Online discussion forums sponsored by professional organizations, private companies, and others enable researchers to tap a community’s information. Discussion forums are especially useful for presenting quick, practical advice. However, the advice might or might not be authoritative. Figure 5.2 shows one interchange related to starting a business as a foreign national.

Wikis A wiki is a website that makes it easy for members of a community, company, or organization to create and edit content collaboratively. Often, a wiki contains articles, information about student and professional conferences, reading lists, annotated sets of links, book reviews, and documents used by members of the community. You might have participated in creating and maintaining a wiki in one of your courses or as a member of a community group outside of your college. Wikis are popular with researchers because they contain information that can change from day to day, on topics in fields such as medicine or business. In addition, because wikis rely on information contributed voluntarily by members of a community, they represent a much broader spectrum of viewpoints than media that publish only information that has been approved by editors. For this reason, however, you should be especially careful when you use wikis; the information they contain might not be trustworthy. It’s a good idea to corroborate any information you find on a wiki by consulting other sources. You can search wikis by using any search engine and adding the word “wiki” to the search. Or you can use a specialized search engine such as

Blogs Many technical and scientific organizations, universities, and private companies sponsor blogs that offer useful information for researchers. For more about blogs, see Ch. 9, “Writing Microblogs.” Keep in mind that bloggers are not always independent voices. A Hewlett- Packard employee writing on a company-sponsored blog will likely be presenting the company’s viewpoint on the topic. Don’t count on that blogger to offer objective views about products. Figure 5.3, a screen shot of a portion of NASA’s My Big Fat Planet blog, offers information that is likely to be credible, accurate, and timely.

Tagged Content Tags are descriptive keywords people use to categorize and label content such as blog entries, videos, podcasts, and images they post to the Internet or bookmarks they post to socialbookmarking sites. Tags can be one-word descriptors without spaces or punctuation (such as “sandiegozoo”) or multiword descriptors (such as “San Diego Zoo”). More and more socialmedia platforms, including Facebook and Twitter, have adopted the hashtag (#) as a way to tag an item to make it easier to find by searching.

RSS Feeds Repeatedly checking for new content on many different websites can be a time-consuming and haphazard way to research a topic. RSS (short for rich site summary or really simple syndication) technology allows readers to check just one place (such as a software program running on their computer or an email program) for alerts to new content posted on selected websites. Readers use a special type of software program called an RSS aggregator to be alerted by RSS feeds (notifications of new or changed

Information Technology


This document will guide you through the installation and activation of Microsoft Office for Mac 2011.

File Type

The downloaded IMG file contains the DMG file. DMG has all executable files contained within which should be used for installation.


Pre-Installation Instructions

Before installing Microsoft Office for Mac 2011:

  1. Download the software to your computer.

    Note: Double-click the .IMG icon. A virtual drive opens displaying a .DMG file.

  2. Locate the .IMG file you downloaded and copy it to your desktop.

  3. Double-click the .IMG icon. A virtual drive opens displaying a .DMG file.

You are now ready to install your software.

To install Microsoft Office for Mac 2011:

  1. Double-click the .DMG file. The Office Installer icon is displayed.

    Office 2011 for Mac Screenshot 1

  2. Double click the Office Installer icon. The Microsoft Office for Mac 2011 Installer launches.

    Office 2011 for Mac Screenshot 2

  3. Click the Continue button. The Software License Agreement window is displayed.

    Office 2011 for Mac Screenshot 3

  4. Read the license agreement and click the Continue button. The following window is displayed:‌

    Office 2011 for Mac Screenshot 4

  5. Click the Agree button.

  6. Click the Continue button. The Installation Type window is displayed.

    Office 2011 for Mac Screenshot 5

  7. Click the Install button. The Installer will continue the installation process until you receive the following message:

    Office 2011 for Mac Screenshot 6

  8. Click the Close button. The following window is displayed:

    Office 2011 for Mac Screenshot 7

  9. Click the Open button. The Activation window is displayed.

You are now ready to activate your software.

Activating Office for Mac 2011

Product activation is required to use your software. You will need the product key.

After you have installed your software, the Welcome to Office: Mac window is displayed.

Office 2011 for Mac Screenshot 8

To activate Microsoft Office for Mac 2011:

  1. Click the Enter your product key icon. The Software License Agreement is displayed.

    Office 2011 for Mac Screenshot 9

  2. Click the Continue button.

  3. Enter your product key and then click the Activate
    Office 2011 for Mac Screenshot 10

  4. Click the Continue button. The activation process is complete.

    Office 2011 for Mac Screenshot 11

You are now ready to start using your Office for Mac 2011 software.


To burn a file onto a disk:

  1. On your computer, insert the blank DVD disk into the DVD/CD ROM drive.

  2. In the Applications folder, open the Utilities folder.

  3. Click Disk Utility.

    Office 2011 for Mac Screenshot 12

  4. When the Disk Utility opens, the drives on your computer are displayed on the left side panel.

    Office 2011 for Mac Screenshot 13

  5. In the top left corner, click the Burn icon. The burning process begins.

    Office 2011 for Mac Screenshot 14

  6. Select the file that you want to burn. Usually, the file is in the Downloads folder.

    Office 2011 for Mac Screenshot 15

  7. In the bottom right corner, click the Burn button. A confirmation window is displayed.

    Office 2011 for Mac Screenshot 16

  8. Click the Burn button again. The burning of the disk begins. When the burning process is completed, the disk is ejected and the Disk Utility Progress window.

    Office 2011 for Mac Screenshot 17

  9. Click the OK button.

Copying files to a USB flash drive:

  1. On your computer, insert the USB flash drive into the USB port.

  2. Wait until an icon appears on the desktop with the name of the USB flash drive.

  3. Click and drag the file you want to copy onto the USB flash drive. The files are copied and placed on the USB flash drive.

  4. Right click the icon with the name of the USB flash drive and choose Eject. It is now safe to remove the device from the computer.

content from sites of interest to them).

EVALUATING THE INFORMATION You’ve taken notes, paraphrased, and quoted from your secondary research. Now, with more information than you can possibly use, you try to figure out what it all means. You realize that you still have some questions—that some of the information is incomplete, some contradictory, and some unclear. There is no shortage of information; the challenge is to find information that is accurate, unbiased, comprehensive, appropriately technical, current, and clear. For more about taking notes, paraphrasing, and quoting, see Appendix, Part A. 

Accurate. Suppose you are researching whether your company should consider flextime scheduling. If you estimate the number of employees who would be interested in flextime to be 500 but it is in fact closer to 50, inaccurate information will cause you to waste time doing an unnecessary study.

Unbiased. You want sources that have no financial stake in your project. A private company that transports workers in vans is likely to be a biased source because it could profit from flextime, making extra trips to bring employees to work at different times.

Comprehensive. You want information from different kinds of people—in terms of gender, cultural characteristics, and age—and from people representing all viewpoints on the topic.

Appropriately technical. Good information is sufficiently detailed to meet the needs of your readers, but not so detailed that they cannot understand it or do not need it. For the flextime study, you need to find out whether opening your building an hour earlier and closing it an hour later would significantly affect your utility costs. You can get this information by interviewing people in the Operations Department; you do not need to do a detailed inspection of all the utility records of the company.

Current. If your information is 10 or even 5 years old, it might not accurately reflect today’s situation.

Clear. You want information that is easy to understand. Otherwise, you’ll waste time figuring it out, and you might misinterpret it.

The most difficult kind of material to evaluate is user-generated content from the Internet—such as information on discussion forums or in blogs—because it rarely undergoes the formal review procedure used for books and professional journals. A general principle for using any information you find on the Internet is to be extremely careful. Because content is unlikely to have been reviewed before being published on a social-media site, use one or more trusted sources to confirm the information you locate. Some instructors do not allow their students to use blogs or wikis, including Wikipedia, for their research. Check with your instructor to learn his or her policies.

GUIDELINES Evaluating Print and Online Sources FOR PRINTED SOURCES


Do you recognize the name utorrent for pc the author? Does the source describe the author’s credentials and current position? If not, can you find this information in a “who’s who” or by searching for other books or other journal articles by the author?


If you do not recognize the author’s name, is the site mentioned on another reputable site? Does the site contain links to other reputable sites? Does it contain biographical information—the author’s current position and credentials? Can you use a search engine to find other references to the author’s credentials? Be especially careful with unedited sources such as Wikipedia; some articles in it are authoritative, others are not. Be careful, too, with blogs, some of which are written by disgruntled former employees with a score to settle.


What is the publisher’s reputation? A reliable book is published by a reputable trade, academic, or scholarly publisher; a reliable journal is sponsored by a professional association or university. Are the editorial board members well known? Trade publications—magazines about a particular industry or group—often promote the interests of that industry or group. For example, information in

Can you determine the publisher’s identity from headers or footers? Is the publisher reputable? If the site comes from a personal account, the information it offers might be outside the author’s field of expertise. Many Internet sites exist largely for public relations or advertising. For instance, websites of corporations and other organizations are unlikely to contain self-critical information. For blogs, examine the

a trade publication for either loggers or environmentalists might be biased. If you doubt the authority of a book or journal, ask a reference librarian or a professor.

Knowledge of the literature

Does the author appear to be knowledgeable about the major literature on the topic? Is there a bibliography? Are there notes throughout the document?

Analyze the Internet source as you would any other source. Often, references to other sources will take the form of links.

Accuracy and verifiability of the information

Is the information based on reasonable assumptions? Does the author clearly describe the methods and theories used in producing the information, and are they appropriate to the subject? Has the author used sound reasoning? Has the author explained the limitations of the information?

blogroll, a list of links to other blogs and websites. Credible blogs are likely to link to blogs already known to be credible. If a blog links only to the author’s friends, blogs hosted by the same corporation, or blogs that express the same beliefs, be very cautious.


BurnAware 14.9 Crack + Activation Latest Key Free Download 2022

BurnAware Professional Crack is a powerful CD, DVD, and BD disc burning solution intended for users who need maximum control over every aspect of the burning process and use multiple burners for mass-production of various discs and quick creation of disc-to-disc copies. It’s a solid piece of software that will help you cope with your daily burning tasks faster and more efficiently. The BurnAware Professional Patch enables users to create data discs (CD, DVD, Blu-Ray, bootable CD, and DVD discs) and discs with multimedia content (Audio CD, MP3 discs, and DVD video discs).

BurnAware 14.9 Crack will help you create and burn ISO images (ISO and CUE/BIN image files supported), erase rewritable discs, burn multisession discs and even extract specific files from disc sessions and tracks from Audio CDs. A simple and intuitive interface of the program will make even novices feel comfortable with the program features.

BurnAware Crack Free Download Here!

BurnAware 14.9 license key enables the users to create several discs with different categories and let them use the advanced and latest tools and features for the mass-production and creation of a variety of discs. The full version is available for free download. You can also download the torrent file with a serial. It helps you in creating and burning ISO images, erasing rewritable discs, extracting specific files from disc sessions, burning multisession discs, and much more that can be helpful for using it like a pro.


  • Burn Data, Bootable, and Multisession discs
  • Burn Audio, Video, and MP3 discs
  • BurnAware Create and burn ISO/CUE/BIN images
  • Copy discs to discs or to ISO images
  • Erase rewritable discs
  • Extract tracks from Audio CDs
  • Extract data from unreadable or multisession discs
  • Burn your files to CD, DVD, or Blu-ray Discs
  • Append or update Multisession discs
  • Create a Bootable CD or DVD
  • Create DVD-Video and BDMV discs
  • Make standard or boot disc images
  • Drive details
  • Create Audio CDs and MP3 discs
  • Copy disc to ISO image
  • Copy CD, DVD, or Blu-ray Discs
  • Bootable ISO Images burns various Disc Images
  • Erase or format rewritable disc
  • Burn data across multiple discs (disc spanning)
  • Extract files from multisession or corrupted discs
  • Write ISO to multiple recorders simultaneously

What’s New?

  • Option to convert audio files to a temporary folder before burning.
  • Option to use file names as track CD-Text in Audio CD compilation.
  • An additional method for audio playtime detection.
  • Updated translations and EULA.
  • Updated Options dialog in Audio CD compilation.
  • Improved audio tracks conversion in Audio CD compilation.
  • Optimized for 2880×1800 display resolution.
  • Minor user interface improvements.
  • Fixed bug with determining playtime for some audio tracks.

How to Crack?

  • First Downloadfrom the given link or button.
  • Uninstall the Previous Version with IObit Uninstaller Pro
  • Turn off the Virus Guard.
  • Then extract the WinRAR file and open the folder.
  • Run the setup and close it from everywhere.
  • Open the “Crack” or “Patch” file, copy and paste into the installation directory and run.
  • Or use the serial key to activate the Program.
  • All done enjoy the BurnAware ProfessionalLatest Version 2022.

BurnAware Serial Key:


BurnAware License Key:


BurnAware 2022 Key:


Best Summary:

BurnAware Premium Crack covers all daily burning tasks such as disc burning, backup, verification, image creation, copying, erasing, data recovery, audio track extraction.


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