shelter food pyramid

Simplified Maslow Pyramid. So, which are the parts that make up this human survival needs hierarchy? air; water; food; shelter; safety. With the food pyramid as inspiration, she created the “community cat pyramid.” but the number of owned adult cats coming into area shelters wasn't. needs (such as the need for air, water, food, shelter, etc. Maslow's hierarchy is commonly depicted as a pyramid such as the one.

Shelter food pyramid -

Maslow's theory of human needs and child development

There are many theories about healthy development and how to care for young children. One of of these particular development models is Maslow's theory of human needs. Originally based upon five key hierarchical stages created by the psychologist Abraham Maslow, these stages help parents and teachers understand how to best take care of young children and their specific needs.

The five stages are typically shown as a pyramid. On the base level, biological and physiological needs must first be met before the children can advance to any other level. Some of these needs include basic rights such as food, drink, warmth, shelter, and sleep. For example, if children are hungry or tired, they have a far more difficult time concentrating on more complex situations. This is why it is wise to attend to these requirements first, before encouraging them to play, listen to a story, complete work, or engage in other activities.

Safety is the second stage and deals with the need for stability, security, protection, and freedom from fear. Once a child's initial needs are met, they may be more aware of their additional needs in this stage. This awareness manifests itself in areas such as separation anxiety or uncertainty about new activities.

The next, love and belongingness, deals with affection, love, and friendship. Here, children will be able to make friends or connect with their loved ones at home. Furthermore, the fourth stage, esteem, revolves around children's needs to gain independence, self-respect or achievements. This is where children benefit from being praised for their work or being able to accomplish something on their own, like tie their shoes or eat their snack.

Finally, self-actualization is more complicated and difficult for very young children to reach. This deals with realization of personal potential or self-fulfillment. This develops over time and deals with a sense of contentment with one's self and situation, which is challenging for young children to comprehend.

At ProSolutions Training, we offer online child care courses, such as "Understanding Child Development: Maslow's Theory of Human Needs," for interested professionals wanting to learn more about their field.

Источник: https://www.prosolutionstraining.com/resources/articles/maslows-theory-of-human-needs-and-child-development.cfm

maslow-hierarchy-human-needs

Abraham Maslow postulated that humans have an ascending order of needs and used a hierarchal pyramid to prioritize them. At the bottom levels of the pyramid are our physiological needs—like food, shelter, and clothing—that we need to survive. As these needs are met, progressively higher needs present themselves: safety and security, social interaction, and self-esteem, all topped by self-actualization, a term Maslow used to describe the ultimate human need to learn, grow, and reach one’s full potential.

Physiological Needs

These needs can be divided into two categories:

1.The first category is made up of needs that are homeostatic—the need to maintain an internal, biological balance—and include such things as salt concentration, sugar concentration, and water concentration in the blood. If a substance is out of balance, there will be a desire to consume foods that bring these levels back into balance.

2.The second category includes those needs that are not homeostatic, such as sleep and sex.

Both of these categories are deeply rooted in the biological systems of the body. More importantly, if one were to strip a person of material possessions and psychological identity, physiological needs would be the primary driver of that person’s behavior. All actions would be directed at satisfying basic needs, and the person would seek an environment to satisfy these needs. Near a large bike rally, Wal-Mart noticed that for temperatures above 88 degrees, beer sales went down and water sales went up.

In modern societies, it is rare for anyone to experience this level of physiological-driven motivation. It would be even rarer to find an individual who is completely dissatisfied for an extended duration of time.

Safety Needs

Once physiological needs are satisfied, safety needs emerge. These include the need for security and stability. If you were to strip someone of everything but his or her physiological needs, safety needs would become the primary motivator, but not with the same sense of urgency as physiological needs.

As with physiological needs, modern society ensures that safety needs are sufficiently satisfied for the vast majority of adults. Safety needs occur on smaller scales and are seen in people’s desires for certainty: job stability and insurance policies—a general preference for the known over the unknown.

Belongingness and Love Needs

When physiological and safety needs are met, belonging needs emerge. These include the need for affection, relationships, and belongingness, as to a group. In daily life, people exhibit these needs in their desire to marry, have a family, be a part of a community, a member of a church, a brother in a fraternity, a member of a gang, or a member of a bowling club. Belonging is also a part of what they look for in a career.

It is at this level that the support and social structure of modern society becomes insufficient to fulfill a person’s needs. Modern society shows its fragmentation in the breakdown of traditional groups. Increased mobility has left many feeling disconnected and unfulfilled. The importance of neighborhoods and families to an individual’s well-being has been overlooked. Moreover, there’s no indication this fragmentation is going to slow down. Maslow cited these unmet needs as being the primary cause for mental disorders. He commented, “We have largely forgotten our deep animal tendencies to herd, to flock, to join, to belong.” This need reveals why consumers choose to be part of brands that offer them connection and belonging, such as Jimmy Buffett’s Parrotheads or Harley-Davidson’s H.O.G.

Esteem Needs

Maslow divided the next level in the hierarchy into two categories: the need for esteem from others and the need for self-esteem. The need for esteem from others is met externally and includes the desire for status and dominance, while the need for self-esteem is met internally and includes the want of independence and mastery.

Maslow believed the healthiest way to satisfy esteem needs was to have both internal and external esteem needs met as a result of a person’s authentic nature, so that any respect gained would be merited rather than derived from the presentation of a false self.

Self-Actualization

At the top of the hierarchy is the need for self-actualization. By this, Maslow meant the need to be what one has the potential to become. In Motivation and Personality, Maslow wrote, “Musicians must make music, artists must paint, poets must write if they are ultimately to be at peace with themselves. What humans can be they must be. They must be true to their own nature. This need we may call self-actualization … It refers to people’s desire for self-fulfillment, namely, the tendency for them to become actualized in what they are potentially.”

At this level, the needs lower in the hierarchy are satisfied, and, therefore, cease to motivate the individual. However, the need for self-actualization cannot be satisfied, and any satisfaction that is gained only serves to further motivate the individual.

Источник: https://cultbranding.com/ceo/maslows-hierarchy-of-human-needs/
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  • Further reading[edit]

    • Heylighen, Francis (1992). "A cognitive-systemic reconstruction of Maslow's theory of self-actualization"(PDF). Behavioral Science. 37 (1): 39–58. doi:10.1002/bs.3830370105.
    • Koltko-Rivera, Mark E. (2006). "Rediscovering the later version of Maslow's hierarchy of needs: Self-transcendence and opportunities for theory, research, and unification". Review of General Psychology 10.4: 302.
    • Kress, Oliver (1993). "A new approach to cognitive development: ontogenesis and the process of initiation". Evolution and Cognition. 2 (4): 319–332.
    • Maslow, Abraham H. (1993). "Theory Z". In Abraham H. Maslow, The farther reaches of human nature (pp. 270–286). New York: Arkana (first published Viking, 1971). Reprinted from Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 1969, 1(2), 31–47.

    External links[edit]

    Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow%27s_hierarchy_of_needs

    Human motivation can be defined as the fulfillment of various needs. These needs can encompass a range of human desires, from basic, tangible needs of survival to complex, emotional needs surrounding an individual’s psychological well-being.

    Abraham Maslow was a social psychologist who was interested in a broad spectrum of human psychological needs rather than on individual psychological problems. He is best known for his hierarchy-of-needs theory. Depicted in a pyramid (shown in Figure 1, below), the theory organizes the different levels of human psychological and physical needs in order of importance.

    The needs in Maslow’s hierarchy include physiological needs (food and clothing), safety needs (job security), social needs (friendship), self-esteem, and self-actualization. This hierarchy can be used by managers to better understand employees’ needs and motivation and address them in ways that lead to high productivity and job satisfaction.

    At the bottom of the pyramid are the physiological (or basic) human needs that are required for survival: food, shelter, water, sleep, etc. If these requirements are not met, the body cannot continue to function. Faced with a lack of food, love, and safety, most people would probably consider food to be their most urgent need.

    Once physical needs are satisfied, individual safety takes precedence. Safety and security needs include personal security, financial security, and health and well-being. These first two levels are important to the physical survival of the person. Once individuals have basic nutrition, shelter, and safety, they seek to fulfill higher-level needs.

    The third level of need is love and belonging, which are psycho-social needs; when individuals have taken care of themselves physically, they can address their need to share and connect with others. Deficiencies at this level, on account of neglect, shunning, ostracism, etc., can impact an individual’s ability to form and maintain emotionally significant relationships. Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes from a large social group or a small network of family and friends. Other sources of social connection may be professional organizations, clubs, religious groups, social media sites, and so forth. Humans need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. Without these attachments, people can be vulnerable to psychological difficulties such as loneliness, social anxiety, and depression (and these conditions, when severe, can impair a person’s ability to address basic physiological needs such as eating and sleeping).

    The fourth level is esteem, which represents the normal human desire to be valued and validated by others, through, for example, the recognition of success or status. This level also includes self-esteem, which refers to the regard and acceptance one has for oneself. Imbalances at this level can result in low self-esteem or an inferiority complex. People suffering from low self-esteem may find that external validation by others—through fame, glory, accolades, etc.—only partially or temporarily fulfills their needs at this level.

    At the top of the pyramid is self-actualization. At this stage, people feel that they have reached their full potential and are doing everything they’re capable of. Self-actualization is rarely a permanent feeling or state. Rather, it refers to the ongoing need for personal growth and discovery that people have throughout their lives. Self-actualization may occur after reaching an important goal or overcoming a particular challenge, and it may be marked by a new sense of self-confidence or contentment.

    Hierarchy of Needs and Organizational Theory

    Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is relevant to organizational theory because both are concerned with human motivation. Understanding what people need—and how people’s needs differ—is an important part of effective management. For example, some people work primarily for money (and fulfill their other needs elsewhere), but others like to go to work because they enjoy their coworkers or feel respected by others and appreciated for their good work. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs suggests that if a lower need is not met, then the higher ones will be ignored. For example, if employees lack job security and are worried that they will be fired, they will be far more concerned about their financial well-being and meeting lower needs (paying rent, bills, etc.) than about friendships and respect at work. However, if employees receive adequate financial compensation (and have job security), meaningful group relationships and praise for good work may be more important motivators.

    When needs aren’t met, employees can become very frustrated. For example, if someone works hard for a promotion and doesn’t get the recognition it represents, she may lose motivation and put in less effort. Also, when a need is met, it will no longer serve a motivating function—the next level up in the needs hierarchy will become more important. From a management point of view, keeping one’s employees motivated can seem like something of a moving target. People seldom fit neatly into pyramids or diagrams, and their needs are complicated and often change over time. For example, Maria is a long-time employee who is punctual, does high-quality work, and is well liked by her coworkers. However, her supervisor begins to notice that she is coming in late and seems distracted at work. He concludes that Maria is bored with her job and wants to leave. When he calls her into his office for her semiannual performance appraisal, he brings up these matters. To his surprise and chagrin, the supervisor learns that Maria’s husband lost his job six months ago and, unable to keep up with mortgage payments, the two have been living in a local hotel. Maria has moved down the needs pyramid, and, if the supervisor wants to be an effective manager, he must adapt the motivational approaches he uses with her. In short, a manager’s best strategy is to recognize this complexity and try to remain attuned to what employees say they need.

    Источник: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wmintrobusiness/chapter/reading-need-based-motivation-theories/

    Blog

    “How would it look to apply the principles of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to food management?”

    That's the opening sentence by Ellyn Satter in a 2007 article in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior.  She writes:

    “Abraham Maslow arranged basic needs in order of sequential importance to the individual and taught that needs at each level must be satisfied before the individual can become aware of and address the next level of need. From the foundation through the apex on Maslow’s pyramid-shaped Hierarchy of Needs, they are: (1) physiological needs: air, water, food, shelter, sleep, sex; (2) safety, security and order; (3) social affection: love and belongingness; (4) esteem, status: self-esteem and esteem by others; and (5) self-actualization: being all the individual can be.”

    She then proposes (without any data or evidence I might add), the following hierarchy of food needs.

    foodneeds.JPG

    Satter argues this hierarchy is important to understand for nutrition educators who should: 

    “join with individuals right where they are. For those whose most pressing concern is getting
    enough to eat, help them choose dependably filling and satisfying food. Address energy inadequacy by endorsing adding fat—butter, oil, or salad dressing—to vegetables and grains and using whole milk. Point out the nutritional value of preferred food items, and suggest additional low-cost food items that are both energy dense and nutritious. But avoid prioritizing food selection based nutritional considerations alone. Doing so is realistic only for people who are functioning at the apex of Satter’s Hierarchy of Food Needs.”

    To what extent is this "model" true?  A few weeks ago, I compared the food values for the rich and poor, which provided some support.  But, even that data suggests taste, safety, price, and nutrition are top four food values (out of 12 total values) for both low and high income.  The ranking for high income is taste, nutrition, safety, and price and for low income is price, taste, safety, and nutrition; factors like fairness, novelty, and origin were ranked last for both high and low income groups.  It would be interesting to see studies comparing income elasticities of demand for foods that fit the above criteria.  However, the above model doesn't necessarily suggest income is the main driver - only that one has to meet a "lower" need, via whatever means, before another "higher" need is met.    

    Источник: http://jaysonlusk.com/blog/2017/10/30/heirarchy-of-food-needs

    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Md7

    Overview of Maslow’s Hierarchy

    Psychologist Abraham Maslow theorized that all human behavior is motivated by the drive to satisfy five essential human needs, which are satisfied in the following prescribed order: Basic Physiological Needs, Safety Needs, Love and Belonging, Esteem, and Self-Actualization.  

    Because people often spend more time fulfilling initial needs (such as the need for air, water, food, shelter, etc. –Basic Physiological Needs) before they can address the needs that follow (such as the need for personal security, order, and stability, etc. – Safety Needs), Maslow’s hierarchy is commonly depicted as a pyramid such as the one shown above, with each hierarchy shown as increasing smaller levels of the pyramid.  Someone who has met their physiological and safety needs may ascend up the pyramid towards friendship and a sense of connection (Love and Belonging), then towards respect, self-confidence, status (Esteem), and may eventually achieve their full potential in creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, acceptance of facts, etc. (Self-Actualization).

    Every person is capable and has the desire to move up the hierarchy toward a level of self-actualization.  Unfortunately, progress is often disrupted by a failure to meet lower level needs. Life experiences, [such as the] loss of a job, may cause an individual to fluctuate between levels of the hierarchy.

    Maslow theorized that with respect to the first four levels, often referred to as deficiency needs (D-Needs), the motivation to meet these needs become stronger the greater the period they are denied.  For example, the longer a person goes without food, the hungrier they become.

    With respect to the final level of the hierarchy, self-actualization, often referred to as growth or being needs (B-Needs), fulfillment is not driven by a lack of something, but rather from a desire for personal growth.  “When a deficit need has been ‘more or less’ satisfied it will go away, and our activities become habitually directed towards meeting the next set of needs that we have yet to satisfy. These then become our salient needs. However, growth needs continue to be felt and may even become stronger once they have been engaged.”

    What does this have to do with Md7?

    Md7 strives to create a culture where each team member has the support and resources to reach the top of Maslow’s pyramid: self-actualization.  This is where motivation increases as individuals desire to reach their full personal potential. However, achieving this is easier said than done.  

    Whether we work at Md7 or the proverbial salt mines, the first two needs at the bottom of the pyramid—Physiological and Safety—can be met by simply having a job and using your paycheck to acquire these most basic desires.

    As we climb up the pyramid, the Md7 Core Value of “Respect for the Individual” is an effort to create a culture that meets Maslow’s third and fourth needs: Love and Belonging and Esteem.  Through our effort to treat each person with respect—a form of love—we build friendships, family, social groups, and intimacy that all eventually lead to confidence and self-esteem in our team members.

    Finally, as one transitions from Esteem to Self-Actualization, our D-Needs decrease and our B-Needs increase.  We become motivated to discover our individual and collective potential. Md7 hopes each team member will reach the top of Maslow’s pyramid, not just to help Md7 grow but also because it is fun and motivating to see people deeply fulfilled.

    Source: McLeod, S. A. (2018, May 21). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html – which is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 3.0.

    January 15, 2019
    MD7

    MD7 is on a mission to help connect the world through mobile technology, impacting the lives of people and communities around the globe.

    Bio
    Источник: https://www.md7.com/perspectives/maslows-hierarchy-of-needs-and-md7/

    You can watch a thematic video

    maslow-hierarchy-human-needs

    Abraham Maslow postulated that humans have an ascending order of needs and used a hierarchal pyramid to prioritize them. At the bottom levels of the pyramid are our physiological needs—like food, shelter, and clothing—that we need to survive. As these needs are met, progressively higher needs present themselves: safety and security, social interaction, and self-esteem, all topped by self-actualization, a term Maslow used to describe the ultimate human need to learn, grow, and reach one’s full potential.

    Physiological Needs

    These needs can be divided into two categories:

    1.The first category is made up of needs that are homeostatic—the need to maintain an internal, biological balance—and include such things as salt concentration, sugar concentration, and water concentration in the blood. If a substance is out of balance, there will be a desire to consume foods that bring these levels back into balance.

    2.The second category includes those needs that are not homeostatic, such as sleep and sex.

    Both of these categories are deeply rooted in the biological systems of the body. More importantly, if one were to strip a person of material possessions and psychological identity, physiological needs would be the primary driver of that person’s behavior. All actions would be directed at satisfying basic needs, and the person would seek an environment to satisfy these needs. Near a large bike rally, Wal-Mart noticed walmart money card number for temperatures above 88 degrees, beer sales went down and water sales went up.

    In modern societies, it is rare for anyone to experience this level of physiological-driven motivation. It would be even rarer to find an individual who is completely dissatisfied for an extended duration of time.

    Safety Needs

    Once physiological needs are satisfied, safety needs emerge. These include the need for security boone county mo employment stability. If you were to strip someone of everything but his or her physiological needs, safety needs would become the primary motivator, but not with the same sense of urgency as physiological needs.

    As with physiological needs, modern society ensures that safety needs are sufficiently satisfied for the vast majority of adults. Safety needs occur on smaller scales and are seen in people’s desires for certainty: job stability and insurance policies—a general preference for the known over the unknown.

    Belongingness and Love Needs

    When physiological and safety needs are met, belonging needs emerge. These include the need for affection, relationships, and belongingness, as to a group. In daily life, people exhibit these needs in their desire to marry, have a family, be a part of a community, a member of a church, a brother in a fraternity, a member of a gang, or a member of a bowling club. Belonging is also a part of what they look for in a career.

    It is at this level that the support and social structure of modern society becomes insufficient to fulfill a person’s needs. Modern society shows its fragmentation in the breakdown of traditional groups. Increased mobility has left many feeling disconnected and unfulfilled. The importance of neighborhoods and families to an individual’s well-being has been overlooked. Moreover, there’s no indication this fragmentation is going to slow down. Maslow cited these unmet needs as being the primary cause for mental disorders. He commented, “We have largely forgotten our deep animal tendencies to herd, to flock, to join, to belong.” This need reveals why consumers choose to be part of brands that offer them connection and belonging, such as Jimmy Buffett’s Parrotheads or Harley-Davidson’s H.O.G.

    Esteem Needs

    Maslow divided the next level in the hierarchy into two categories: the need for esteem from others and the need for self-esteem. The need for esteem from others is met externally and includes the desire for status and dominance, while the need for self-esteem shelter food pyramid met internally shelter food pyramid includes the want of independence and mastery.

    Maslow believed the healthiest way to satisfy esteem needs was to have both internal and external esteem needs met as a result of a person’s authentic nature, so that any respect gained would be merited rather than derived from the presentation of a false self.

    Self-Actualization

    At the top of the hierarchy is the need for self-actualization. By this, Maslow meant the need to be what one has the potential to become. In Motivation and Personality, Maslow wrote, “Musicians must make music, artists must paint, poets must write if they are ultimately to be at peace with themselves. What humans can be they must be. They must be true to their own nature. This need we may call self-actualization … It refers to people’s desire for self-fulfillment, namely, the tendency for them to become actualized in what they are potentially.”

    At this level, the needs lower in the hierarchy are satisfied, and, therefore, cease to motivate the individual. However, the need for self-actualization cannot be satisfied, and any satisfaction that is gained only serves to further motivate the individual.

    Источник: https://cultbranding.com/ceo/maslows-hierarchy-of-human-needs/

    synonyms for food pyramid

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    And I have not had the first morsel of food prepared from this grain offered me since I reached the shores of Europe.

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    Human motivation can be defined as the fulfillment of various needs. These needs can encompass a range of human desires, from basic, tangible needs of survival to complex, emotional needs surrounding an individual’s psychological well-being.

    Abraham Maslow was a social psychologist who was interested in a broad spectrum of human psychological needs rather than on individual psychological problems. He is best known for his hierarchy-of-needs theory. Depicted in a pyramid (shown in Figure 1, below), the theory organizes the different levels of human psychological and physical needs in order of importance.

    The needs in Maslow’s hierarchy download dreamworks dragons riders of berk physiological needs (food and clothing), safety needs (job security), social needs (friendship), self-esteem, and self-actualization. This hierarchy can be used by managers to better understand employees’ needs and motivation and address them in ways that lead to high productivity and job satisfaction.

    At the bottom of the pyramid are the physiological (or basic) human needs that are required for survival: food, shelter, water, sleep, etc. If these requirements are not met, the body cannot continue to function. Faced with a lack of food, love, and safety, most people would probably consider food to be their most urgent need.

    Once physical needs are satisfied, individual safety takes precedence. Safety and security needs include personal security, financial security, and health and well-being. These first two levels are important to the physical survival of the person. Once individuals have basic nutrition, shelter, and safety, they seek to fulfill higher-level needs.

    The third level of need is love and belonging, which are psycho-social needs; when individuals have taken care of themselves physically, they can address their need to share and connect with others. Deficiencies at this level, on account of neglect, shunning, ostracism, etc., can impact an individual’s ability to form and maintain emotionally significant relationships. Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes from a large social group or a small network of family and friends. Other sources of social connection may be professional organizations, clubs, religious groups, social media sites, and so forth. Humans need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. Without these attachments, people can be vulnerable to psychological difficulties such as loneliness, social anxiety, and depression (and these conditions, when severe, can impair a person’s ability to address basic physiological needs such as eating and sleeping).

    The fourth level is esteem, which represents the normal human desire to be valued and validated by others, through, for example, the recognition of success or status. This level also includes self-esteem, which refers to the regard and acceptance one has for oneself. Imbalances at this level can result in low self-esteem or an shelter food pyramid complex. People suffering from low self-esteem may find that external validation by others—through fame, glory, accolades, etc.—only partially or temporarily fulfills their needs at this level.

    At the top of the pyramid is self-actualization. At this stage, people feel that they have reached their full potential and are doing everything they’re capable of. Self-actualization is rarely a permanent feeling or state. Rather, it refers to the ongoing need for personal growth and discovery that people have throughout their lives. Self-actualization may occur after reaching an important goal or overcoming a particular challenge, and it may be marked by a new sense of self-confidence or contentment.

    Hierarchy of Needs and Organizational Theory

    Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is relevant to organizational theory because both are concerned with human motivation. Understanding what people need—and how people’s needs differ—is an important part of effective management. For example, some people work primarily for money (and fulfill their other needs elsewhere), but others like to go to work because they enjoy their coworkers or feel respected by others and appreciated for their good work. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs suggests that if a lower need is not met, then the higher ones will be ignored. For example, if employees lack job security and are worried that they will be fired, they will be far more concerned about their financial well-being and meeting lower needs (paying rent, bills, etc.) than about friendships and respect at work. However, if employees receive adequate financial compensation (and have job security), meaningful group relationships and praise for good work may be more important motivators.

    When needs aren’t met, employees can become very frustrated. For example, if someone works hard for a promotion and doesn’t get the recognition it represents, she may lose motivation and put in less effort. Also, when a need is met, it will no longer serve a motivating function—the next level up in the needs hierarchy will become more important. From a management point of view, keeping one’s employees motivated can seem like something of a moving target. People seldom fit neatly into pyramids or diagrams, and their needs are complicated and often change over time. For example, Maria is a long-time employee who is punctual, does high-quality work, and is well liked by her coworkers. However, her supervisor begins to notice that she is coming in late and seems distracted at work. He concludes that Maria is bored with her job and wants to leave. When he calls her into shelter food pyramid office for her semiannual performance appraisal, he brings up these matters. To his surprise and chagrin, the supervisor learns that Maria’s husband lost his job six months ago and, unable to keep up with mortgage payments, the two have been living in a local hotel. Maria has moved down the needs pyramid, and, if the supervisor wants to be an effective manager, he must adapt the motivational approaches he uses with her. In short, a manager’s best strategy is to recognize this complexity and try to remain attuned to what employees say they need.

    Источник: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wmintrobusiness/chapter/reading-need-based-motivation-theories/

    Maslow's theory of human needs and child development

    There are many theories about healthy development and how to care for young children. One of of these particular development models is Maslow's theory of human needs. Originally based upon five key hierarchical stages created by the psychologist Abraham Maslow, these stages help parents and teachers understand how to best take care of young children and their specific needs.

    The five stages are typically shown as a pyramid. On the base level, biological and physiological needs must first be met before the children can advance to any other level. Some of these needs include basic rights such as food, drink, warmth, shelter, and sleep. For example, if children are hungry or tired, they have a far more difficult time concentrating on more complex situations. This is why it is wise to attend to these requirements first, before encouraging them to play, listen to a story, complete work, or engage in other activities.

    Safety is the second stage and deals with the need for stability, security, protection, and freedom from fear. Once a child's initial needs are met, they may be more aware of their additional needs in this stage. This awareness manifests itself in areas such as separation anxiety or uncertainty about new activities.

    The next, love and belongingness, deals with affection, love, and friendship. Here, children will be able to make friends or connect with their loved ones at home. Furthermore, the fourth stage, esteem, revolves around children's needs to gain independence, self-respect or achievements. This is where children benefit from being praised for their work or being able to accomplish something on their own, like tie their shoes or eat their snack.

    Finally, self-actualization is more complicated and difficult for very young children to reach. This deals with realization of personal potential or self-fulfillment. This develops over time and deals with a sense of contentment with one's self and situation, which is challenging for young children to comprehend.

    At ProSolutions Training, we offer online child care courses, such as "Understanding Child Development: Maslow's Theory of Human Needs," for interested professionals wanting to learn more about their field.

    Источник: https://www.prosolutionstraining.com/resources/articles/maslows-theory-of-human-needs-and-child-development.cfm

    Maslow's hierarchy of needs

    Theory in developmental psychology

    Maslow's hierarchy of needs is often represented as a pyramid, with the more basic needs at the bottom[1][2]

    Maslow's hierarchy of needs is an idea in psychology proposed by American Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in the journal Psychological Review.[3] Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. He then created a classification system which reflected the universal needs of society as its base and then proceeding to more acquired emotions.[4] His theories, including the hierarchy, may have been influenced by teachings and philosophy of the Blackfeet tribe, where he spent several weeks prior to writing his influential paper.[5] The hierarchy of needs is split between deficiency needs and growth needs. The theory is usually shown as a triangle in illustrations.

    The hierarchy of needs is a psychological idea but also a ". valuable assessment tool . ".[6] This tool is utilized in many fields that involve working and taking care of people such as but not limited to: health care workers, educators, social workers, life skill coaches, and many more. Maslow's hierarchy pyramid is frequently used because it visualizes the needs that one must have met in order to reach self-actualization. This concept was created as Maslow "studied and observed monkeys . south florida state college panther central their unusual pattern of behavior that addressed priorities based on individual needs".[6] The two key elements involved within this theory is the individual and the priority, which connects them to intrinsic behavioral motivation.

    Maslow's hierarchy of needs is used to study how humans intrinsically partake in behavioral motivation. Maslow prefab shipping container homes for sale in north carolina the terms "physiological", "safety", "belonging and love", "social needs" or "esteem", and "self-actualization" to describe the pattern through shelter food pyramid human motivations generally move. This means that in order for motivation to arise at the next stage, each stage must be satisfied within the individual themselves. Additionally, this hierarchy is a main base in knowing how effort and motivation are correlated when discussing human behavior. Each of these individual levels contains a certain amount of internal sensation that must be met in order for an individual to complete their hierarchy.[4] The goal in Maslow's hierarchy is to attain the fifth level or stage: self-actualization.[7]

    Maslow's idea was fully expressed in his 1954 book Motivation and Personality.[8] The hierarchy remains a very popular framework in sociology research, management training[9] and secondary and higher psychology instruction. Maslow's classification hierarchy has been revised over time. The original hierarchy states that a lower level must be completely satisfied and fulfilled before moving onto a higher pursuit. However, today scholars prefer to think of these levels as continuously overlapping each other. This means that the lower levels may take precedence back over the other levels at any point in time.[4]

    Stages[edit]

    Alternative illustration as a dynamic hierarchy of needs with overlaps of different needs at the same time
    Simplified hierarchy of needs

    Maslow's hierarchy of needs is often portrayed in the shape of a pyramid, with the largest, most fundamental needs at the bottom, and the need for self-actualization and transcendence at the top. In other words, the idea is that individuals' most basic needs must be met before they become motivated to achieve higher-level needs.[1][10] However, it has been pointed out that, although the ideas behind the hierarchy are Maslow's, the pyramid itself does not exist anywhere in Maslow's original work.[11]

    The most fundamental four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "d-needs": esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs. If these "deficiency needs" are not met – except for the most fundamental (physiological) need – there may not be a physical indication, but the individual will feel anxious and tense. Deprivation is what causes deficiency, so when one has needs are unmet, this motivates them to fulfill what they are being denied.[12] Maslow's idea suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire (or focus motivation upon) the secondary or higher-level needs. Maslow also coined the term "metamotivation" to describe the motivation of people who go beyond the scope of the basic needs and strive for constant betterment.[13]

    The human brain is a complex system and has parallel processes running at the same time, thus many different motivations from various levels of Maslow's hierarchy can occur at the same time. Maslow spoke clearly about these levels and their satisfaction in terms such as "relative", "general", and "primarily". Instead of stating that the individual focuses on a certain need at any given time, Maslow stated that a certain need "dominates" the human organism.[8] Thus Maslow acknowledged the likelihood that the different levels of motivation could occur at any time in the human mind, but he focused on identifying the basic types of motivation and the order in which they would tend to be met.[14]

    Physiological needs[edit]

    Physiological needs are the base of the hierarchy. These needs are the biological component for human survival. According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, physiological needs are factored in internal motivation. According to Maslow's theory, humans are compelled to satisfy physiological needs first in order to pursue higher levels of intrinsic satisfaction.[3] In order to advance higher-level needs in Maslow's hierarchy, physiological needs must be met first. This means that if a person is struggling to meet their physiological needs, they are unwilling to seek safety, belonging, esteem, and self-actualization on their own.

    Physiological needs include:

    These physiological needs must be met in order for the human body to remain in homeostasis. Without air, there is not much that the human body can do without this physiological element, which is why these needs are critical in order to ". meet the very basic essentials of life ." [16] This allows for cravings such as hunger and thirst to be satisfied and not disrupt regulation of the body.

    Safety needs[edit]

    Once a person's physiological needs are satisfied, their safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. In the absence of physical safety – due to war, natural disaster, family violence, childhood abuse, etc. and/or in the absence of economic safety – (due to an economic crisis and lack of work opportunities) these safety needs manifest themselves in ways such as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, disability accommodations, etc. This level is more likely to predominate in children as they generally have a greater need to feel safe - especially children that have disabilities. [17]Adults are also impacted by this, typically in economic matters, ". adults are not immune to the need of safety".[18] It includes shelter, job security, health, and safe environments. If a person does not feel safe in an environment, they will seek safety before attempting to meet any higher level of survival. This is why the ". goal of consistently meeting the need for safety is to have stability in one's life",[19] stability brings back the concept of homeostasis for humans which our bodies need.

    Safety needs include:

    Love and social belonging needs[edit]

    After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third level of human needs is interpersonal and involves feelings of belongingness. According to Maslow, humans possess shelter food pyramid effective need for a sense of belonging and acceptance among social groups, regardless of whether these groups are large or small; being a part of a group is crucial, regardless if it is work, sports, friends or family.[20] The sense of belongingness is "being comfortable with and connection to others that results from receiving acceptance, respect, and love". [21] For example, some large social groups may include clubs, co-workers, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs, and online communities. Some examples of small social connections include family members, intimate partners, mentors, colleagues, and confidants. Humans need to love and be loved – both sexually and non-sexually – by others.[3] Many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression in the absence of this love or belonging element. This need is especially strong in childhood and it can override the need for safety as witnessed in children who cling to abusive parents. Deficiencies due to hospitalism, neglect, shunning, ostracism, etc. can adversely affect the individual's ability to form and maintain emotionally significant relationships in general. Mental health can be a huge factor when it comes to an individual's needs and development. When an individual's needs are not met, it can cause depression during adolescence. When an individual grows up in a higher-income family, it is much more likely that they will have a lower rate of depression. This is because all of their basic needs are met. Studies have shown that when a family goes through financial stress for a prolonged amount of time, depression rates are higher, not only because their basic needs are not being met, but because this stress puts a strain on the parent-child relationship. The parent(s) is stressed about providing for their children, and they are also likely to spend less time at home because they are working more to make more money and provide for their family.[22]

    Social belonging needs include:

    This need for belonging may overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure. In contrast, for some individuals, the need for self-esteem is more important than the need for belonging; and for others, the need for creative fulfillment may supersede even the most basic needs.[23]

    Esteem needs[edit]

    Esteem is amazon airpods discount code respect and admiration of a person, but also ". self-respect and respect from others". [24] Most people have a need for a stable esteem, meaning which is soundly based on real capacity or achievement. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs. The "lower" version of esteem is the need for respect from others, and may include a need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The "higher" version of esteem is the need for self-respect, and can include a need for strength, competence,[4] mastery, self-confidence, independence, and freedom. This "higher" version takes guidelines, the "hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated".[8] This means that esteem and the subsequent levels are not strictly separated; instead, the levels are closely related.

    Esteem comes from day to day experiences, that provide a learning opportunity which allows us to discover ourselves. This is incredibly important within children, which is why giving them ". the opportunity to discover they are competent and capable learners". [25] In order to boost this adults must provide opportunities for children to have successful and positive experiences to give children a greater ". sense of self". [26] Adults, especially parents and educators must create and ensure an environment for children that is supportive and provides them with opportunities that "helps children see themselves as respectable, capable individuals". It can also be found that "Maslow indicated that the need for respect or reputation is most important for children . and precedes real self-esteem or dignity"[27], which reflects the two aspects of esteem: for oneself and for others.

    Extended Hierarchy of Needs[edit]

    Cognitive needs[edit]

    Main article: Need for cognition

    After esteem needs, cognitive needs come next in the hierarchy of needs. People have cognitive needs such as creativity, foresight, curiosity, and meaning. Individuals who enjoy activities that require deliberation and brainstorming have a greater need for cognition. Individuals who are unmotivated to participate in the activity, on the other hand, have a low demand for cognitive abilities.[28]It has been said that Maslow's hierarchy of needs can be extended after esteem needs into two more categories: cognitive needs and aesthetic needs. Cognitive needs crave meaning, in this category mentally for information, comprehension and curiosity - this creates a will to learn and attain knowledge.[29]  In an educational viewpoint, Maslow wanting humans fnb login reset have intrinsic motivation to become educated people.

    Aesthetic needs[edit]

    After reaching ones cognitive needs it would progress to aesthetic needs, to beautify ones life. This would consist of having the ability to appreciate the beauty within the world around ones self, on a day to day basis.[30]According to Prefab shipping container homes for sale in north carolina theories, in order to progress toward Self-Actualization, humans require beautiful imagery or novel and aesthetically pleasing experiences. Humans must immerse themselves in nature's splendor while paying close attention to and observing their surroundings in order to extract the world's beauty. This higher level need to connect with nature results in an endearing sense of intimacy with nature and all that is endearing.[31] After reaching ones cognitive needs it would progress to shelter food pyramid needs, to beautify oneself. This would consist of improving ones physical appearance to ensure its beauty to balance the rest of the body.[30]

    Self-actualization[edit]

    Main article: Self-actualization

    "What a man can be, he must be."[8]: 91  This quotation forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need refers to the realization of one's full potential. Maslow describes this as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to become the most that one can be.[8]: 92  People may have a strong, particular desire to become an ideal parent, succeed athletically, or create paintings, shelter food pyramid, or inventions.[8]: 93  To understand this level of need, a person must not only succeed in the previous needs but master them. Self-actualization can be described as a value-based system when discussing its role in motivation. Self-actualization is understood as the goal or explicit motive, and the previous stages in Maslow's hierarchy fall in line to become the step-by-step process by which self-actualization is achievable; an explicit motive is the objective of a reward-based system that is used to intrinsically drive completion of certain values or goals.[4] Individuals who are motivated to pursue this goal seek and understand how their needs, relationships, and sense of self are expressed through their behavior. Self-actualization needs include:[4]

    • Partner acquisition
    • Parenting
    • Utilizing and developing talents and abilities
    • Pursuing goals

    Transcendence needs[edit]

    Main articles: Transcendence (philosophy), Transcendence (religion), and Self-transcendence

    Maslow later subdivided the triangle's top to include self-transcendence, also known as spiritual needs. Spiritual needs differ from other types of needs in that they can be met on multiple levels. When this need is met, it produces feelings of integrity and raises things to a higher plane of existence.[32] In his later years, Maslow explored a further dimension of motivation, while criticizing his original vision of self-actualization.[33][34][35][36] By these later ideas, one finds the fullest realization in giving oneself to something beyond oneself—for example, in altruism or spirituality. He equated this with the desire to reach the infinite.[37] "Transcendence refers to the very highest and most inclusive or holistic levels of human consciousness, behaving and relating, as ends rather than means, to oneself, to significant others, to human beings in general, to other species, to nature, and to the cosmos".

    Criticism[edit]

    Although recent research appears to validate the existence of universal human needs, the hierarchy proposed by Maslow is called into question.[39][40] Even so, Maslow's hierarchy of needs has widespread influence outside academia. As Uriel Abulof argues, "The continued resonance of Maslow's theory in popular imagination, however unscientific it may seem, is possibly the single most telling evidence of its significance: it explains human nature as something that most humans immediately recognize in themselves and others."[41] Still, academically, Maslow's idea is heavily contested.

    Methodology[edit]

    Maslow studied what he called the master race of people such as Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass rather than mentally ill or neurotic people, writing that "the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy."[8]: 236  Maslow studied the healthiest 1% of the college student population.[42]

    Ranking[edit]

    Global ranking[edit]

    In their extensive review of research based on Maslow's hierarchy, Wahba and Bridwell found little evidence for the ranking of needs that Maslow described or for the existence of a definite hierarchy at all.[43]

    The order in which the hierarchy is arranged has been criticized as being ethnocentric by Geert Hofstede.[44] In turn, Hofstede's work has been criticized by others.[45] Maslow's hierarchy of needs fails to illustrate and expand upon the difference between the social and intellectual needs of those raised in individualistic societies and those raised in collectivist societies. The needs and drives of those in individualistic societies tend to be more self-centered than those in collectivist societies, focusing on improvement of the self, with self-actualization being the apex of self-improvement. In collectivist societies, the needs of acceptance and community will outweigh the needs for freedom and individuality.[46]

    Ranking of sex[edit]

    The position and value of sex on the pyramid has also been a source of criticism regarding Maslow's hierarchy. Maslow's hierarchy places sex in the needs category (above) along with food and breathing; it lists sex solely from an individualistic perspective. For example, sex is placed with other physiological needs which must be satisfied before a person considers "higher" levels of motivation. Some critics feel this placement of sex neglects the emotional, familial, and evolutionary implications of sex within the community, although others point out that this is true of all of the basic needs.[47][48] In addition and in stark contrast to the other listed needs, it is clear that sex is not a universal need. This is evident in children, and even adults can choose to go their entire life without it yet still can obtain higher needs. The same cannot be said for the other listed needs.

    Changes to the hierarchy by circumstance[edit]

    The higher-order (self-esteem and self-actualization) and lower-order (physiological, safety, and love) needs classification of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is not universal and may vary across cultures due to individual differences and availability of resources in the region or geopolitical entity/country.

    In one study,[49]exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of a thirteen-item scale showed there were two particularly important levels of needs in the US during the peacetime of 1993 to 1994: survival (physiological and safety) and psychological (love, self-esteem, and self-actualization). In 1991, a retrospective peacetime measure was established and collected during the Persian Gulf War and US citizens were asked to recall the importance of needs from the previous year. Once again, only two levels of needs were identified; therefore, people have the ability and competence to recall and estimate the importance of needs. For citizens in the Middle East (Egypt and Saudi Arabia), three levels of needs regarding importance and satisfaction surfaced during the 1990 retrospective peacetime. These three levels were completely different from those of the US citizens.

    Changes regarding the importance and satisfaction of needs from the retrospective peacetime to the wartime due to stress varied significantly across cultures (the US vs. the Middle East). For the US citizens, there was only one level of needs since all shelter food pyramid were considered equally important. With regards to satisfaction of needs during the war, in the US there were three levels: physiological needs, safety needs, and psychological needs (social, self-esteem, and self-actualization). During the war, the satisfaction of physiological needs and safety needs were separated into two independent needs while during peacetime, they were combined as one. For the people of the Middle East, the satisfaction of needs changed from three levels to two during wartime.[50][51]

    A 1981 study looked at how Maslow's hierarchy might vary across age groups.[52] A survey asked participants of varying ages to rate a set number of statements from most important to least important. The researchers found that children had higher physical need scores than the other groups, the love need emerged from childhood to young adulthood, the esteem need was highest among the adolescent group, young adults had the highest self-actualization level, and old age had the highest level of security, it was needed across all levels comparably. The authors argued that this suggested Maslow's hierarchy may be limited as a theory for developmental sequence since the sequence of the love need and the self-esteem need should be reversed according to age.

    Definition of terms[edit]

    Human or non-human needs[edit]

    Abulof argues that while Maslow stresses that "motivation theory must be anthropocentric rather than animalcentric," he posits a largely animalistic hierarchy, crowned with a human edge: "Man's higher nature rests upon man's lower nature, needing it as a foundation and collapsing without this foundation… Our godlike qualities rest upon and need our animal qualities." Abulof notes that "all animals seek survival and safety, and many animals, especially mammals, also invest efforts to belong and gain esteem. The first four of Maslow's classical five rungs feature nothing exceptionally human."[53] Even when it comes to "self-actualization", Abulof argues, it is unclear how distinctively human is the actualizing "self". After all, the latter, according to Maslow, constitutes "an inner, more biological, more instinctoid core of human nature," thus "the search for one's own intrinsic, authentic values" checks the human freedom of choice: "A musician must make music," so freedom is limited to merely the choice of instrument.[53]

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ ab"Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs".
    2. ^"Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs". Simply Psychology. 29 December 2020. Archived from the original on 8 November 2018. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
    3. ^ abcMaslow, A.H. (1943). "A theory of human motivation". shelter food pyramid Review. 50 (4): 370–396. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.334.7586. doi:10.1037/h0054346. hdl:10983/23610. Archived from the original on 2017-09-14. Retrieved 2007-03-13 – via psychclassics.yorku.ca.
    4. ^ abcdefDeckers, Lambert (2018). Motivation: Biological, Psychological, and Environmental. Routledge Press.
    5. ^"Original Influences
      shelter food pyramid

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