are organic apples good for you

With their orchard-fresh flavor, organic apples are crisp and delicious. What is the benefit of eating apples with their peel? Sounds gross, but the bacteria in apples are linked to better gut health. Researchers discovered that to get the full health benefits of these. Looking for an easy way to get more fiber? Reach for an apple. Even the peel is good for you. But that's also where pesticides end up. So, if.
are organic apples good for you

Are organic apples good for you -

  • A new study, published in Frontiers in Microbiology, found that apples contain 100 million bacteria. Sounds gross, but the bacteria in apples are linked to better gut health.
  • Researchers discovered that to get the full health benefits of these bacteria, you should eat the whole apple—including the peel, seeds, core, and stem.
  • The organic apples were found to contain a more balanced, diverse makeup of bacteria, than conventional samples, which may be better for your gut.

Ever since your school days when you unpacked an apple along with your sandwich each day, you probably knew the fruit was a healthy snack. But what makes an apple so good for you?

There are a bunch of reasons—everything from its satiating fiber to its sweet taste that can keep you from chowing down on something processed and sugary—but researchers have just focused on a surprising one: its bacterial content.

In the study, which was published in Frontiers in Microbiology, researchers analyzed the bacteria in apples and compared samples of organic and nonorganic types to see how the breakdown differed.

They discovered that apples contain 100 million bacteria. Sounds gross, and more than a little unhealthy, but before you freak out, these bacteria may play a role in vastly improving your gut health.

In total, researchers found that a typical apple contains 100 million bacteria—1,755 different types. Here’s how the bacteria breaks down: the stem end has 9.5 million, peel has 1.6 million, fruit pulp has 19.7 million, seeds have 37.7 million, and the calyx end (the end where the flower used to be) has 22 million.

“Consuming one whole apple, with core and seeds, includes an uptake of around 100 million bacteria. If you eat only peel and fruit pulp the number is reduced to the 10-fold,” said study author Birgit Wassermann, Ph.D.(c), of Graz University of Technology in Austria . “And also the bacterial diversity you consume is reduced accordingly. So yes, eat the whole thing.”

When you hear “bacteria” and “produce,” the first thing that probably pops into your mind is nasty cases of food poisoning, which are commonly caused by bacteria like E. Coli, Staphylococcus aureus, or Bacillus cerus, as well as by viruses. That’s not the case here: The bacteria found in the apples is different, says Wassermann, because there would need to be a high abundance of pathogenic strains to cause a disease, which was not present the samples.

“Even then, you still have your immune system fighting against such infections,” she says.

What’s more, consuming the diversity of strains of bacteria found in apples can provide your gut with diverse microbes, which is essential for gut health, Wassermann said. In fact, a diverse gut microbiome has been linked to potential benefits such as lowering your risk for high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease, as well as as boosting your immune system. (Plus, studies have shown that probiotics, such as those found naturally in apples, can help you run for longer.)

As for the differences between conventional and organic apples? Researchers found Lactobacillus (frequently used within probiotics) was more common in the skin of organic apples. While the number of bacteria was the same in organic and conventional apples, the microbiota of organic apples is significantly more diverse and more balanced, Wasseremann said. That can lead to even better gut health.

[Build a killer midsection in the kitchen for effortless miles on the road with Eat for Abs!]

Now, the benefits of apple bacteria do not give you a green light to skip the wash before biting in. While washing them won’t remove the bacteria that is naturally a part of the fruit, it will help minimize you ingesting anything that happened in handling between the orchard, store, and your gym bag, Wassermann said. These unknowns are the mostly likely way that bad bacteria—like the strains known to cause foodborne illness—are transmitted.

Bottom line: You always knew an apple was a great snack, but now you have a new reason to support it. To boost your benefits, definitely keep the peel on, and if really want to give your gut as many beneficial bugs as possible, don’t be afraid to nibble at the core. And you may want to go organic, too—besides the bacterial differences seen in this study, conventional apples are always on the Environmental Working Group’s “Dirty Dozen” list, which includes produce with the most pesticides.

Just be sure you don’t eat them too close to your run, though, as the high fiber might cause stomach issues on the trail.

Jordan SmithDigital EditorJordan Smith is a writer and editor with over 5 years of experience reporting on health and fitness news and trends.

This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at piano.io

Источник: https://www.runnersworld.com/news/a28517175/apples-health-benefits-bacteria/

Clear differences between organic and non-organic food, study finds

Organic food has more of the antioxidant compounds linked to better health than regular food, and lower levels of toxic metals and pesticides, according to the most comprehensive scientific analysis to date.

The international team behind the work suggests that switching to organic fruit and vegetables could give the same benefits as adding one or two portions of the recommended "five a day".

The team, led by Prof Carlo Leifert at Newcastle University, concludes that there are "statistically significant, meaningful" differences, with a range of antioxidants being "substantially higher" – between 19% and 69% – in organic food. It is the first study to demonstrate clear and wide-ranging differences between organic and conventional fruits, vegetables and cereals.

The researchers say the increased levels of antioxidants are equivalent to "one to two of the five portions of fruits and vegetables recommended to be consumed daily and would therefore be significant and meaningful in terms of human nutrition, if information linking these [compounds] to the health benefits associated with increased fruit, vegetable and whole grain consumption is confirmed".

The findings will bring to the boil a long-simmering row over whether those differences mean organic food is better for people, with one expert calling the work sexed up.

Tom Sanders, a professor of nutrition at King's College London, said the research did show some differences. "But the question is are they within natural variation? And are they nutritionally relevant? I am not convinced."

He said Leifert's work had caused controversy in the past. "Leifert has had a lot of aggro with a lot of people. He is oversexing [this report] a bit." Sanders added the research showed organic cereals have less protein than conventional crops.

The research was peer-reviewed and is published in a respected scientific journal, the British Journal of Nutrition. It was due to be released next week, but has appeared on severalacademicwebsites.

The results are based on an analysis of 343 peer-reviewed studies from around the world – more than ever before – which examine differences between organic and conventional fruit, vegetables and cereals.

"The crucially important thing about this research is that it shatters the myth that how we farm does not affect the quality of the food we eat," said Helen Browning, chief executive of Soil Association, which campaigns for organic farming.

UK sales of organic food, which is often considerably more expensive than non-organic, are recovering after a slump during the economic crisis.

Plants produce many of their antioxidant compounds to fight back against pest attacks, so the higher levels in organic crops may result from their lack of protection by chemical sprays. But the scientists say other reasons may be important, such as organic varieties being bred for toughness and not being overfed with artificial fertilisers.

Leifert and his colleagues conclude that many antioxidants "have previously been linked to a reduced risk of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and certain cancers". But they also note that no long-term studies showing health benefits from a broad organic diet have yet been conducted.

The researchers found much higher levels of cadmium, a toxic metal, in conventional crops. Pesticide residues were found on conventional crops four times more often than on organic food. The research was funded by the EU and an organic farming charity.

The research is certain to be criticised: the inclusion of so many studies in the analysis could mean poor quality work skews the results, although the team did "sensitivity analyses" and found that excluding weaker work did not significantly change the outcome.

Also, the higher levels of cadmium and pesticides in conventional produce were still well below regulatory limits. But the researchers say cadmium accumulates over time in the body and that some people may wish to avoid this, and that pesticide limits are set individually, not for the cocktail of chemicals used on crops.

A further criticism is that the differences seen may result from different climate, soil types and crop varieties, and not from organic farming, though the researchers argue that combining many studies should average out these other differences.

The greatest criticism, however, will be over the suggestions of potential health benefits. The most recent major analysis, which took in 223 studies in 2012, found little evidence. "The published literature lacks strong evidence that organic foods are significantly more nutritious than conventional foods," it found.

This was also the conclusion of earlier, smaller studies published in 2009 in a scientific journal and by the UK Food Standards Agency (pdf), though the latter considered just 11 studies. The 2012 study did note that eating organic food might help people avoid pesticide residues.

Sanders said he was not persuaded by the new work. "You are not going to be better nourished if you eat organic food," he said. "What is most important is what you eat, not whether it's organic or conventional. It's whether you eat fruit and vegetables at all. People are buying into a lifestyle system. They get an assurance it is not being grown with chemicals and is not grown by big business."

He added that organic farming did help to address the significant problem in the UK of soil degradation and excess fertiliser polluting rivers.

Soil Association polling (pdf) shows healthy eating (55%) and avoiding chemical residues (53%) are key reasons cited by shoppers for buying organic produce.

But many also say care for the environment (44%) and animal welfare (31%) are important, as is taste (35%).

Browning said: "This research backs up what people think about organic food. In other countries there has long been much higher levels of support and acceptance of the benefits of organic food and farming. We hope these findings will bring the UK in line with the rest of Europe."

The organic shop

Consumers spend 25p more on 2 pints of semi-skimmed organic milk (£1.14) at most big supermarkets

45p more on an organic 800g wholemeal loaf (£1.20) at Sainsbury's

£1 more per kg on organic white grapes (£5 per kg) at both Sainsbury's and Tesco

£3.23 more on organic pork chops (£5.50) at Tesco than standard ones

£1.03 more on a pack of six organic mixed-weight eggs (£2) at Asda

40p more on a 340g tub of organic crunchy peanut butter (£1.70) at Sainsbury's

Source: MySupermarket. Standard non-sale prices correct on Friday 11 July

Источник: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/jul/11/organic-food-more-antioxidants-study

Gut health: Organic apples contain stronger microbial diversity than shop-bought ones, study finds

D

id you know that by eating an apple you are exposing yourself to millions of bacteria? Friendly bacteria, that is, the type that's good for gut health.

Did you also know that by choosing an organic apple, you will be ingesting a more diverse bacterial range than you would if you munched on a conventional, shop-bought one?

Recent research conducted by Graz University of Technology, Austria looked into the microbiome of apples, aiming to find out whether there is any difference between the bacterial communities found in organic apples and those present in conventional apples.

What the research uncovered was that whilst the quantity of microbiota present in both apple types came out at a similar level - a not inconsiderable approximation of 100 million bacteria per apple - the organic apple showed evidence of a 'significantly more diverse, more even and distinct microbiota', compared to that found in conventionally managed apples.

Read more

Technology to enable public to be 'co-creators of their own health''

Each individual set of apple tissues - the stem, peel, pulp, seeds and calyx - were analysed, and the results revealed that those harbouring the most bacteria were the pulp and seeds. Curiously, the peel - one of the most exposed parts of the fruit - was found to be inhabited by less bacteria.

The study findings were published in the journal frontiers in Microbiology.

The UK consumes roughly 122,000 tonnes of apples each year, making them one of the nation's most popular fruits, according to Great British Apples.

MORE ABOUTFuture London HealthИсточник: https://www.standard.co.uk/futurelondon/health/organic-apples-good-bacteria-shop-bought-apples-a4197161.html

If you aren't eating the whole apple, you might be eating it the wrong way, a study finds

A new study could upend how we eat apples.

The amount of beneficial bacteria a person consumes when they eat an apple increases if they eat the entire apple -- core and all -- according to the study from Graz University of Technology in Austria.

For example, a type of bacteria called Lactobacillus -- a famous component of probiotics -- was found on organic apples, including the core and seeds, and may help with certain health conditions like digestive disorders.

"We don’t know yet if more bacteria is better in terms of our gut health, but [this is] a very interesting study that I hope will lead to testing more foods and parts of the food that we can throw away sometimes," ABC News chief medical correspondent Dr. Jennifer Ashton said Wednesday on "Good Morning America."

(MORE: Eating sugar will actually make you want to eat more sugar)

To conduct the study, researchers analyzed store-bought and organic apples for their bacterial content, in everything from the stem of the apple to the peel, the flesh and the seeds.

Both store-bought and organic apples contained roughly the same amount of bacteria, but the majority of the bacteria were found in the seeds, so people who discarded the core got significantly fewer bacteria, according to researchers.

(MORE: Cutting only 300 calories a day can cut your risk of diabetes and heart disease, study finds)

Skipping eating the core and seeds of an average apple could drop the number of microbes a person consumes from more than 100 million to 10 million, the study found.

PHOTO: Apples are seen here in this undated stock photo.

STOCK PHOTO/Getty Images

Apples are seen here in this undated stock photo.

The study also found that organic apples had a more diverse and evenly-spread bacterial community compared to store bought apples, and more bacteria with health-affecting potential.

This means that eating whole organic apples might be most beneficial for a person's gut microbiome, the microbe population living in the intestine.

While consuming an inordinate number of apple seeds at one time can be dangerous, Ashton said that apple-eaters generally do not need to worry about that. Apple seeds contain a chemical compound known as amygdalin, which produces cyanide, when the seeds are crushed and consumed.

Small amounts of cyanide can cause acute poisoning and may even be deadly.

"This is about the number of seeds that come out of one apple," Ashton said. "You need literally hundreds of apple seeds to be crushed and chewed in about a 150-pound person."

Источник: https://www.goodmorningamerica.com/wellness/story/eating-apple-wrong-study-finds-eating-apple-including-64530844

1

Is this a good thing? Probably. But it might depend on how your apples were grown.

Published in Frontiers in Microbiology, a new study shows that organic apples harbor a more diverse and balanced bacterial community -- which could make them healthier and tastier than conventional apples, as well as better for the environment.

You are what you eat

Nowhere more so than your bowel.

"The bacteria, fungi and viruses in our food transiently colonize our gut," says study senior author Professor Gabriele Berg, of Graz University of Technology, Austria. "Cooking kills most of these, so raw fruit and veg are particularly important sources of gut microbes."

To help us choose our colonic colonists wisely, Berg's group analyzed the microbiome of one of the world's favorite fruits: the apple.

"83 million apples were grown in 2018, and production continues to rise," says Berg. "But while recent studies have mapped their fungal content, less is known about the bacteria in apples."

The researchers compared the bacteria in conventional store-bought apples with those in visually matched fresh organic ones. Stem, peel, flesh, seeds and calyx -- the straggly bit at the bottom where the flower used to be -- were analyzed separately.

Microbial diversity suggests organic apple advantage

Overall, the organic and conventional apples were occupied by similar numbers of bacteria.

"Putting together the averages for each apple component, we estimate a typical 240g apple contains roughly 100 million bacteria," reports Berg.

The majority of the bacteria are in the seeds, with the flesh accounting for most of the remainder. So, if you discard the core -- for shame! -- your intake falls to nearer 10 million. The question is: are these bacteria good for you?

When it comes to gut health, variety is the spice of life -- and in this regard, organic apples seem to have the edge.

"Freshly harvested, organically managed apples harbor a significantly more diverse, more even and distinct bacterial community, compared to conventional ones," explains Berg. "This variety and balance would be expected to limit overgrowth of any one species, and previous studies have reported a negative correlation between human pathogen abundance and microbiome diversity of fresh produce."

Specific groups of bacteria known for health-affecting potential also weighed in favor of organic apples.

"Escherichia-Shigella -- a group of bacteria that includes known pathogens -- was found in most of the conventional apple samples, but none from organic apples. For beneficial Lactobacilli -- of probiotic fame -- the reverse was true."

And there may even be vindication for those who can "taste the difference" in organic produce.

"Methylobacterium, known to enhance the biosynthesis of strawberry flavor compounds, was significantly more abundant in organic apples; here especially on peel and flesh samples, which in general had a more diverse microbiota than seeds, stem or calyx."

Consumer choice

The results mirror findings on fungal communities in apples.

"Our results agree remarkably with a recent study on the apple fruit-associated fungal community, which revealed specificity of fungal varieties to different tissues and management practices," comments Birgit Wasserman, Berg protégé and lead author of the study.

Together the studies show that across both bacteria and fungi, the apple microbiome is more diverse in organically grown fruits. Since another study has shown that the apple fungal community is also variety-specific, the bacterial analyses too should be repeated in other cultivars.

"The microbiome and antioxidant profiles of fresh produce may one day become standard nutritional information, displayed alongside macronutrients, vitamins and minerals to guide consumers," suggests Wasserman. "Here, a key step will be to confirm to what extent diversity in the food microbiome translates to gut microbial diversity and improved health outcomes."

make a difference: sponsored opportunity


Story Source:

Materials provided by Frontiers. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Birgit Wassermann, Henry Müller, Gabriele Berg. An Apple a Day: Which Bacteria Do We Eat With Organic and Conventional Apples?Frontiers in Microbiology, 2019; 10 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01629

Cite This Page:

Frontiers. "An apple carries about 100 million bacteria -- good luck washing them off: Most microbes are inside the apple -- but the strains depend on which bits you eat, and whether you go organic." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 24 July 2019. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190724090255.htm>.

Frontiers. (2019, July 24). An apple carries about 100 million bacteria -- good luck washing them off: Most microbes are inside the apple -- but the strains depend on which bits you eat, and whether you go organic. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 6, 2021 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190724090255.htm

Frontiers. "An apple carries about 100 million bacteria -- good luck washing them off: Most microbes are inside the apple -- but the strains depend on which bits you eat, and whether you go organic." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190724090255.htm (accessed December 6, 2021).


Источник: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190724090255.htm
Apples

Cooking

Apples oxidize (turn brown) quickly when sliced, but can be minimized with a spritz of fresh lemon juice.

We may not have 17,000 varieties anymore, but there are thousands of ways to prepare them. Try slices of apple with hummus or your favorite nut butter; as a topping on white pizzas or sliced and tucked into a grilled cheese. They pair well with almost all cheeses, from brie to Gouda. In parts of the United States, apple pie is usually served with a sharp cheddar. 

They are great in salads, where they bring sweetness and crunch. Try them tossed with arugula or watercress and a lemony vinaigrette, or mixed with shredded Brussels sprouts or shaved fennel. They also pair well with woody herbs like

rosemary and thyme. The combination is great for savory preparations, such as marinades or roasted meats, but can also work well for sweet desserts. Try roasting apples with herbs, then using them as a topping for a bowl of vanilla ice cream.

Preserving

Apples are traditionally preserved by cooking them down into applesauce, apple jam, jelly and butter. Another way to save apples is dehydrating, fermenting, or juicing them (turn the juice into hard cider or freeze it). You can also slice them, toss with some lemon water to reduce discoloration, and freeze (or mix-up the apple pie filling and freeze).

Nutrition

A medium apple provides about four grams of fiber, and about 14 percent of the daily recommended amount of Vitamin C.  They are especially high in phytonutrients like polyphenols and anthocyanins that act as antioxidants. The potential benefits include blood sugar regulation and lung support; a 2004 study linked apple consumption to a lowered risk of lung cancer and asthma.

Apples are naturally rich in pectin, a fiber that makes you feel full and satiated. Pectin has digestive benefits too: there’s evidence to suggest apple pectin consumption can slow down colon cancer. Many of the fruit’s nutrients are found in the peel, so it’s best to enjoy the entire fruit.

Источник: https://foodprint.org/real-food/apples/

Real Food Encyclopedia
are organic apples good for you

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Are organic apples good for you -

  • A new study, published in Frontiers in Microbiology, found that apples contain 100 million bacteria. Sounds gross, but the bacteria in apples are linked to better gut health.
  • Researchers discovered that to get the full health benefits of these bacteria, you should eat the whole apple—including the peel, seeds, core, and stem.
  • The organic apples were found to contain a more balanced, diverse makeup of bacteria, than conventional samples, which may be better for your gut.

Ever since your school days when you unpacked an apple along with your sandwich each day, you probably knew the fruit was a healthy snack. But what makes an apple so good for you?

There are a bunch of reasons—everything from its satiating fiber to its sweet taste that can keep you from chowing down on something processed and sugary—but researchers have just focused on a surprising one: its bacterial content.

In the study, which was published in Frontiers in Microbiology, researchers analyzed the bacteria in apples and compared samples of organic and nonorganic types to see how the breakdown differed.

They discovered that apples contain 100 million bacteria. Sounds gross, and more than a little unhealthy, but before you freak out, these bacteria may play a role in vastly improving your gut health.

In total, researchers found that a typical apple contains 100 million bacteria—1,755 different types. Here’s how the bacteria breaks down: the stem end has 9.5 million, peel has 1.6 million, fruit pulp has 19.7 million, seeds have 37.7 million, and the calyx end (the end where the flower used to be) has 22 million.

“Consuming one whole apple, with core and seeds, includes an uptake of around 100 million bacteria. If you eat only peel and fruit pulp the number is reduced to the 10-fold,” said study author Birgit Wassermann, Ph.D.(c), of Graz University of Technology in Austria . “And also the bacterial diversity you consume is reduced accordingly. So yes, eat the whole thing.”

When you hear “bacteria” and “produce,” the first thing that probably pops into your mind is nasty cases of food poisoning, which are commonly caused by bacteria like E. Coli, Staphylococcus aureus, or Bacillus cerus, as well as by viruses. That’s not the case here: The bacteria found in the apples is different, says Wassermann, because there would need to be a high abundance of pathogenic strains to cause a disease, which was not present the samples.

“Even then, you still have your immune system fighting against such infections,” she says.

What’s more, consuming the diversity of strains of bacteria found in apples can provide your gut with diverse microbes, which is essential for gut health, Wassermann said. In fact, a diverse gut microbiome has been linked to potential benefits such as lowering your risk for high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease, as well as as boosting your immune system. (Plus, studies have shown that probiotics, such as those found naturally in apples, can help you run for longer.)

As for the differences between conventional and organic apples? Researchers found Lactobacillus (frequently used within probiotics) was more common in the skin of organic apples. While the number of bacteria was the same in organic and conventional apples, the microbiota of organic apples is significantly more diverse and more balanced, Wasseremann said. That can lead to even better gut health.

[Build a killer midsection in the kitchen for effortless miles on the road with Eat for Abs!]

Now, the benefits of apple bacteria do not give you a green light to skip the wash before biting in. While washing them won’t remove the bacteria that is naturally a part of the fruit, it will help minimize you ingesting anything that happened in handling between the orchard, store, and your gym bag, Wassermann said. These unknowns are the mostly likely way that bad bacteria—like the strains known to cause foodborne illness—are transmitted.

Bottom line: You always knew an apple was a great snack, but now you have a new reason to support it. To boost your benefits, definitely keep the peel on, and if really want to give your gut as many beneficial bugs as possible, don’t be afraid to nibble at the core. And you may want to go organic, too—besides the bacterial differences seen in this study, conventional apples are always on the Environmental Working Group’s “Dirty Dozen” list, which includes produce with the most pesticides.

Just be sure you don’t eat them too close to your run, though, as the high fiber might cause stomach issues on the trail.

Jordan SmithDigital EditorJordan Smith is a writer and editor with over 5 years of experience reporting on health and fitness news and trends.

This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at piano.io

Источник: https://www.runnersworld.com/news/a28517175/apples-health-benefits-bacteria/

1

Is this a good thing? Probably. But it might depend on how your apples were grown.

Published in Frontiers in Microbiology, a new study shows that organic apples harbor a more diverse and balanced bacterial community -- which could make them healthier and tastier than conventional apples, as well as better for the environment.

You are what you eat

Nowhere more so than your bowel.

"The bacteria, fungi and viruses in our food transiently colonize our gut," says study senior author Professor Gabriele Berg, of Graz University of Technology, Austria. "Cooking kills most of these, so raw fruit and veg are particularly important sources of gut microbes."

To help us choose our colonic colonists wisely, Berg's group analyzed the microbiome of one of the world's favorite fruits: the apple.

"83 million apples were grown in 2018, and production continues to rise," says Berg. "But while recent studies have mapped their fungal content, less is known about the bacteria in apples."

The researchers compared the bacteria in conventional store-bought apples with those in visually matched fresh organic ones. Stem, peel, flesh, seeds and calyx -- the straggly bit at the bottom where the flower used to be -- were analyzed separately.

Microbial diversity suggests organic apple advantage

Overall, the organic and conventional apples were occupied by similar numbers of bacteria.

"Putting together the averages for each apple component, we estimate a typical 240g apple contains roughly 100 million bacteria," reports Berg.

The majority of the bacteria are in the seeds, with the flesh accounting for most of the remainder. So, if you discard the core -- for shame! -- your intake falls to nearer 10 million. The question is: are these bacteria good for you?

When it comes to gut health, variety is the spice of life -- and in this regard, organic apples seem to have the edge.

"Freshly harvested, organically managed apples harbor a significantly more diverse, more even and distinct bacterial community, compared to conventional ones," explains Berg. "This variety and balance would be expected to limit overgrowth of any one species, and previous studies have reported a negative correlation between human pathogen abundance and microbiome diversity of fresh produce."

Specific groups of bacteria known for health-affecting potential also weighed in favor of organic apples.

"Escherichia-Shigella -- a group of bacteria that includes known pathogens -- was found in most of the conventional apple samples, but none from organic apples. For beneficial Lactobacilli -- of probiotic fame -- the reverse was true."

And there may even be vindication for those who can "taste the difference" in organic produce.

"Methylobacterium, known to enhance the biosynthesis of strawberry flavor compounds, was significantly more abundant in organic apples; here especially on peel and flesh samples, which in general had a more diverse microbiota than seeds, stem or calyx."

Consumer choice

The results mirror findings on fungal communities in apples.

"Our results agree remarkably with a recent study on the apple fruit-associated fungal community, which revealed specificity of fungal varieties to different tissues and management practices," comments Birgit Wasserman, Berg protégé and lead author of the study.

Together the studies show that across both bacteria and fungi, the apple microbiome is more diverse in organically grown fruits. Since another study has shown that the apple fungal community is also variety-specific, the bacterial analyses too should be repeated in other cultivars.

"The microbiome and antioxidant profiles of fresh produce may one day become standard nutritional information, displayed alongside macronutrients, vitamins and minerals to guide consumers," suggests Wasserman. "Here, a key step will be to confirm to what extent diversity in the food microbiome translates to gut microbial diversity and improved health outcomes."

make a difference: sponsored opportunity


Story Source:

Materials provided by Frontiers. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Birgit Wassermann, Henry Müller, Gabriele Berg. An Apple a Day: Which Bacteria Do We Eat With Organic and Conventional Apples?Frontiers in Microbiology, 2019; 10 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01629

Cite This Page:

Frontiers. "An apple carries about 100 million bacteria -- good luck washing them off: Most microbes are inside the apple -- but the strains depend on which bits you eat, and whether you go organic." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 24 July 2019. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190724090255.htm>.

Frontiers. (2019, July 24). An apple carries about 100 million bacteria -- good luck washing them off: Most microbes are inside the apple -- but the strains depend on which bits you eat, and whether you go organic. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 6, 2021 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190724090255.htm

Frontiers. "An apple carries about 100 million bacteria -- good luck washing them off: Most microbes are inside the apple -- but the strains depend on which bits you eat, and whether you go organic." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190724090255.htm (accessed December 6, 2021).


Источник: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190724090255.htm

If you aren't eating the whole apple, you might be eating it the wrong way, a study finds

A new study could upend how we eat apples.

The amount of beneficial bacteria a person consumes when they eat an apple increases if they eat the entire apple -- core and all -- according to the study from Graz University of Technology in Austria.

For example, a type of bacteria called Lactobacillus -- a famous component of probiotics -- was found on organic apples, including the core and seeds, and may help with certain health conditions like digestive disorders.

"We don’t know yet if more bacteria is better in terms of our gut health, but [this is] a very interesting study that I hope will lead to testing more foods and parts of the food that we can throw away sometimes," ABC News chief medical correspondent Dr. Jennifer Ashton said Wednesday on "Good Morning America."

(MORE: Eating sugar will actually make you want to eat more sugar)

To conduct the study, researchers analyzed store-bought and organic apples for their bacterial content, in everything from the stem of the apple to the peel, the flesh and the seeds.

Both store-bought and organic apples contained roughly the same amount of bacteria, but the majority of the bacteria were found in the seeds, so people who discarded the core got significantly fewer bacteria, according to researchers.

(MORE: Cutting only 300 calories a day can cut your risk of diabetes and heart disease, study finds)

Skipping eating the core and seeds of an average apple could drop the number of microbes a person consumes from more than 100 million to 10 million, the study found.

PHOTO: Apples are seen here in this undated stock photo.

STOCK PHOTO/Getty Images

Apples are seen here in this undated stock photo.

The study also found that organic apples had a more diverse and evenly-spread bacterial community compared to store bought apples, and more bacteria with health-affecting potential.

This means that eating whole organic apples might be most beneficial for a person's gut microbiome, the microbe population living in the intestine.

While consuming an inordinate number of apple seeds at one time can be dangerous, Ashton said that apple-eaters generally do not need to worry about that. Apple seeds contain a chemical compound known as amygdalin, which produces cyanide, when the seeds are crushed and consumed.

Small amounts of cyanide can cause acute poisoning and may even be deadly.

"This is about the number of seeds that come out of one apple," Ashton said. "You need literally hundreds of apple seeds to be crushed and chewed in about a 150-pound person."

Источник: https://www.goodmorningamerica.com/wellness/story/eating-apple-wrong-study-finds-eating-apple-including-64530844

Real Food Encyclopedia

Gut health: Organic apples contain stronger microbial diversity than shop-bought ones, study finds

D

id you know that by eating an apple you are exposing yourself to millions of bacteria? Friendly bacteria, that is, the type that's good for gut health.

Did you also know that by choosing an organic apple, you will be ingesting a more diverse bacterial range than you would if you munched on a conventional, shop-bought one?

Recent research conducted by Graz University of Technology, Austria looked into the microbiome of apples, aiming to find out whether there is any difference between the bacterial communities found in organic apples and those present in conventional apples.

What the research uncovered was that whilst the quantity of microbiota present in both apple types came out at a similar level - a not inconsiderable approximation of 100 million bacteria per apple - the organic apple showed evidence of a 'significantly more diverse, more even and distinct microbiota', compared to that found in conventionally managed apples.

Read more

Technology to enable public to be 'co-creators of their own health''

Each individual set of apple tissues - the stem, peel, pulp, seeds and calyx - were analysed, and the results revealed that those harbouring the most bacteria were the pulp and seeds. Curiously, the peel - one of the most exposed parts of the fruit - was found to be inhabited by less bacteria.

The study findings were published in the journal frontiers in Microbiology.

The UK consumes roughly 122,000 tonnes of apples each year, making them one of the nation's most popular fruits, according to Great British Apples.

MORE ABOUTFuture London HealthИсточник: https://www.standard.co.uk/futurelondon/health/organic-apples-good-bacteria-shop-bought-apples-a4197161.html
are organic apples good for you

Commodity: Organic Apples

Apples

Commodity Overview

Apples are a leader when it comes to organics with more than 10% of the category being organic. They make up 7.8% of all organic produce sales and bring in nearly $400 million in sales. With a wide variety of options, the organic apple category can boost your department’s overall organic sales.

Apples are the third most popular organic produce item in terms of sales. While sales dropped slightly in 2018, organic apples can still make a big difference in your bottom line. 

Find companies

Sales Strategies

Apples are popular year-round but sales peak in the fall when the new crop comes in. This is true for both conventional and organic product. Take advantage of consumer interest in the fall by marketing apples with other organic items, including baking supplies and dips.

Organic apples lend themselves to green marketing promotions. While organic produce of any kind can not be marketed as healthier than conventional produce, the growing practices used in organic production can be promoted as better for the environment to your environmentally conscious consumers. You can also market organic apples as being grown using sustainable practices that result in fewer chemicals making it to the store on the apples.

If you source organic apples from a local orchard, be sure to make that a prominent selling point in your display to attract consumers who want locally are organic apples good for you produce.

Include organic apples in winter holiday promotions and especially in New Years’ promotions aimed at health-conscious consumers. Consider offering samples of organic apples to give consumers unfamiliar with organic options a taste. Sampling offered by a knowledgeable staff member also gives you an opportunity are organic apples good for you explain the difference between organic and conventional product to those who may be unfamiliar with the distinction.

Price is one of the biggest obstacles to increasing organic apple sales, especially of already more expensive proprietary varieties. Consider posting signs near your organic apples that explain the added labor that goes into organic production, which can raise the prices.

Dynamic Displays

You can use some of the same strategies to market organic apples as you use in your conventional displays, along with some strategies unique to organics. Offer consumers plenty of choices. While the market for organic apples may be smaller than that for conventional product, creating a display that includes several varieties will appeal to all types of consumers and will help move apples off the shelves.

Decide if you want to place organic product next to your conventional product or set it aside in a section by itself. Some organic apple varieties are close in price to the same conventional variety and my do well when displayed side by side. Other apple varieties have a higher price markup and may suffer from being displayed next to their conventional counterparts. You may want to try a few different options to see what sells best in your department. Remember, when displaying conventional product next to organic product, barriers need to be in place to prevent the conventional and organic product from touching.

If you have a large apple display, considering displaying conventional apples on one side of the aisle and organic apples on the are organic apples good for you fnb login reset. This creates an attractive display and avoids accidental mixing of product.

Display apples on refrigerated tables to keep them looking fresh. Avoid stacking product too high as too much weight will bruise the apples on the bottom layer. Keep displays well-stocked and remove damaged product immediately.

Clearly mark apples as organic. Consider offering bags or clamshells of product along with bulk options. Whether displayed in an organic section or next to their conventional counterparts, apples create a vibrant color break within your department.

In The Backroom

Shipping

A variety of packaging options are available from most shippers, including custom packaging. Some of the most popular options include:

12 3-pound bags
40-pound cartons
38-pound cartons
40-pound traypacks
27-pound euroboxes

Many shippers will custom pack in poly bags, mesh bags, clamshells, traypacks, tri-wall bulk bins and RPCs. Sizes vary according to customer specifications.

Sliced apple packs are a consumer favorite and are available from shippers in a variety of weights and units, with 2-ounce single packs and 12-ounce bags being common options.


Sizes
small – 100s-216s
large – 88s-72s
extra-large – 64s-36s

Grades

United States
U.S. Extra Fancy
U.S. Fancy
U.S. No. 1
Combination grades (Combinations of: U.S. extra fancy and U.S. fancy; U.S. fancy and U.S. No. 1; and U.S. No 1 and U.S. utility are permitted when at least 50% of the apples in any lot meet the requirements of the higher grade.)

Washington state grades
Washington Extra Fancy
Washington Fancy
Washington grades are a higher standard than the corresponding U.S. grade.
Washington has implemented minimum internal condition standards for all grades of delicious apples.

Handling

Temperature: 32 to 34 F, 0 to1.1 C
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: No
Typical shelf life: 90 to 240 days (under refrigeration)
Ethylene producer (Do not store with ethylene-sensitive items.)
Odor-sensitive (Will absorb odors produced by potatoes, bulb onions or any strong-flavored item.)
Moderately sensitive to freezing injury.
It is especially important that controlled-atmosphere apples are refrigerated at the proper temperature because they are more susceptible to becoming mealy.
When stacking containers in the back room, make sure to stack organic items at the top so residue from conventional produce doesn’t drip down onto the organic items.
Organic items can be stored side by side in the cooler as long as no product is touching and no residue can drip from the conventional onto the organic product.

Fresh Trends

10% of consumers said they purchased organic apples exclusively, while 27% said they bought organic apples at least some of the time.

Nutrition Labels

Источник: https://www.producemarketguide.com/produce/organic-apples

10 Amazing Health Benefits of Eating Green Apples You Never Knew

I love Granny Smith Apples!

They are crisp, tart, and juicy. If you think they are just for apple pies you might want to reconsider. In this article, we are going to review 10 amazing health benefits of including these little green gems in your diet. 

The potential health benefits are too good to ignore.

10 Reasons to Add Green Apples to Your Daily Diet.

Let’s start with my favorite one.

#1 Gut Health

The Granny Smith was shown to excel over several other varieties of apples in this area due to non-digestible compounds that actually ferment in the colon. Just one medium apple a day has enough fiber content to be very beneficial to the good bacteria in the gut. Our gut microbiota affects almost every area of our health.

Read all about gut health here.  

#2 Weight Loss

I know what some of you anti-carb, keto folks are saying. Oh no. We can’t have fruit. Well, if you were going to break down and have a piece of fruit, this lowly green-skinned granny is the one to have.

They are lower in carbs and sugar than their red-skinned cousins and they have some other attributes that give them a real edge.

They have a high water content which helps you feel full, and with 3 gms of fiber, they are slow to digest, meaning they won’t spike your blood sugar.

A study published in 2011 by the Journal of Medicinal Food found that mice fed a high-fat diet that were given ursolic acid(found in the skin of the green apple) lost more weight than the mice that did not receive it. Granted, this study was done on mice, so human trials would need to be conducted in order to make weight loss claims, but it certainly is hopeful, isn’t it?

Of course, eating an apple a day is not going to be a dieter’s magic bullet without including exercise, eating clean, and decreasing overall calorie intake (deficit of calories in to calories out) but it may be one more tool to assist us in managing a healthy body weight.

You may be interested in learning about this healthy, natural weight loss supplement 

And check out my free E-Book, Clean Eating: Nonrestrictive, Natural, Sustainable, and Easy: A Complete Guide with Recipes

#3 Detoxifies the Liver

The high fiber along with the antioxidant activity increases bile production which helps expel toxins before they reach the liver.

In addition, that ursolic acid in the skin was used in another study which was shown to reduce the risk of liver disease. Again this study was only performed on mice but the fat mice that were fed the green apples did not suffer from fatty liver disease like their other fat friends. Remember not to remove the skin since that is where all the good stuff is. With that being said, you want to make sure you are only buying organic apples. Commercially grown apples are HEAVILY sprayed with pesticides. If you can grow your own, well, that is even better. Yes, you can grow them without pesticides.

Here is a very informative article with guidance on just how you can do it.

Apple Tree Care Guide

#4 Increases Bone Strength

There is a strong correlation between liver health and osteoporosis. So the effect on the liver will also provide benefit to your bones.

Green apples also contain vitamin C which will boost the production of collagen, another component necessary for bone health. A healthy diet rich in calcium and other bone healthy minerals along with green apple consumption will give those bones what they need.  

#5 Improves Joint Health

Same reason as above. That collagen that is boosted by the vitamin C in the apples is also extremely important for joint health It has been proven that eating an apple or two per day reduces pain associated with arthritis. The same research showed that people who ate three servings of fruits and vegetables each day had less knee pain than those who didn’t eat any at all.

This is because the antioxidants contained within help reduce inflammation throughout the body. It may seem like a small thing but when you consider that there are many foods that cause inflammation such as processed meats, fried food, dairy products etc… it makes sense that something as simple as adding a few pieces of fruit into your diet could improve overall health. 

#6 Improves Digestion

Pectins are polysaccharides that occur naturally in plant cell walls. They form gel structures called “gum” inside the cells of plants and aid in binding together nutrients and enzymes needed during digestion. Apples contain both soluble and insoluble forms of pectin. Soluble pectin binds to digestive juices and prevents them from being absorbed before reaching the stomach. Insoluble pectin provides structure to the intestinal wall and allows absorption of nutrients. This means that consuming chase premier plus checking clients regularly will prevent bloating after meals and keep your gut lining intact.

The fiber in these beauties will assist in the regulation of your bowels. Nature’s way of preventing constipation and diarrhea. Come on. You know we all pay close attention to this and it can totally throw off our whole day when we are not quite right. Am I right or am I right?

#7 Reduces the Risk of Cancer 

This has been proven time after time. The antioxidant activity of green apples help protect against cancer cells from forming. It does this through its ability to neutralize free radicals. Free radicals are unstable molecules that cause damage to DNA and proteins. They are produced as part of normal metabolism or when there is an imbalance in cell growth. Antioxidants like those contained within green apples prevent oxidation reactions and keep things balanced.

This is backed by multiple studies showing its power to decrease cancer cells growth. Specifically in breast cancer cells where they were significantly lowered by the phytochemical and flavonoid components. They also contain quercetin which is an antioxidant that may help prevent certain types of cancers such as prostate cancer. 

It was also found to have an effect on inhibiting colon and liver cancer cell growth.

So, perhaps not a cancer cure but surely something worth noting.

Again, make sure to buy only organic or grow your own.

#8 Lowers Cholesterol

The fiber in apples binds to cholesterol and bile acids in the digestive tract and prevents them from being reabsorbed back into circulation. This means that these substances remain in the intestines where they should stay instead of circulating through the bloodstream and causing problems elsewhere.

Many people are taking statin drugs to decrease their bad cholesterol (LDL). An article on WebMD reviews the many negative effects of statins and whether the benefits outweigh the risks.

A study from Ohio State University performed on a group of adults between the ages of 40 and 60 that ate 1 apple a day for four weeks significantly lowered their LDL(the bad stuff) by a whopping 40 percent!

Hmm. Statin or apple? I don’t know of too many people with allergic reactions to apples.

#9 Improves Vision

Due to the high content of vitamin A and vitamin C, these beauties are great for eye health and vision. Eye health is dependent on good blood flow which helps with nutrient delivery to the eyes. Vitamin A aids in maintaining healthy skin and mucous membranes while vitamin C promotes collagen production and keeps connective tissue strong. These two vitamins work together to promote healthy vision.

Green apples are rich sources of beta-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, quercetin, potassium, magnesium, manganese, copper, and iron.

Don’t forget to leave that peel on.

#10 Improves skin and hair health

You can buy all the expensive hair and skin products you want but if you don’t feed them the nutrients they need from the inside you are not going to see huge results. The vitamin C in apples helps to support collagen formation. Collagen makes up approximately 80% of our skin. These levels drop as we age causing skin elasticity and plumpness to decrease and wrinkles and fine lines to increase. Vitamin C is a critical component of collagen synthesis.

As you can see the benefits of apples are numerous and eating more apples and less processed garbage food is just one way to reap the rewards.

Green Apple Nutrition Contains vitamins A, C, E, and K, a variety of B vitamins, and potassium. An average 3-inch green apple has approximately 100 calories, 25 grams of carbohydrates, and 4 grams of fiber. This lovely little fruit makes an excellent snack when trying to watch your weight. And. it might even help keep that doctor away.

Check out these recipes using green apples:

Kale and Green Apple Salad with Carrots and Cheddar Cheese

 Read 10 Amazing Health Benefits of Eating Carrots.

 

 

 

 

Источник: https://www.thehealthytomato.com/health-benefits-of-green-apples/
  • A new study, published in Frontiers in Microbiology, found that apples contain 100 million bacteria. Sounds gross, but the bacteria in apples are linked to better gut health.
  • Researchers discovered that to get the full health benefits of these bacteria, you should eat the whole apple—including the peel, seeds, core, and stem.
  • The organic apples were found to contain a more balanced, diverse makeup of bacteria, than conventional samples, which may be better for your gut.

Ever since your school days when you unpacked an apple along with your sandwich each day, you probably knew the fruit was a healthy snack. But what makes an apple so good for you?

There are a bunch of reasons—everything from its satiating fiber to its sweet taste that can keep you from chowing down on something processed and sugary—but researchers have just focused on a surprising one: its bacterial content.

In the study, which was published in Frontiers in Microbiology, researchers analyzed the bacteria in apples and compared samples of organic and nonorganic types to see how the breakdown differed.

They discovered that apples contain 100 million bacteria. Sounds gross, and more than a little unhealthy, but before you freak out, these bacteria may play a role in vastly improving your gut health.

In total, researchers found that a typical apple contains 100 million bacteria—1,755 different types. Here’s how the bacteria breaks down: the stem end has 9.5 million, peel has 1.6 million, fruit pulp has 19.7 million, seeds have 37.7 million, and the calyx end (the end where the flower used to be) has 22 million.

“Consuming one whole apple, with core and seeds, includes an uptake of around 100 million bacteria. If you eat only peel and fruit pulp the number is reduced to the 10-fold,” said study author Birgit Wassermann, Ph.D.(c), of Graz University of Technology in Austria. “And also the bacterial diversity you consume is reduced accordingly. So yes, eat the whole thing.”

When you hear “bacteria” and “produce,” the first thing that probably pops into your mind is nasty cases of food poisoning, which are commonly caused by bacteria like E. Coli, Staphylococcus aureus, or Bacillus cerus, as well as by viruses. That’s not the case here: The bacteria found in the apples is different, says Wassermann, because there would need to be a high abundance of pathogenic strains to cause a disease, which was not present the samples.

“Even then, you still have your immune system fighting against such infections,” she says.

What’s more, consuming the diversity of strains of bacteria found in apples can provide your gut with diverse microbes, which is essential for gut health, Wassermann said. In fact, a diverse gut microbiome has been are organic apples good for you to potential benefits such as lowering your risk for high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease, as well as as boosting your immune system. (Plus, studies have shown that probiotics, such as those found naturally in apples, can help you run for longer.)

As for the differences between conventional and organic apples? Researchers found Lactobacillus (frequently used within probiotics) was more common in the skin of organic apples. While the number of bacteria was the same in organic and conventional apples, the microbiota of organic apples is significantly more diverse and more balanced, Wasseremann said. That can lead to even better gut health.

[Build a killer midsection in the kitchen for effortless miles on the road with Eat for Abs!]

Now, the benefits of apple bacteria do not give you a green light to skip the wash before biting in. While washing them won’t remove the bacteria that is naturally a part of the fruit, it will help minimize you ingesting anything that happened in handling between the orchard, store, and your gym bag, Wassermann said. These unknowns are the mostly likely way that bad bacteria—like the strains known to cause foodborne illness—are transmitted.

Bottom line: You always knew an apple was a great snack, but now you have a new reason to support it. To boost your benefits, definitely keep the peel on, and if really want to give your gut as many beneficial bugs as possible, don’t be afraid to nibble at the core. And you may want to go organic, too—besides the bacterial differences seen in this study, conventional apples are always on the Environmental Working Group’s “Dirty Dozen” list, which includes produce with the most pesticides.

Just be sure you don’t eat them too close to your run, though, as the high fiber might cause stomach issues on the trail.

Jordan SmithDigital EditorJordan Smith is a writer and editor with over 5 years of experience reporting on health and fitness news and trends.

This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at piano.io

Источник: https://www.runnersworld.com/news/a28517175/apples-health-benefits-bacteria/
Apples

Cooking

Apples oxidize (turn brown) quickly when sliced, but can be minimized with a spritz of fresh lemon juice.

We may not have 17,000 varieties anymore, but there are thousands of ways to prepare them. Try slices of apple with hummus or your favorite nut butter; as a topping on white pizzas or sliced and tucked into a grilled cheese. They pair well with almost all cheeses, from brie to Gouda. In parts of the United States, apple pie is usually served with a sharp cheddar. 

They are great in salads, where they bring sweetness and crunch. Try them tossed with arugula or watercress and a lemony vinaigrette, or mixed with shredded Brussels sprouts or shaved fennel. They also pair well with woody herbs like

rosemary and thyme. The combination is great for savory preparations, such as marinades or roasted meats, but can also work well for sweet desserts. Try roasting apples with herbs, then using them as a topping for a bowl of vanilla ice cream.

Preserving

Apples are traditionally preserved by cooking them down into applesauce, apple jam, jelly and butter. Another way to save apples is dehydrating, fermenting, or juicing them (turn the juice into hard cider or freeze it). You can also slice them, toss with some lemon water to reduce discoloration, and freeze (or mix-up the apple pie filling and freeze).

Nutrition

A medium apple provides about four grams of fiber, and about 14 percent of the daily recommended amount of Vitamin C.  They are especially high in phytonutrients like polyphenols and anthocyanins that act as antioxidants. The potential benefits include blood sugar regulation and lung support; a 2004 study linked apple consumption to a lowered risk of jose feliciano anthem cancer and asthma.

Apples are naturally rich in pectin, a fiber that makes you feel full and satiated. Pectin has digestive benefits too: there’s evidence to suggest apple pectin consumption can slow down colon cancer. Many of the fruit’s nutrients are found in the peel, so it’s best to enjoy the entire fruit.

Источник: https://foodprint.org/real-food/apples/

Clear differences between organic and non-organic food, study finds

Organic food has more of the antioxidant compounds linked to better health than regular food, and lower levels of toxic metals and pesticides, according to the most comprehensive scientific analysis to date.

The international team behind the work suggests that switching to organic fruit and vegetables could give the same benefits as adding one or two portions of the recommended "five a day".

The team, led by Prof Carlo Leifert at Newcastle University, concludes that there are "statistically significant, meaningful" differences, with a range of antioxidants being "substantially higher" – between 19% and 69% – in organic food. It is the first study to demonstrate clear and wide-ranging differences between organic and conventional fruits, vegetables and cereals.

The researchers say the increased levels of antioxidants are equivalent to "one to two of the five portions of fruits and vegetables recommended to be consumed daily and would therefore be significant and meaningful in terms of human nutrition, if information linking these [compounds] to the health benefits associated with increased fruit, vegetable and whole grain consumption is confirmed".

The findings will bring to the boil a long-simmering row over whether those differences mean organic food is better for people, with one expert calling the work sexed up.

Tom Sanders, a professor of nutrition at King's College London, said the research did show some differences. "But the question is are they within natural variation? And are they nutritionally relevant? I am not convinced."

He said Leifert's work had caused controversy in the past. "Leifert has had a lot of aggro with a lot of people. He is oversexing [this report] a bit." Sanders added the research showed organic cereals have less protein than conventional crops.

The research was peer-reviewed and is published in a respected scientific journal, the British Journal of Nutrition. It was due to be released next week, but has appeared on severalacademicwebsites.

The results are based on an analysis of 343 peer-reviewed studies from around the union savings bank com – more than ever before – which examine differences between organic and conventional fruit, vegetables and cereals.

"The crucially important thing about this research is that it shatters the myth that how we farm does not affect the quality of the food we eat," said Helen Browning, chief executive of Soil Association, which campaigns for organic farming.

UK sales of organic food, which is often considerably more expensive than non-organic, are recovering after a slump during the economic crisis.

Plants produce many of their antioxidant compounds to fight back against pest attacks, so the higher levels in organic crops may result from their lack of protection by chemical sprays. But the scientists say other reasons may be important, such as organic varieties being bred for toughness and not being overfed with artificial fertilisers.

Leifert and his colleagues conclude that many antioxidants "have previously been linked to a reduced risk of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and certain cancers". But they also note that no long-term studies showing health benefits from a broad organic diet have yet been conducted.

The researchers found much higher levels of cadmium, a toxic metal, in conventional crops. Pesticide residues were found on conventional crops four times more often than on organic food. The research was funded by the EU and an organic farming charity.

The research is certain to be are organic apples good for you the inclusion of so many studies in the analysis could mean poor quality work skews the results, although the team did "sensitivity analyses" and found that excluding weaker work did not significantly change the outcome.

Also, the higher levels of cadmium and pesticides in conventional produce were still well below regulatory limits. But the researchers say cadmium accumulates over time in the body and that some people may wish to avoid this, and that pesticide limits are set individually, not for the cocktail of chemicals used on crops.

A further criticism is that the differences seen may result from different climate, soil types and crop varieties, and not from organic farming, though the researchers argue that combining many studies should average out these other differences.

The greatest criticism, however, will be over the suggestions of potential health benefits. The most recent major analysis, which took in 223 studies in 2012, found little evidence. "The published literature lacks strong evidence that organic foods are significantly more nutritious than conventional foods," it found.

This was also the conclusion of earlier, smaller studies published in 2009 in a scientific journal and by the UK Food Standards Agency (pdf), though the latter considered just 11 studies. The 2012 study did note that eating organic food might help people avoid pesticide residues.

Sanders said he was not persuaded by the new work. "You are not going to be better nourished if you eat organic food," he said. "What is most important is what you are organic apples good for you, not whether it's organic or conventional. It's whether you eat fruit and vegetables at all. People are buying into a lifestyle system. They get an assurance it is not being grown with chemicals and is not grown by big business."

He added that organic farming did help to address the significant problem in the UK of soil degradation and excess fertiliser polluting rivers.

Soil Association polling (pdf) shows healthy eating (55%) and avoiding chemical residues (53%) are key reasons cited by shoppers for buying organic produce.

But many also say care for the environment (44%) and animal welfare (31%) are important, as is taste (35%).

Browning said: "This research backs up what people think about organic food. In other countries there has long been much higher levels of support and acceptance of the benefits of organic food and farming. We hope these findings will bring the UK in line with the rest of Europe."

The organic shop

Consumers spend 25p more on 2 pints of semi-skimmed organic milk (£1.14) at most big supermarkets

45p more on an organic 800g wholemeal loaf (£1.20) at Sainsbury's

£1 more per kg on organic white grapes (£5 per kg) at both Sainsbury's and Tesco

£3.23 more on organic pork chops (£5.50) at Tesco than standard ones

£1.03 more on a pack of six organic mixed-weight eggs (£2) at Asda

40p more on a 340g tub of organic crunchy peanut butter (£1.70) at Sainsbury's

Source: MySupermarket. Standard non-sale prices correct on Friday 11 July

Источник: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/jul/11/organic-food-more-antioxidants-study

If you aren't eating the whole apple, you might be eating it the wrong way, a study finds

A new study could upend how we eat apples.

The amount of beneficial bacteria a person consumes when they eat an apple increases if they eat the entire apple -- core and all -- according to are organic apples good for you study from Graz University of Technology in Austria.

For example, a type of bacteria called Lactobacillus -- a are organic apples good for you component of probiotics -- was found on organic apples, including the core and seeds, and may help with certain health conditions like digestive disorders.

"We don’t know yet if more bacteria is better in terms of our gut health, but [this is] a very interesting study that I hope will lead to testing more foods and parts of the food that we can throw away sometimes," ABC News chief medical correspondent Dr. Jennifer Ashton said Wednesday on "Good Morning America."

(MORE: Eating sugar will actually make you want to eat more sugar)

To conduct the study, researchers analyzed store-bought and organic apples for their bacterial content, in everything from the stem of the apple to the peel, the flesh and the seeds.

Both store-bought and organic apples contained roughly the same amount of bacteria, but the majority of the bacteria were found in the seeds, so people who discarded the core got significantly fewer bacteria, according to researchers.

(MORE: Cutting only 300 calories a day can cut your risk of diabetes and heart disease, study finds)

Skipping eating the core and seeds of an average apple could drop the number of microbes a person consumes from more than 100 million to 10 million, the study found.

PHOTO: Apples are seen here in this undated stock photo.

STOCK PHOTO/Getty Images

Apples are seen here in this undated stock photo.

The study also found that organic apples had a more diverse and evenly-spread bacterial community compared to store bought apples, and more bacteria with health-affecting potential.

This means that eating whole organic apples might be most beneficial for a person's gut microbiome, the microbe population living in the intestine.

While consuming an inordinate number of apple seeds at one time can be dangerous, Ashton said that apple-eaters generally do not need to worry about that. Apple seeds contain a chemical compound known as amygdalin, which produces cyanide, when the seeds are crushed and consumed.

Small amounts of cyanide can cause acute poisoning and may even be deadly.

"This is about the number of seeds that come out of one apple," Ashton said. "You need literally hundreds of apple seeds to be crushed and chewed in about a 150-pound person."

Источник: https://www.goodmorningamerica.com/wellness/story/eating-apple-wrong-study-finds-eating-apple-including-64530844

100m bacteria a day keep the doctor away, apple research suggests

The impact of an apple a day in keeping the doctor away may be partly down to the beneficial bacteria it carries and their subsequent colonisation of your gut, according to scientists.

A study has found that a typical apple carries more than 100m bacteria. Some of these microbes are important in maintaining a healthy gut environment, or microbiome, says Prof Gabriele Berg from Graz University of Technology, Austria, one of the authors of the research.

“The bacteria, fungi and viruses in our food transiently colonise our gut,” she said. “Cooking kills most of these, so raw fruit and veg are particularly important sources of gut microbes.”

The researchers compared the bacteria in shop-bought apples with those in visually matched organic ones. The apple’s stem, peel, flesh, seeds and calyx – the straggly bit at the bottom where the flower used to be – were all analysed separately.

Although organic and conventional apples were occupied by similar numbers of bacteria, the researchers found organic apples harboured a more diverse and balanced bacterial community, which they said could make them healthier and tastier than conventional apples.

Variety in the microbiome is thought to be key to a healthy gut and the researchers said there appeared to be more microbial diversity in organic apples.

“Freshly harvested, organically managed apples harbour a significantly more diverse, more even and distinct bacterial are organic apples good for you, compared to conventional ones,” explained Berg. “This variety and balance would be expected to limit overgrowth of any one species, and previous studies have reported a negative correlation between human pathogen abundance and microbiome diversity of fresh produce.” In other words, the more varied your diet, the fewer harmful bacteria are found.

The research may also vindicate the people who claim to be able to taste the difference between organic and ordinary produce, say the researchers. A microbe known as methylobacterium, which is known to boost strawberry-flavoured compounds, was significantly more abundant in organic apples, Berg said.

Birgit Wassermann, also at Graz University of Technology and the lead author of the study, said the next step would be “to confirm to what extent diversity in the food microbiome translates to gut microbial diversity and improved health outcomes”.

She also suggested that this information might one day appear on supermarket food labels. “The microbiome and antioxidant profiles of fresh produce may one day become standard nutritional information, displayed alongside macronutrients, vitamins and minerals to guide consumers,” she added.

The research was published in the journal Frontiers in Microbiology.

Источник: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2019/jul/24/100m-bacteria-a-day-keep-the-doctor-away-apple-research-suggests

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