is extra olive oil good for you

Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) offers a host of health benefits and it is now well established that the health benefits are not only attributed to its fat. Olive oil is high in monounsaturated "healthy" fats (due to its high concentration of oleic acid) and, depending on the oil, may be rich in. In fact it has become so engrained in the minds of many, that I have even heard top chefs repeating the fallacy that good extra virgin olive oil should only be.
is extra olive oil good for you

Is extra olive oil good for you -

Extra olive virgin oil is touted for its health benefits. A staple of the Mediterranean Diet, the oil contains antioxidants attributed to its phenolic compounds.

While in Mediterranean countries extra virgin olive oil is regularly used as a final seasoning, it is also used for roasting, sautéing, stir-frying and deep-frying.

There is a risk that such culinary techniques could diminish the minor components of extra virgin olive oil, such as polyphenols. This could occur through substances leaching into the food, or by degradation and transformation of the oil’s polyphenol content.

A team of researchers from the University of Barcelona and the University of São ​Paulo have sought to determine whether, in a domestic kitchen environment, extra virgin olive oil is degraded when applied to heat – and specifically, when pan-fried or sautéed.

"The effects of cooking on these polyphenols of oil have always been studied in a laboratory or industrial situation, which is far from the reality of our homes,"​ noted director of the Institute in Research on Nutrition and Food Safety (INSA-UB) and study co-author Rosa M. Lamuela.

The thinking is that results from a domestic setting could be used to inform future recommendations or nutritional guidelines.

What is extra virgin olive oil?

Where regular olive oil is refined and stripped of important nutrients and antioxidants, extra virgin olive oil is produced using a natural extraction process – without the use of heat or chemicals.

This allows the oil to retain all the nutrients and antioxidants from the olive fruit. As a result, extra virgin olive oil is regarded the highest quality olive oil available.

Extra virgin olive oil is the main source of fat in a Mediterranean diet. It displays a singular fatty acid composition with a higher content of phenolic compounds and other antioxidants than other edible oils.

Its consumption has been demonstrated to play a protective role against diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurodegeneration.

Extra virgin olive oil in a domestic kitchen

In the study, published in academic journal Antioxidants​, the researchers simulated the cooking conditions of a domestic kitchen. The aim was to determine how homemade sautéing affects the polyphenols of extra virgin olive oil.

The effects of time – whether the oil was sautéed for a long or short period – and temperature (at 120°C and 170°C) on the degradation of antioxidants was also analysed.

olive

Results revealed that temperature did have a degrading effect on the polyphenols of extra virgin olive oil during the sauté cooking process. At 120°C, the content of polyphenols decreased by 40% and at 170°C, it decreased by 75% – compared to the levels of antioxidants in raw oil.

Time had an effect on such individual phenols, such as hydroxytyrosol, but not on the total phenol content.

Overall, antioxidant levels remained with the ‘healthy range’, as stated in European regulation.

"Despite the decrease in concentration of polyphenols during the cooking process, this oil has a polyphenol level that reaches the declaration of health in accordance to the European regulation, which means it has properties that protect oxidation of LDL cholesterol particles,"​ noted co-author Julián Lozano.

What do these findings mean for the Mediterranean diet?

mediterranean diet aamuyla

The Mediterranean diet varies from country and region but is largely based on consumption habits of those living in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, including Greece, Italy, Spain and France.

Broadly speaking, the diet champions vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, beans, cereals, grains, fish and unsaturated fats such as olive oil.

However, the health benefits experienced by those living near the Mediterranean and eating these locally sourced ingredients, are not always transposed to people following the diet in other geographies.

According to the researchers, this is likely due to cooking practices. These latest findings are expected to support the idea that Mediterranean cuisine is beneficial for health – not purely for the ingredients themselves, but for the ways of cooking it.

Thus, it would be beneficial to analyse the effects of cooking extra virgin olive other with other food elements from the Mediterranean diet. "Moreover, we should conduct random research studies in humans, in which we would compare the potential benefits we obtain when cooking with quality extra virgin olive oil compared to other oils," ​noted Lozano.

Source:Antioxidants

‘Domestic Sautéing with EVOO: Change in the Phenolic Profile
Published 16 January 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010077​  
Authors: Julián Lozano-Castellón, Anna Vallverdú-Queralt, José Fernando Rinaldi de Alvarenga, Montserrat Illán, Xavier Torrado-Prat, and Rosa Maria Lamuela-Raventós

Источник: https://www.foodnavigator.com/Article/2020/05/05/Is-extra-virgin-olive-oil-just-as-healthy-when-pan-fried-Study

How Healthy Is Extra-Light Olive Oil?

Olive oil is considered a heart-healthy fat because of its high monounsaturated fat content, making it a good choice when we need to use fat in our cooking or dressings. However, nearly all olive oil contains 14 grams of fat per tablespoon, even if the label describes it as light or extra light. Similarly, you'll find that all types of olive oil have about 120 calories per tablespoon.

Health Benefits of Olive Oil

Olive oil is also known as a healthy oil due to its presence of phenolic compounds, according to Nasir Malik of the U.S. Agriculture Department's Research Service. Scientifically, the polyphenols in olive oil are nutrients common in other beverages and ingredients like wine, tea, cocoa, fruits, and vegetables. These elements are known to decrease heart disease, lower blood pressure and cholesterol, and reduce blood clots, and are thought to reduce cancer, lower inflammation, and more.

There are endless oil choices, including vegetable, canola, walnut, sesame, coconut, avocado, and so on. Olive oil is one of the best ones for cooking due to its heat stability and flavor. It also contains monounsaturated fatty acids, which are healthy fats that assist with lowering the risk of heart disease and bad cholesterol in the bloodstream. In comparison to regular olive oil, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has fewer chemicals and free radicals than regular olive oil, higher antioxidants, and plenty of good fats.

Light and Extra Light

Light or extra light refers to the color and flavor of the olive oil, not its calorie content, and the label on the bottle should say something to this extent. Extra-light olive oil is often pale and mild, as it's been ultra-refined. Extra-light olive oil has a higher smoke point than regular or extra-virgin olive oil, so it can withstand hotter temperatures before breaking down and is best suited for use in baking, or types of cooking where a neutral-tasting oil is needed.

For salad dressings or other dishes where the flavor and fruitiness of olive oil are important, opt for extra-virgin olive oil, which has the purest taste. The oil is fresh from the fruit—it may be filtered but no heat is used to refine the oil. Because of its strong flavor, a little olive oil really does go a long way.

The Difference in Oils

Extra virgin olive oil has been processed the least. Fresh and untouched extra virgin olive oil tastes fruity, bitter, and peppery. Most extra virgin olive oils simply taste better, but those that are cold-pressed, stone-pressed, and unfiltered taste even better.

Some pure olive oils aren't really pure at all. Many are a mix of extra virgin olive oils and processed oils. Check the label to make sure. Light olive oil has no real difference other than it being processed and thus it has a lighter color. While this can last longer and be heated at a higher temperature, there are more chemicals and fewer nutrients. Ultimately, you want to go for heart-healthy extra virgin olive oil when you can.

The Spruce Eats uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. US Department of Agriculture. Food Data Central. Olive oil. Updated April 1, 2020.

  2. Agricultural Research Service.  US Department of Agriculture. Olive oil’s health benefits? It’s a slippery question. September 11, 2012.

Источник: https://www.thespruceeats.com/extra-light-olive-oil-for-cooking-2246051

What happens when you eat extra virgin olive oil every day?

Olive oil is high in antioxidants. Antioxidants reduce the negative effects of free radicals, which contribute to the development of inflammation and disease in the body. Free radicals are found everywhere - our bodies produce them when we convert food to energy, they are in the air we breathe, the pesticides added to so many things we consume are packed with them and then some are generated by the sunlight’s action on the skin and eyes. So, long story short, we are exposed to A LOT of free radicals.

Early harvest olive oils - an extra boost in the fight against free radicals

So-called "early harvest" olive oils (which most of Sarah & Olive's Extra Virgin are), have higher levels of polyphenols than other olive oils, even extra virgin olive oils. Polyphenols are a group of over 500 phytochemicals, which are naturally occurring micronutrients in plants. As with other antioxidants, polyphenols help prevent cellular damage from free-radicals. Harvesting early means that the olives are greener and so give the oil an even bigger antioxidant boost and this is what lowers our risk of many chronic diseases.

Another thing worth mentioning is that early harvest olive oil are not just healthier they also taste deliciously fresh and green making them fabulous for dressing salads and veggies.

Will it make me fat?

The short answer is no. Studies have shown that regular consumption of olive oil does not lead to weight gain or obesity. As a very nutrient-rich food, olive oil helps the body to feel sated thereby lessening our need to indulge in unhealthy snacks.

Raw or cooked?

While it's a myth that you can't cook with extra virgin olive oil, given the calibre of our prize-winning extra virgin olive oils I think they are best used for drizzling or salads, bread and all your favourite dishes and ingredients. This way, you'll preserve all the goodness and flavour. 

For cooking, roasting, frying and sautéing we stock some excellent options made by some of our best producers that come at a great price for the cooking then to really make things special finish you favourite dishes with a drizzle of something special of one before serving. Check out our list of favs here. That way you'll get all the goodness and flavour without breaking the bank.

In the meantime, I hope this article serves to make clear just why good quality extra virgin olive oil needs to be part of any healthy diet. They're not all the same and it really is worth investing in a good one (or two). As I always say, they cost about the same as a decent bottle of wine, last for months rather than hours and really do make everything taste amazing. It's a win-win really.

All the best,

Sarah

Источник: https://www.sarahandolive.com/blogs/news/2-tablespoons-a-day

The benefits of Extra Virgin Olive Oil: a real liquid gold!

"There are two parameters for understanding if the oil is good or not: smell and taste", says Lorenzo Mazzotta from Agricola Afra . The smell should remind you of the flowers and fruits and should tempt you. At the same time, “an oil that has no smell is a ‘dead’ oil,” says Paolo Boeri from Olio ROI . For an untrained person to detect bad smells or flaws is not so simple, but if you pay attention each time you buy an oil you will eventually become a bit of an expert.

The oil smells are also some of the parameters that help you to distinguish the Oil Varieties. You can recognize light, medium, or intense fruity scents such as those found in green; some other scents you might distinguish are herbaceous, artichoke, almond, tomato, yellow fruits, wild-berries, and so on.

The other important parameter is taste. Many people think that bitterness and spiciness represent a flaw, but actually these are indicators of high quality. These two flavors are present due to the antioxidants in the compounds naturally present in the oil, and they protect it from oxidation.

Various levels of bitterness and spiciness depend on the level of ripeness of the olives. Ripe olives have a less intense scent, with fruity smells that remind one of ripe and dried fruits. Green olives, produce an oil with high intensity; a very bitter and spicy flavor.

Lorenzo Mazzotta from Agricola Afra shares his secrets on tasting techniques. "Take a small glass with a few teaspoons of oil inside, warm it with one hand and with the other hand, cover the glass. In this way, you will concentrate the flavor and smells. Wait a few seconds, take a whiff, judge the high intensity, and recover with your hand."

"Then taste it: put a small quantity of oil on your tongue and with tight teeth take a deep breath to spread out the oil on every part of your mouth and vaporize it in your throat. This process will help you to evaluate the intensity of bitterness on your tongue and spiciness in your throat; both must be present in a High Quality Extra-Virgin Oil.”

Источник: https://us.eattiamo.com/olive-oil-benefits/

Olive Oil vs. Coconut Oil: Which is Healthier?

When it comes to your health, olive oil and coconut oil are like two of your closest friends.

Olive oil is the friend you’ve known since grade school who’s completely dependable and always supports you. Coconut oil is the new friend you made as an adult who’s always up on the latest trend and exposes you to all kinds of things you didn’t have access to before.

You need both of them, right? But what if your schedule’s gotten really busy and you’ve only got time for one?

Translation: When you reach for a bottle at Trader Joe’s, which should you carry home if your grocery tote is too full for both? (Reminder: We’re talking about olive oil vs. coconut oil, not people.)

Here are the facts on which is healthier: olive oil or coconut oil.

Olive oil vs. Coconut Oil: Fats

Olive oil contains some saturated fat as well as minimal omega-3s and omega-6s, but the star of its fatty acid profile (what a title!) is monounsaturated fat, most of it in the form of oleic acid. Monounsaturated fats are linked to decreased risk of high blood pressure and a decrease in LDL (AKA bad) cholesterol, both of which are associated with heart disease.

In fact, research shows olive oil benefits heart health in multiple ways and the evidence that it reduces heart disease and stroke risk is pretty robust.

RELATED: Why Healthy Fats Don’t Make You Fat

Coconut oil, on the other hand, is made up primarily of saturated fat in the form of molecules called medium-chain-triglycerides (MCTs). Saturated fat used to be demonized for raising heart disease risk but recent research has changed that thinking, and the saturated fat in coconut oil has actually been found to raise your good (HDL) cholesterol and lower triglycerides (fats in your blood that raise heart disease risk).

MCTs are also quickly metabolized and turned into energy, which means less stored fat—and some research suggests that means coconut oil may be superior for weight loss.

Some preliminary evidence even suggests coconut oil’s fat profile may also help prevent or treat Alzheimer’s disease (because of the way MCTs are broken down into molecules the brain can use as fuel), but the research is far from conclusive.

Olive Oil vs. Coconut Oil: Antioxidants

Olive oil has a reputation for being rich in antioxidants for a reason. It’s filled with bioavailable phenolic compounds that have been found to have multiple, varied positive health effects like decreasing oxidative damage to DNA and lowering inflammatory markers.

RELATED: Why Is Inflammation Such a Buzzed-About Health Term?

Coconut oil has been linked to some antioxidant activity, but not to the extent of olive. It does, however, contain some anti-bacterial compounds that play a role in preventing acne, boosting immune function and fighting infection.

Olive Oil Vs. Coconut Oil: Quality

Finally, a science break (sort of)! There are a few factors that don’t necessarily have to do with straight-up nutrition facts that are worth considering.

First, it may seem like olive oil is significantly cheaper than coconut, tempting you to opt for olive. That is sometimes true, but fraud is also rampant in the olive oil industry. So, if an imported bottle of EVOO is crazy cheap, that’s probably because it’s watered down with fake, or heavily processed, oils. Opt for extra-virgin, cold-pressed olive and virgin, cold-pressed coconut—and do some homework first on brands you can trust.

You may have also heard that because olive oil has a lower smoke point, you shouldn’t use it for cooking at higher heats because it will break down and become carcinogenic. Most research actually shows olive oil is very resistant to oxidation even at high heats (likely due to those incredible antioxidants!). Coconut oil does have a higher smoke point if you want to err on the side of caution and primarily use olive oil for cold foods and coconut for hot.

RELATED: Does Grilling Make Food Carcinogenic?

The Bottom Line

When it comes to research-backed health benefits, high-quality extra-virgin olive oil wins. Especially when you consider it’s a cornerstone of the Mediterranean Diet, which has been studied at length and is linked to reduced risk of heart disease, some cancers, diabetes, and more.

But coconut oil is amazing for your health, too. It has multiple benefits—for your heart, weight, and more—they’re just not as well-studied yet. It also wins when it comes to versatility. (You can use it outside the kitchen for dental health, to take off makeup and moisturize, and so much more.)

At the end of the day, it’s nice to have one option for when you want savory, Mediterranean flavor and another when you’re craving tropical and sweet. Just look for extra-virgin and cold-pressed varieties from trusted brands, and stock your pantry with both options.

 

By: Nutritious Life Editors

Источник: https://nutritiouslife.com/eat-empowered/olive-oil-vs-coconut-oil-healthier/
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  • Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olive_oil

    : Is extra olive oil good for you

    Is extra olive oil good for you
    Is extra olive oil good for you
    Is extra olive oil good for you
    Is extra olive oil good for you
    Gleaners food bank noblesville

    The benefits of Extra Virgin Olive Oil: a real liquid gold!

    "There are two parameters for understanding if the oil is good or not: smell and taste", says Lorenzo Mazzotta from Agricola Afra . The smell should remind you of the flowers and fruits and should tempt you. At the same time, “an oil that has no smell is a ‘dead’ oil,” says Paolo Boeri from Olio ROI . For an untrained person to detect bad smells or flaws is not so simple, but if you pay attention each time you buy an oil you will eventually become a bit of an expert.

    The oil smells are also some of the parameters that help you to distinguish the Oil Varieties. You can recognize light, medium, or intense fruity scents such bank of america corporate credit card those found in green; some other scents you might distinguish are herbaceous, artichoke, almond, tomato, yellow fruits, wild-berries, and so on.

    The other important parameter is taste. Many people think that bitterness and spiciness represent a flaw, but actually these are indicators of high quality. These two flavors are present due to the antioxidants in the compounds naturally present in the oil, and they protect it from oxidation.

    Various levels of bitterness and spiciness depend on the level of ripeness of the olives. Ripe olives have a less intense scent, with fruity smells that remind one of ripe and dried fruits. Green olives, produce an oil with high intensity; a very bitter and spicy flavor.

    Lorenzo Mazzotta from Agricola Afra shares his secrets on tasting techniques. "Take a small glass with a few teaspoons of oil inside, warm it with one hand and with the other hand, cover the glass. In this way, you will concentrate the flavor and smells. Wait a few seconds, take a whiff, judge the high intensity, and recover with your hand."

    "Then taste it: put a small quantity of oil on your tongue and with tight teeth take a deep breath to spread out the oil on every part of your mouth and vaporize it in your throat. This process will help you to evaluate the intensity of bitterness on your tongue and spiciness in your throat; both must be present in a High Quality Extra-Virgin Oil.”

    Источник: https://us.eattiamo.com/olive-oil-benefits/

    How Healthy Is Extra-Light Olive Oil?

    Olive oil is considered a heart-healthy fat because of its high monounsaturated fat content, making it a good choice when we need to use fat in our cooking or dressings. However, nearly all olive oil contains 14 grams of fat per tablespoon, even if the label describes it as light or extra light. Similarly, you'll find that all types of olive oil have about 120 calories per tablespoon.

    Health Benefits of Olive Oil

    Olive oil is also known as a healthy oil due to its presence of phenolic compounds, according to Nasir Malik of the U.S. Agriculture Department's Research Service. Scientifically, the polyphenols in olive oil are nutrients common in other beverages and ingredients like wine, tea, cocoa, fruits, and vegetables. These elements are known to decrease heart disease, lower blood pressure and cholesterol, and reduce blood clots, and are thought to reduce cancer, lower inflammation, and more.

    There are endless oil choices, including vegetable, canola, walnut, sesame, coconut, avocado, and so on. Olive oil is one of the best ones for cooking due to its heat stability and flavor. It also contains monounsaturated fatty acids, which are healthy fats that assist with lowering the risk of heart disease and bad cholesterol in the bloodstream. In comparison to regular olive oil, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has fewer chemicals and free radicals than regular olive oil, higher antioxidants, and plenty of good is extra olive oil good for you.

    Light and Extra Light

    Light or extra light refers to the color and flavor of the olive oil, not its calorie content, and the label on the bottle should say something to this extent. Extra-light olive oil is often pale and mild, as it's been ultra-refined. Extra-light olive oil has a higher smoke point than regular or extra-virgin olive oil, so it can withstand hotter temperatures before breaking down and is best suited for use in baking, or types of cooking where a neutral-tasting oil is needed.

    For salad dressings or other dishes where the flavor and fruitiness of olive oil are important, opt for extra-virgin olive oil, which has the purest taste. The oil is fresh from the fruit—it may be filtered but no heat is used to refine the oil. Because of its strong flavor, a little olive oil really does go a long way.

    The Difference in Oils

    Extra virgin olive oil has been processed the least. Fresh and untouched extra virgin olive oil tastes fruity, bitter, and peppery. Most extra virgin olive oils simply taste better, but those that are cold-pressed, stone-pressed, and unfiltered taste even better.

    Some pure olive oils aren't really pure at all. Many are a mix of extra virgin olive oils and processed oils. Check the label to make sure. Light olive oil has no real difference other than it being processed and thus it has a lighter color. While this can last longer and be heated at a higher temperature, there are more chemicals and fewer nutrients. Ultimately, you want to go for heart-healthy extra virgin olive oil when you can.

    The Spruce Eats uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

    1. US Department of Agriculture. Food Data Central. Olive oil. Updated April 1, 2020.

    2. Agricultural Research Service.  US Department of Agriculture. Olive oil’s health benefits? It’s a slippery question. September 11, 2012.

    Источник: https://www.thespruceeats.com/extra-light-olive-oil-for-cooking-2246051

    What happens when you eat extra virgin olive oil every day?

    Olive oil is high in antioxidants. Antioxidants reduce the negative effects of free radicals, which contribute to the development of inflammation and disease in the body. Free radicals are found everywhere - our bodies produce them when we convert food to energy, they are in the air we breathe, the pesticides added to so many things we consume are packed with them and then some are generated by the sunlight’s action on the skin and eyes. So, long story short, we are exposed to A LOT of free radicals.

    Early harvest olive oils - an extra boost in the fight against free radicals

    So-called "early harvest" olive oils (which most of Sarah & Olive's Extra Virgin are), have higher levels of polyphenols than other olive oils, even extra virgin olive oils. Polyphenols are a group of over 500 phytochemicals, which are naturally occurring micronutrients bmo harris auto loan account plants. As with other antioxidants, polyphenols help prevent cellular damage from free-radicals. Harvesting early means that the olives are greener and so give the oil an even bigger antioxidant boost and this is what lowers our risk of many chronic diseases.

    Another thing worth mentioning is that early harvest olive oil are not just healthier they also taste deliciously fresh and green making them fabulous for dressing salads and veggies.

    Will it make me fat?

    The short answer is no. Studies have shown that regular consumption of olive oil does not lead to weight gain or chase cashiers check from savings account. As a very nutrient-rich food, olive oil helps the body to feel sated thereby lessening our need to indulge in unhealthy snacks.

    Raw or cooked?

    While it's a myth that you can't cook with extra virgin olive oil, given the calibre of our prize-winning extra virgin olive oils I think they are best used for drizzling or salads, bread and all your favourite dishes and ingredients. This way, you'll preserve all the goodness and flavour. 

    For cooking, roasting, frying and sautéing we stock some excellent options made by some of our best producers that come at a great price for the cooking then to really make things special finish you favourite dishes with a drizzle of something special of one before serving. Check out our list of favs here. That way you'll get all the goodness and flavour without breaking the bank.

    In the meantime, I hope this article serves to make clear just why good quality extra virgin olive oil needs to be part of any healthy diet. They're not all the same and it really is worth investing in a good one (or two). As I always say, they cost about the same as a decent bottle of wine, last for months rather than hours and really do make everything taste amazing. It's a win-win really.

    All the best,

    Sarah

    Источник: https://www.sarahandolive.com/blogs/news/2-tablespoons-a-day
    essential fine food industry news and insights sent straight to your inbox - for free

    Olive oil

    Liquid fat extracted by pressing olives

    This article is about the liquid fat extracted by pressing olives. For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl.

    Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin, produced by pressing whole olives and extracting the oil. It is commonly used in cooking, for frying foods or as a salad dressing. It is also used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps, and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps, and has additional uses in some religions. The olive is one of three core food plants in Mediterranean cuisine; the other two are wheat and grapes. Olive trees have been grown around the Mediterranean since the 8th millennium BC.

    Spain accounts for almost half of global olive oil production; other major producers are Italy, Tunisia, Greece and Turkey.[4] Per capita consumption is highest in Greece, followed by Italy and Spain.

    The composition of olive oil varies with the cultivar, altitude, time of harvest and extraction process. It consists mainly of oleic acid (up to 83%), with smaller amounts of other fatty acids including linoleic acid (up to 21%) and palmitic acid (up to 20%). Extra virgin olive oil is required to have no more than 0.8% free newtown savings bank trumbull hours and is considered to have favorable flavor characteristics.

    History[edit]

    Olive oil has long been a common ingredient in Mediterranean cuisine, including ancient Greek and Roman cuisine. Wild olives, which originated in Asia Minor, were collected by Neolithic people as early as the 8th millennium BC.[5][citation not found][6][better source needed] Besides food, olive oil has been used for religious rituals, medicines, as a fuel in oil lamps, soap-making, and skin care application.[citation needed] The Spartans and other Greeks used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. From its beginnings early in the 7th century BC, the cosmetic use of olive oil quickly spread to all of the Hellenic city states, together with athletes training in the nude, and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense.[7][8] Olive oil was also popular as a form of birth control; Aristotle in his History of Animals recommends applying a mixture of olive oil combined with either oil of cedar, ointment of lead, or ointment of frankincense to the cervix to prevent pregnancy.[9]

    Early cultivation[edit]

    Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in Klazomenai, Ionia(modern Turkey)

    It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated. The modern olive tree most likely originated in ancient Persia and Mesopotamia, and spread to the Levant and later to North Africa, though some scholars argue for an Egyptian origin.[10]

    The olive tree reached Greece, Carthage and Libya sometime in the 28th century BC, having been spread westward by the Phoenicians.[10] Until around 1500 BC, eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated.[citation needed] Evidence also suggests that olives were being grown in Crete as long ago as 2500 BC. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times), though the production of olive oil is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete, and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan.[11] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy, as it did across the Mediterranean.[citation needed] Later, as Greek colonies were established in other parts of the Mediterranean, olive farming was introduced to places like Spain and continued to spread throughout the Roman Empire.[10]

    Olive trees were introduced to the Americas in the 16th century AD when cultivation began in areas that enjoyed a climate similar to is extra olive oil good for you Mediterranean such as Chile, Argentina and California.[10]

    Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations, but a detailed history of domestication is not yet forthcoming.[12]

    Trade and production[edit]

    Ancient oil press (Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology, Bodrum, Turkey)

    Archaeological evidence shows that by 6000 BC olives were being turned into olive oil[13] and in 4500 BC at a now-submerged prehistoric settlement south of Haifa.[14]

    Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC), which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in the Tanakh.[15]

    Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete, Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs over 4,000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. Sinuhe, the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC, wrote of abundant olive trees.[16] The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization, where it is thought to have represented wealth.[citation needed]

    Olive oil was also a major export of Mycenaean Greece (c. 1450–1150 BC).[17][10] Scholars believe the oil was made by a process where olives were placed in woven mats and squeezed. The oil collected in vats. This process was known from the Bronze Age and has been used by the Egyptians and continued to be used through the Hellenistic period.[10]

    Olive crusher (trapetum)in Pompeii (79 AD)

    The importance of olive oil as a commercial commodity increased after the Roman conquest of Egypt, Greece and Asia Minor led to more trade along the Mediterranean. Olive trees were planted throughout the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman Republic and Empire. According to the historian Pliny the Elder, Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the 1st century AD—"the best in the Mediterranean".[citation needed] As olive production expanded in the 5th century AD the Romans began to employ more sophisticated production techniques like the olive press and trapetum (pictured left).[10] Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region, and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.[18] Productivity was greatly improved by Joseph Graham's development of the hydraulic pressing system developed in 1795.[10]

    The Manufacture of Oil, 16th century engraving by Jost Amman

    Symbolism and mythology[edit]

    The olive tree has historically been a symbol of peace between nations. It has played a religious and social role in Greek mythology, especially concerning the name of the city of Athens where the city was named after the goddess Athena because her gift of an olive tree was held to be more precious than rival Poseidon's gift of a salt spring.[10]

    Varieties[edit]

    Main article: List of olive cultivars

    There are many olive cultivars, each with a particular flavor, texture, and shelf life that make them more or less suitable for different applications, such as direct human consumption on bread or in salads, indirect consumption in domestic cooking or catering, or industrial uses such as animal feed or engineering applications.[19] During the stages of maturity, olive fruit changes color from green to violet, and then black. Olive oil taste characteristics depend on which stage of ripeness olive fruits are collected.[19]

    Uses[edit]

    Culinary use[edit]

    Olive oil is an important cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean, and it forms one of the three staple food plants of Mediterranean cuisine, the other two being wheat (as in pasta, bread, and couscous) and the grape, used as a dessert fruit and for wine.[20]

    Extra virgin olive oil is mostly used as a salad dressing and as an ingredient in salad dressings. It is also used with foods to be eaten cold. If uncompromised by heat, the flavor is stronger. It also can be used for sautéing.

    When extra virgin olive oil is heated above 210–216 °C (410–421 °F), depending on its free fatty acid content, the unrefined particles within the oil are burned. This leads to deteriorated taste. Refined olive oils are suited for deep frying because of the higher smoke point and milder flavour.[21] Extra virgin oils have a smoke point around 180–215 °C (356–419 °F),[1] with higher-quality oils having a higher smoke point,[22] whereas refined light olive oil has a smoke point up to 230 °C (446 °F).[1] It is a "popular myth" that high-quality extra virgin olive oil is a poor choice for cooking, as its smoke point is above the temperatures required for cooking, and has greater resistance to oxidation than most is extra olive oil good for you cooking oils, as a result of its antioxidant and mono-unsaturated fat content.[1]

    Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. The flavor of these oils varies considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish.

    Fresh oil, as available in an oil-producing region, tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. In time, oils deteriorate and become stale. One-year-old oil may be still pleasant to the taste, but it is less fragrant than fresh oil. After the first year, olive oil is more suitable for cooking than serving raw.

    The taste of the olive oil is influenced by the varietals used to produce the oil and by the moment when the olives are harvested and ground (less ripe olives give more bitter and spicy flavors – riper olives give a sweeter sensation in the oil).

    Religious use[edit]

    Christianity[edit]

    The Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick or Unction). Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent such as balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism, which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit), in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops, in the consecration of altars and churches, and, traditionally, in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation.

    Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches, home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. To douse the flame, the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed, whereupon the rest of the cotton burns out. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries.

    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints uses virgin olive oil that has been blessed by the priesthood. This consecrated oil is used for anointing the sick.[23]

    Iglesia ni Cristo uses olive oil to anoint sick (in Filipino: "Pagpapahid ng Langis"), it is blessed by minister or deacon by prayer before anointing to the sick. After anointing, the Elder prays for Thanksgiving.

    Judaism[edit]

    In Jewish observance, olive oil was the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched menorah in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt, and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed is extra olive oil good for you and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests and stored in special containers. In modern times, although candles can be used to light the menorah at Hanukkah, oil containers are preferred, to imitate the original menorah.

    Olive oil was also used to prepare the holy anointing oil used for priests, kings, prophets, and others.[24]

    Skin care[edit]

    One study found that olive oil lowered the risk of dermatitis for infants in all gestational stages when compared with emollient cream,[25] while another study of adults found that topical treatment with olive oil "significantly damages the skin barrier" when compared to sunflower oil, and that it may make existing atopic dermatitis worse. The researchers concluded that due to the negative outcome in adults, they do not recommend the use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage.[26] Applying olive oil to the skin does not help prevent or reduce stretch marks.[27]

    Other[edit]

    Olive oil is also a natural and safe lubricant, and can be used to lubricate kitchen machinery (grinders, blenders, cookware, etc.). It can also be used for illumination (oil lamps) or as the base for soaps and detergents.[28] Some cosmetics also use olive oil as their base,[29] and it can be used as a substitute for machine oil.[30][31][32] Olive oil has also been used as both solvent and ligand in the synthesis of cadmium selenide quantum dots.[33]

    The Ranieri Filo della Torre is an international literary prize for writings about extra virgin olive oil. It ally bank locations pa honors poetry, fiction and non-fiction about extra virgin olive oil.

    [edit]

    A cold press olive oil machine in Israel.

    Main article: Olive oil extraction

    Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. Green olives usually produce more bitter oil, and overripe olives can produce oil with fermentation defects, so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. The process is generally as follows:

    1. The olives are ground into paste key bank online checking login large millstones (traditional method), hammer, blade or disk mill (modern method).
    2. If ground with mill stones, the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30 to 40 minutes. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste, a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. After grinding, the olive paste is spread on fiber disks, which are stacked on top of each other in a column, then placed into the press. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). This very slow separation process first financial bank texas customer service number been replaced by centrifugation, which is much faster and more thorough. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process is extra olive oil good for you organic degeneration by microorganisms. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect, thus ulta com pay my bill a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles.
    3. Modern grinders reduce the olives to paste in seconds. After grinding, the paste is stirred slowly for another 20 to 30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation), where the microscopic oil drops aggregate into bigger drops, which facilitates the mechanical extraction. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation/ the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before.
      The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described above is called virgin oil.[34] Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity, no or very little organoleptic defects). A higher grade extra virgin olive oil is mostly dependent on favourable weather conditions; a drought during the flowering phase, for example, can result in a lower quality (virgin) oil. It is worth noting that olive trees produce well every couple of years, so greater harvests occur in alternate years (the year in-between is when the tree yields less). However the quality is still dependent on 1st financial federal credit union routing number weather.
    4. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered, suggesting a different taste. Fresh unfiltered olive oil usually has a slightly cloudy appearance, and is therefore sometimes called cloudy olive oil. This form of olive oil used to be popular only among small scale producers but is now becoming "trendy", in line with consumer's demand for products that are perceived to be less processed. But generally, if not tasted or consumed soon after production, filtered olive oil should be preferred: "Some producers maintain that extra-virgin olive oils do not need filtration but also that filtration is detrimental to oil quality. This point of view should be considered as erroneous and probably the result of improper implementation of this operation. In fact, fine particles that are suspended in a virgin olive oil, even after the most effective centrifugal finishing, contain water and enzymes that may impair oil stability and ruin its sensory profile. [.] Filtration makes an extra-virgin olive oil more stable and also more attractive. If the suspended particles are not removed they slowly agglomerate and flocculate, forming a deposit on the bottom of the storage containers. Such a deposit continues to be at risk of enzymatic spoilage and, in the worst case, of development of anaerobic micro-organisms with further spoilage and hygienic risk. [.] It is [.] recommended that filtration be carried out as soon as possible after centrifugal separation and finishing."[35]

    Ancient Levant[edit]

    In the ancient Levant, three methods were used to produce different grades of olive oil.[36] The finest oil was produced from fully developed and ripe olives harvested solely from the apex of the tree,[37] and lightly pressed, "for what flows from light pressure is very sweet and very thin."[38] The remaining olives are pressed with a heavier weight,[38] and vary in ripeness.[37] Inferior oil is produced from unripe olives that are stored for extended periods of time until they grow soft or begin to shrivel to become more fit for grinding.[39] Others are left for extended periods in pits in the ground to induce sweating and decay before they are ground.[40] According to the Geoponica, salt and a little nitre are added when oil is stored.[38]

    Oil was sometimes extracted from unripe olives, known in medieval times is extra olive oil good for you anfa kinon (Greek ὀμφάκιον, ὀμφάχινον; Latinomphacium; Arabic: زيت الأنفاق‎), and used in cuisine and in medicine.[41][42]

    Pomace handling[edit]

    The remaining semi-solid waste, called pomace, retains a small quantity (about 5–10%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing, but only with chemical solvents. This is done in specialized chemical plants, not in the oil mills. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil".[43]

    Handling of olive waste is an environmental challenge because the wastewater, which amounts to millions of tons (billions of liters) annually in the European Union, is not biodegradable, is toxic to plants, and cannot be processed through conventional water treatment systems.[43] Traditionally, olive pomace would be used as compost or developed as a possible biofuel, although these uses introduce concern due to chemicals present in the pomace.[43] A process called "valorization" of olive pomace is under research and development, consisting of additional processing to obtain value-added byproducts, such as animal feed, food additives for human products, and phenolic and fatty acidextracts for potential human use.[43]

    Global market[edit]

    Production[edit]

    Virgin olive oil production – 2019/20
    Country Production (tonnes)
     Spain1,125,300
     Italy366,000
     Tunisia350,000
     Greece275,000
     Turkey225,000
     Morocco145,000
     Portugal140,500
    World
    3,207,000
    Source: Is extra olive oil good for you Olive Council[44]

    In 2019-20, world production of virgin olive oil was 3.2 million tonnes.[44]Spain produced 35% of world production. (For more, see Acesur) The next largest producers were Italy, Tunisia, Greece, and Turkey.

    Some 75% of Spain's production derives from the region of Andalucía, particularly within Jaén province which produces 70% of the olive oil in Spain.[45] The world's largest olive oil mill (almazara, in Spanish), capable of processing 2,500 tonnes of olives per day, is in the town of Villacarrillo, Jaén.[45] Major Italian producers are the regions of Calabria and, above all, Apulia. Many PDO and PGI extra-virgin olive oil are produced in these regions. In Apulia, among the villages of Carovigno, Ostuni and Fasano is the Plain of Olive Trees, which counts some specimens as old as 3000 years; it has been proposed to add this plain to the UNESCO Heritage List.[46] Excellent extra-virgin olive oil is also produced in Tuscany,[47] in cities like Lucca, Florence, Siena which are also included in the association of "Città dell'Olio".[48] Italy imports about 65% of Spanish olive oil exports.[49]

    Global consumption[edit]

    Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide, around 20 L; of olive oil per person per year;[50] Spain and Italy, around 14 L; Tunisia, Portugal, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon, around 8 L. Northern Europe and North America consume far less, around 0.7 L, but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily.

    Regulation[edit]

    Main article: Olive oil regulation are the chicago public schools open today adulteration

    The International Olive Council (IOC) is an intergovernmental organisation of states that produce olives or products derived from olives, such as olive oil. The IOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils.[51]

    The United States is not a member of the IOC and is not subject to its authority, but on October 25, 2010, the U.S. Department of Agriculture adopted new voluntary homes for heroes oil grading standards that closely parallel those of the IOC, with some adjustments for the characteristics of olives grown in the U.S.[52] Additionally, U.S. Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label, then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer.[53][54] Yet most major U.S. brands continue to put "imported from Italy" on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print.[55] "In fact, olive oil labeled 'Italian' often comes from Turkey, Tunisia, Morocco, Spain, and Greece."[56] This makes it unclear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin.

    Commercial grades[edit]

    A bottle of Italian olive oil

    All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste by crushing or pressing. This paste is then malaxed (slowly churned or mixed) to allow the microscopic oil droplets to agglomerate. The oil is then separated from the watery matter and fruit pulp with the use of a press (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). After extraction the remnant solid substance, called pomace, still contains a small south florida state college panther central of oil.

    One parameter used to characterise an oil is its acidity.[57] In this context, "acidity" is not chemical acidity in the sense of pH, but the percent (measured by weight) of freeoleic acid. Measured by quantitative analysis, acidity is a measure of the hydrolysis of the oil's triglycerides: as the oil degrades, more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides, increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing hydrolytic rancidity.[citation needed] Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the peroxide value,[58] which measures the safeway just for you digital savings to which the oil is oxidized by free radicals, leading to oxidativerancidity. Phenolic acids present in olive oil also add acidic sensory properties to aroma and flavor.[59]

    The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as:

    • Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of mechanical means only, with no chemical treatment. The term virgin oil with reference to production method includes all grades of virgin olive oil, including Extra virgin, Virgin, Ordinary virgin and Lampante virgin olive oil products, depending on quality (see below).
    • Lampante virgin oil is olive oil extracted by virgin (mechanical) methods but not victorias secret pink fur jacket for human consumption without further refining; “lampante” is the attributive form of “lampa”, the Italian word for “lamp”, referring to the earlier use of such oil in oil lamps. Lampante virgin oil can be used for industrial purposes, or refined (see below) to make it edible.[60]
    • Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from any grade of virgin olive oil by refining methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. The refining process removes colour, odour and flavour from the olive oil, and leaves behind a very pure form of olive oil that is tasteless, colourless and odourless and extremely low in free fatty acids. Olive oils sold as the grades Extra virgin olive oil and Virgin olive oil therefore cannot contain any refined oil.[60]
    • Crude olive pomace oil is the oil obtained by treating olive pomace (the leftover paste after the pressing of olives for virgin olive oils) with solvents or other physical treatments, to the exclusion of oils obtained by re-esterification processes and of any mixture with oils of other kinds. It is then further refined into Refined olive pomace oil and once re-blended with virgin olive oils for taste, is then union savings bank com as Olive pomace oil.[60]
    Italian label for "extra vergine" oil

    International Olive Council[edit]

    In countries that adhere to the standards of the International Olive Council,[61] as well as in Australia, and under the voluntary United States Department of Agriculture labeling standards in the United States:

    Extra virgin olive oil is the highest grade of virgin oil derived by cold mechanical extraction without use of solvents or refining methods.[60][62] It contains no more than 0.8% free acidity, and is judged to have a superior taste, having some fruitiness and no defined sensory defects.[63] Extra virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries; the percentage is far is extra olive oil good for you in the Mediterranean countries (Greece: 80%, Italy: 65%, Spain 50%).[63]

    Virgin olive oil is a lesser grade of virgin oil, with free acidity of up to 2.0%, and is judged to have a good taste, but may include some sensory defects.

    Refined olive oil is virgin oil that has been refined using charcoal and other chemical and physical filters, methods which do not alter the glyceridic structure. It has a free acidity, expressed as oleic acid, of not more than 0.3 grams per 100 grams (0.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. It is obtained by refining virgin oils to eliminate high acidity or organoleptic defects. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil amazon music logo png Olive oil are primarily refined olive oil, with a small addition of virgin for taste.

    Olive pomace oil is refined pomace olive oil, often blended with some virgin oil. It is fit for consumption, but may not be described simply as olive oil. It has a more neutral flavor than pure or virgin olive oil, making it unfashionable among connoisseurs; however, it has the same fat composition as regular olive oil, giving it the same health benefits. It also has a high smoke point, and thus is widely used in restaurants as well as home cooking in some countries.

    United States[edit]

    As the United States is not a member, the IOC retail grades have no legal meaning there, but on October 25, 2010, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) established Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil, which closely parallel the IOC standards:[64][65]

    • U.S. Extra Virgin Olive Oil for oil with excellent flavor and odor and free fatty acid content of not more than 0.8 g per 100 g (0.8%);
    • U.S. Virgin Olive Oil for oil with reasonably good flavor and odor and free fatty acid content of not more than 2 g per 100 g (2%);
    • U.S. Virgin Olive Oil Not Fit For Human Consumption Without Further Processing is a virgin (mechanically-extracted) olive oil of poor flavor and odor, equivalent to the IOC's lampante oil;
    • U.S. Olive Oil is a mixture of virgin and refined oils;
    • U.S. Refined Olive Oil is an oil made from refined oils with some restrictions on the processing.

    These grades are voluntary. Certification is available, for a fee, from the USDA.[65]

    In 2014, California adopted a set of olive oil standards for olive oil made from California-grown olives. The California Department of Food and Agriculture Grade and Labeling Standards for Olive Oil, Refined-Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil are mandatory for producers of more than 5,000 gallons of California olive oil. This joins other official state, federal and international olive oil standards.[66]

    Several olive producer associations, such as the North American Olive Oil Association and the California Olive Oil Council, also offer grading and certification within the United States.[67][68] Oleologist Nicholas Coleman suggests that the California Olive Oil Council certification is the most stringent of the voluntary grading schemes in the United States.[69]

    Country of origin can be established by one or two letter country codes printed on the bottle or label. Country codes include I=Italy, GR=Greece, E=Spain, TU=Tunisia, MA=Morocco, CL=Chile, AG=Argentina, AU=Australia.

    Label wording[edit]

    • Different names for olive oil indicate the degree of processing the oil has undergone as well as the quality of the oil. Extra virgin olive oil is the highest grade available, followed by virgin olive oil. The word "virgin" indicates that the olives have been pressed to extract the oil; no heat or chemicals have been used during the extraction process, and the oil is pure and unrefined. Virgin olive oils contain the highest levels of polyphenols, antioxidants that have been linked with better health.[70]
    • Olive Oil, which is sometimes denoted as being "Made from refined and virgin olive oils" is a blend of refined olive oil with a virgin grade of olive oil.[60]Pure, Classic, Light and Extra-Light are terms introduced by manufacturers in countries that are non-traditional consumers of olive oil for these products to indicate both their composition of being only 100% olive oil, and also the varying strength of taste to consumers. Contrary to a common consumer belief, they do not have fewer calories than extra virgin oil as implied by the names.[71]
    • Cold pressed or Cold extraction means "that the oil was not heated over a certain temperature (usually 27 °C (80 °F)) during processing, thus retaining more nutrients and undergoing less degradation".[72] The difference between Cold Extraction and Cold Pressed is regulated in Europe, where the use of a centrifuge, the modern method of extraction for large quantities, must be labelled as Cold Extracted, while only a physically pressed olive oil may be labelled as Cold Pressed. In many parts of the world, such as Australia, producers using centrifugal extraction still label their products as Cold Pressed.
    • First cold pressed means "that the fruit of the olive was crushed exactly one time – i.e., the first press. The cold refers to the temperature range of the fruit at the time it is crushed".[73] In Calabria (Italy) the olives are collected in October. In regions like Tuscany or Liguria, the olives collected in November and ground, often at night, are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures, which may be as low as 10–15 °C, to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 25 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold pressed".
      Furthermore, there is no "second" press of virgin oil, so the term "first press" means only that the oil was produced in a press vs. other possible methods.
    • Protected designation of origin (PDO) and protected geographical indication (PGI) refer to olive oils with "exceptional properties and spirit airlines phone number usa derived from their place of origin as well as from the way of their production".[74]
    • The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label; it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country.[55]
    • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration permitted a claim on olive oil labels stating: "Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about two tablespoons (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease."[75]

    Adulteration[edit]

    There have been allegations, particularly in Italy and Spain, that regulation can be sometimes lax and corrupt.[76] Major shippers are claimed to routinely adulterate olive oil so that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" in Italy actually meets the specification.[77] In some cases, colza oil (extracted from rapeseed) with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil.[78] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new is extra olive oil good for you law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil, under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced, as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used, for blended oils.[79] In February 2008, however, EU officials took issue with the new law, stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory.[78] Under EU rules, olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil.[79]

    Extra virgin olive oil has strict requirements and is checked for "sensory defects" that include: rancid, fusty, musty, winey (vinegary) and muddy sediment. These defects can occur for different reasons. The most common are:

    • Raw material (olives) infected or battered
    • Inadequate harvest, with contact between the olives and soil[80]

    In March 2008, 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil", arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian.[81] In April 2008, another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil, and selling it as extra virgin olive oil, both in Italy and abroad; 25,000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported.[82]

    On March 15, 2011, the prosecutor's office in Florence, Italy, working in conjunction with the forestry department, indicted two managers and an officer of Carapelli, one of the brands of the Spanish company Grupo SOS (which recently changed its name to Deoleo). The charges involved falsified documents and food fraud. Carapelli lawyer Neri Pinucci said the company was not worried about the charges and that "the case is based on an irregularity in the documents."[83]

    In February 2012, Spanish authorities investigated an international olive oil scam in which palm, avocado, sunflower and other cheaper oils were passed off as Italian olive oil. Police said the oils were blended in an industrial biodiesel plant and adulterated in a way to hide markers that would have revealed their true nature. The oils were not toxic and posed no health risk, according to a statement by the Guardia Civil. Nineteen people were arrested following the year-long joint probe by the police and 0.05 nm to m tax authorities, part of what they call Operation Lucerna.[84]

    Using tiny print to state the origin of blended oil is used as a legal loophole by manufacturers of adulterated and mixed olive oil.[85]

    Journalist Tom Mueller has investigated crime and adulteration is extra olive oil good for you the olive oil business, publishing the article "Slippery Business" in New Yorker magazine,[86] followed by the 2011 book Extra Virginity. On 3 January 2016 Bill Whitaker presented a program on CBS News including interviews with Mueller and with Italian authorities.[87][88] It was reported that in the previous month 5,000 tons of adulterated olive oil had been sold in Italy, and that organised crime was heavily first national bank of central texas waco tx term "Agrimafia" was used. The point was made by Mueller that the profit margin on adulterated olive oil was three times that on the illegal narcotic drug cocaine. He said that over 50% of olive oil sold in Italy was adulterated, as was 75–80% of that sold in the US. Whitaker reported that 3 samples of "extra virgin olive oil" had been bought in a US supermarket and tested; joe lamb rentals south nags head of the three samples did not meet the required standard, and one of them—with a top-selling US brand—was exceptionally poor.

    In early February 2017, the Carabinieri arrested 33 suspects in the Calabrian mafia's Piromalli 'ndrina ('Ndrangheta) which was allegedly exporting fake extra virgin olive oil to the U.S.; the product was actually inexpensive olive pomace oil fraudulently labeled.[89] Less than a year earlier, the American television program 60 Minutes had warned that "the olive oil business has been corrupted by the Mafia" and that "Agromafia" was a $16-billion per year enterprise. A Carabinieri investigator interviewed on the program said that "olive oil fraud has gone on for the better part of four millennia" but today, it's particularly "easy for the bad guys to either introduce adulterated olive oils or mix in lower quality olive oils with extra-virgin olive oil".[90] Weeks later, a report by Forbes stated that "it's reliably reported that 80% of the Italian olive oil on the market is fraudulent" and that "a massive olive oil scandal is being uncovered in Southern Italy (Puglia, Umbria and Campania)".[91]

    Constituents[edit]

    General chemical structure of olive oil (triglyceride). R1, R2and R3are alkyl groups(approx. 20%) or alkenyl groups (approx. 80%).

    Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid and of other fatty acids,[92][93] along with traces of squalene (up to 0.7%) and sterols (about 0.2% phytosterol and tocosterols). The composition varies by cultivar, region, altitude, time of harvest, and extraction process.

    Phenolic composition[edit]

    Olive oil contains traces of phenolics (about 0.5%), such as esters of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleocanthal and oleuropein,[59][94] which give extra virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste, and are also implicated in its aroma.[95] Olive oil is a source of at least 30 phenolic compounds, among which are elenolic acid, a marker for maturation of olives,[59][96] and alpha-tocopherol, one of the eight members of the Vitamin E family.[97]Oleuropein, together with other closely related compounds such as 10-hydroxyoleuropein, ligstroside and 10-hydroxyligstroside, are tyrosolesters of elenolic acid.

    Other phenolic constituents include flavonoids, lignans and pinoresinol.[98][99]

    Nutrition[edit]

    One tablespoon of olive oil (13.5 g) contains the following nutritional information according to the USDA:[100]

    Comparison to other vegetable oils (below)[edit]

    Potential health effects[edit]

    In the United States, the FDA allows producers of olive oil to place the following qualified health claim on product labels:[135][136]

    Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil. To achieve this possible benefit, olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the overall number of calories consumed in a day.

    In a review by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2011, health claims on olive oil were approved for protection by its polyphenols against oxidation of blood lipids,[137] and for maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol levels by replacing saturated fats in the diet with oleic acid.[138] (See also: Commission Regulation (EU) 432/2012 of 16 May 2012).[139] Despite its approval, the EFSA is extra olive oil good for you noted that a definitive cause-and-effect relationship has not been adequately established for consumption of olive oil and maintaining normal (fasting) blood concentrations of triglycerides, normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations, and normal blood glucose concentrations.[140]

    A 2014 meta-analysis concluded that increased consumption of olive oil was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events and stroke, while monounsaturated fatty acids of mixed animal and plant origin showed no significant effects.[141] Another meta-analysis in 2018 found high-polyphenol olive oil intake was associated with improved measures of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, malondialdehyde, and oxidized LDL when compared to low-polyphenol olive oils, although it recommended longer studies, and more investigation of non Mediterranean populations.[142]

    See also[edit]

    Notes[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ abcdGray, Sarah (2015). "Cooking with extra virgin olive oil". ACNEM Journal. 34 (2): 8–12. S2CID 132454216.
    2. ^De Alzaa, F.; Guillaume, C.; Ravetti, L. (June 2018). "Evaluation of Chemical and Physical Changes in Different Commercial Oils during Heating". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health. 2 (6): 2–11.
    3. ^"United States Department of Agriculture: "Grading Manual for Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil"". Retrieved June 25, 2013.
    4. ^"Australian Olives

      Can you cook with extra virgin olive oil?

      Can you cook with extra virgin olive oil?

      “We often get asked about whether you can cook with extra virgin olive oil. In fact, when we are out sampling our oil and talking to the public about the virtues of extra virgin olive oil, we’ve noticed that people often presume you shouldn’t cook with extra virgin olive oil.

      “The truth is: of course you can cook with extra virgin olive oil. One needs to only look at the Mediterranean kitchen and its traditions in cooking to see part of the explanation. Greeks, Italians and Spanish have been cooking with extra virgin olive oil for centuries long and we don’t see any adverse effects arising from these Mediterranean kitchens – which Northern European countries are so fond of!

      “What this really comes down to if you’re after a scientific explanation is the varying smoke point between different oils. The smoke point of an oil or fat is the temperature at which, under specific and defined conditions, an oil begins to produce a continuous bluish smoke that becomes clearly visible. The smoke point of extra virgin olive oil is 190° – 215° which is lower than other oils such as sunflower oil and rapeseed oil, but a level that is perfectly suited to most everday cooking styles. Making a base for a casserole or pasta sauce where you’ll be slow cooking your onions and garlic, the temperature point suits extra virgin olive oil perfectly and using a good oil, you’ll benefit from a more flavoursome dish.

      “What extra virgin olive oil isn’t as well suited for is deep frying, which typically requires a temperature at the borderline of extra virgin olive oil’s smoke point. This is why sunflower oil, rapeseed oil and even vegetable oil are better suited for deep frying since they have higher smoke points, meaning that you won’t be carrying the food through the smoke point as it cooks during the frying process.
      So in conclusion, extra virgin olive oil is perfectly acceptable to cook with – unless you wish to deep fry; but then why would you deep fry when the virtues of the Mediterranean diet have been researched and proven so extensively?!”

      Image: Maria Koinaki with her father Yiannis at their family olive grove in Crete

      be up-to-date <center><img src='https://i.pinimg.com/originals/0c/0f/9f/0c0f9f1578e6cefdea7554dc1a612cb3.jpg' alt='is extra olive oil good for you' title='is extra olive oil good for you' style='width:200px' /></center> <h3>Thematic video</h3> Health Benefits of Olive Oil<iframe width='560' height='315' src='https://www.youtube.com/embed/nsAZHcULvM0' frameborder='0' allowfullscreen></iframe>
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