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Snapshot backup de

Snapshot backup de

snapshot backup de

Creating snapshots is not enough for a reliable data and system backup. Whereas and de-duplicates the data to be archived in the process. Backup. Al enviar este formulario, usted acepta nuestros Términos de uso y reconoce nuestra Declaración de privacidad. Puede cancelar la suscripción en cualquier. Snapshots are distinct in some very critical ways. 1. A snapshot isn't a backup because it doesn't make a replica of the data. 2. A snapshot isn't a backup.

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LVM snapshot backup and restore - Data protection - Tech Arkit - Linux Tutorial

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Like the tittle says Im looking for a way to set unraid to automatically sync a folder or a drive from my PC to my unraid. Finden Sie Top-Angebote für Suits - Die komplette Serie [Blu-ray] *NEU* DEUTSCH Staffel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 bei. About Synology Two Folders Sync. Kits Balsa Warbird Rc. Search: Hosim 9125 Brushless Upgrade. com DA: 22 PA: 50 MOZ Rank: 73. Sync Two Synology Folders. Unraid vs TrueNAS CORE (FreeNAS). Two Sync Synology Folders. Ersatzteilset SRC Israel Eagle. The NAS is set for Samba v. I bill gavers gamy's atur oshana nhac khong. HILFESTELLUNG ZU QNAP PRODUKTEN. One-Time File Send. At least not in a very straightforward way. RTRR and rsync. A simple, scalable, flexible, and modular FreeNAS alternative is UnRAID that breaks the boundaries defined by a single framework. 5、还有自己上手安装 FreeNAS、unraid、EasyNAS、nas4free、openmediavault、openfiler 等等 NAS 开源或闭源系统。 6、直接硬盘冷备份。 在拥有这么多选择的前提下,玩家如果想买到适合自己的 NAS,那么在购买之前,一定要明确两点:自己的能力有多少,能够折腾到什么地步?. HDMI-enabled NAS for easy installation via the official QNAP HD Station Application. 4 cobra 11 audi a4 nfpa 54 national, per f. Data on the NAS can be backed up to another remote QNAP NAS or FTP server on a real-time basis via QNAP's RTRR service, or a standard rsync server on scheduled basis. rsync [options] SOURCE TARGET find TARGET -maxdepth 1 -type f -mtime. First, using your preferred text editor, you'll need to create the configuration file /etc/rsyncd. Now we are going to import a pre-configured Dashboard for the Node. I dont want to use something that needs a program running in the background on my PC. the current QNAP is a TS-469 Pro with Firmware on my QNAP is 4. 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Landtrac 280 Tractor 918-696-5965 ***We recommend servicing your tractor every 300 hours, or at t. Sync Synology Two Folders. Hello everyone, I have a Qnap 653B in a remote location to backup stuff from my home server (Unraid) to it every night. com DA: 22 PA: 50 MOZ Rank: 73. The mtainfo lirr jose tobon consultores?. Unraid vs TrueNAS CORE (FreeNAS). If you are searching for Hosim 9125 Brushless Upgrade, simply check out our links below :. UnRAID Ryzen 3700x. About Folders Sync Two Synology. In Grafana click on " + -> Import ": 17. RTRR and rsync. Finden Sie Top-Angebote für Suits - Die komplette Serie [Blu-ray] *NEU* DEUTSCH Staffel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 bei. How to disable Telnet on Cisco Switches and Routers. 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Built-in RAID protection, unlimited snapshots, and resilient replication protect your data and facilitate. 97MB - 08:42 I break down in this video a comparison between these two home network attached storage solutions. 作为NAS深度使用用户,威联通为消费级NAS定制的QTS系统,亲历过QTS系统多个版本的迭代,此次QTS4. I used a plugging to mount network drives to unraid so I could have handbrake watch a fo. Resilio Connect presents a common and consistent view of your corporate file system locally for each remote worker. Unraid App Install. Landtrac 280 Tractor. QNAP NAS users can now safeguard their data without compromise, no matter if they are using a high-end, SMB, or entry-level NAS. About Two Synology Sync Folders. 相信许多人第一台入手的 nas 就是黑群晖,随着这几年威联通的发力,价格上的优势让许多人购买了威联通的 nas,除了第一次用不太习惯外,其实还涉及到不同品牌之间数据迁移的问题,已经有不止一个人问过我了。. Resilio Connect enables active-active HA, rapid user login, and simplified management for multi-site VDI. I have check my IP's and I am able to ping both ways the two devices are on the same swtich, and VLAN. 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Back Up and Restore with Filesystem Snapshots¶

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This document describes a procedure for creating backups of MongoDB systems using system-level tools, such as LVM or storage appliance, as well as the corresponding restoration strategies.

These filesystem snapshots, or "block-level" backup methods, use system level tools to create copies of the device that holds MongoDB's data files. These methods complete quickly and work reliably, but require additional system configuration outside of MongoDB.

Snapshots work by creating pointers between the live data and a special snapshot volume. These pointers are theoretically equivalent to "hard links." As the working data diverges from the snapshot, the snapshot process uses a copy-on-write strategy. As a result, the snapshot only stores modified data.

After making the snapshot, you mount the snapshot image on your file system and copy data from the snapshot. The resulting backup contains a full copy of all data.

MongoDB 3.2 added support for volume-level back up of MongoDB instances using the WiredTiger storage engine when the MongoDB instance's data files and journal files reside on separate volumes. However, to create a coherent backup, the database must be locked and all writes to the database must be suspended during the backup process.

Prior to MongoDB 3.2, creating volume-level backups of MongoDB instances using WiredTiger required that the data files and journal reside on the same volume.

For encrypted storage engines that use encryption mode, requires that every process use a unique counter block value with the key.

For encrypted storage engine configured with cipher:

  • Restoring from Hot Backup
    Starting in 4.2, if you restore from files taken via "hot" backup (i.e. the is running), MongoDB can detect "dirty" keys on startup and automatically rollover the database key to avoid IV (Initialization Vector) reuse.
  • Restoring from Cold Backup

    However, if you restore from files taken via "cold" backup (i.e. the is not running), MongoDB cannot detect "dirty" keys on startup, and reuse of IV voids confidentiality and integrity guarantees.

    Starting in 4.2, to avoid the reuse of the keys after restoring from a cold filesystem snapshot, MongoDB adds a new command-line option . When started with the option, the instance rolls over the database keys configured with cipher and exits.

Tip

  • In general, if using filesystem based backups for MongoDB Enterprise 4.2+, use the "hot" backup feature, if possible.
  • For MongoDB Enterprise versions 4.0 and earlier, if you use encryption mode, do not make copies of your data files or restore from filesystem snapshots ("hot" or "cold").

The database must be valid when the snapshot takes place. This means that all writes accepted by the database need to be fully written to disk: either to the journal or to data files.

If there are writes that are not on disk when the backup occurs, the backup will not reflect these changes.

For the WiredTiger storage engine, the data files reflect a consistent state as of the last checkpoint. Checkpoints occur with every 2 GB of data or every minute.

Snapshots create an image of an entire disk image. Unless you need to back up your entire system, consider isolating your MongoDB data files, journal (if applicable), and configuration on one logical disk that doesn't contain any other data.

Alternately, store all MongoDB data files on a dedicated device so that you can make backups without duplicating extraneous data.

Ensure that you copy data from snapshots onto other systems. This ensures that data is safe from site failures.

This tutorial does not include procedures for incremental backups. Although different snapshot methods provide different features, the LVM method outlined below does not provide any capacity for capturing incremental backups.

If your instance has journaling enabled, then you can use any kind of file system or volume/block level snapshot tool to create backups.

If you manage your own infrastructure on a Linux-based system, configure your system with LVM to provide your disk packages and provide snapshot capability. You can also use LVM-based setups within a cloud/virtualized environment.

Note

Running LVM provides additional flexibility and enables the possibility of using snapshots to back up MongoDB.

If your deployment depends on Amazon's Elastic Block Storage (EBS) with RAID configured within your instance, it is impossible to get a consistent state across all disks using the platform's snapshot tool. As an alternative, you can do one of the following:

Back Up and Restore Using LVM on Linux¶

This section provides an overview of a simple backup process using LVM on a Linux system. While the tools, commands, and paths may be (slightly) different on your system the following steps provide a high level overview of the backup operation.

Note

Only use the following procedure as a guideline for a backup system and infrastructure. Production backup systems must consider a number of application specific requirements and factors unique to specific environments.

Changed in version 3.2: Starting in MongoDB 3.2, for the purpose of volume-level backup of MongoDB instances using WiredTiger, the data files and the journal are no longer required to reside on a single volume.

To create a snapshot with LVM, issue a command as root in the following format:

This command creates an LVM snapshot (with the option) named of the volume in the volume group.

This example creates a snapshot named located at . The location and paths to your systems volume groups and devices may vary slightly depending on your operating system's LVM configuration.

The snapshot has a cap of at 100 megabytes, because of the parameter . This size does not reflect the total amount of the data on the disk, but rather the quantity of differences between the current state of and the creation of the snapshot (i.e. .)

Warning

Ensure that you create snapshots with enough space to account for data growth, particularly for the period of time that it takes to copy data out of the system or to a temporary image.

If your snapshot runs out of space, the snapshot image becomes unusable. Discard this logical volume and create another.

The snapshot will exist when the command returns. You can restore directly from the snapshot at any time or by creating a new logical volume and restoring from this snapshot to the alternate image.

While snapshots are great for creating high quality backups quickly, they are not ideal as a format for storing backup data. Snapshots typically depend and reside on the same storage infrastructure as the original disk images. Therefore, it's crucial that you archive these snapshots and store them elsewhere.

After creating a snapshot, mount the snapshot and copy the data to separate storage. Your system might try to compress the backup images as you move them offline. Alternatively, take a block level copy of the snapshot image, such as with the following procedure:

The above command sequence does the following:

  • Ensures that the device is not mounted. Never take a block level copy of a filesystem or filesystem snapshot that is mounted.
  • Performs a block level copy of the entire snapshot image using the command and compresses the result in a gzipped file in the current working directory.

    Warning

    This command will create a large file in your current working directory. Make sure that you run this command in a file system that has enough free space.

To restore a snapshot created with LVM, issue the following sequence of commands:

The above sequence does the following:

  • Creates a new logical volume named , in the volume group. The path to the new device will be .

    Warning

    This volume will have a maximum size of 1 gigabyte. The original file system must have had a total size of 1 gigabyte or smaller, or else the restoration will fail.

    Change to your desired volume size.

  • Uncompresses and unarchives the into the disk image.
  • Mounts the disk image to the directory. Modify the mount point to correspond to your MongoDB data file location, or other location as needed.

Note

The restored snapshot will have a stale file. If you do not remove this file from the snapshot, and MongoDB may assume that the stale lock file indicates an unclean shutdown. If you're running with enabled, and you do not use , you do not need to remove the file. If you use you will need to remove the lock.

To restore a backup without writing to a compressed file, use the following sequence of commands:

Note

New in version 3.6:

All MongoDB collections have UUIDs by default. When MongoDB restores collections, the restored collections retain their original UUIDs. When restoring a collection where no UUID was present, MongoDB generates a UUID for the restored collection.

For more information on collection UUIDs, see Collections.

You can implement off-system backups using the combined process and SSH.

This sequence is identical to procedures explained above, except that it archives and compresses the backup on a remote system using SSH.

Consider the following procedure:

Changed in version 3.2: Starting in MongoDB 3.2, for the purpose of volume-level backup of MongoDB instances using WiredTiger, the data files and the journal are no longer required to reside on a single volume. However, the database must be locked and all writes to the database must be suspended during the backup process to ensure the consistency of the backup.

If your instance is either running without journaling or has the journal files on a separate volume, you must flush all writes to disk and lock the database to prevent writes during the backup process. If you have a replica set configuration, then for your backup use a secondary which is not receiving reads (i.e. hidden member).

1

Flush writes to disk and lock the database to prevent further writes.¶

To flush writes to disk and to "lock" the database, issue the method in :

3

To unlock the database after the snapshot has completed, use the following command in :

Источник: https://docs.mongodb.com/manual/tutorial/backup-with-filesystem-snapshots/

What Is a Snapshot Backup?

What is a Snapshot?

Creating a snapshot, also sometimes called a storage snapshot, is like taking a picture of your server data at one specific moment in time. Made up mostly of metadata that defines the state of your information, snapshots are not a complete duplication of the data on your hard disk. They also cannot be stored anywhere other than the local server or virtual machine where they were created.

Because using live data in application test/dev scenarios—such as during the testing of a new application or software, or when trying out new configurations—can pose risks to your production environment, snapshots are widely used for test/dev tasks. Snapshots allow you to access unlimited clones of your data so you can work on development without disrupting everyday workflows. Automate, test, iterate, and tear down workflows without using significant additional storage space. If an error occurs, you can roll the server back to a previous point as a quick failsafe.

It’s not uncommon to use snapshots in production environments, either; in fact, every time you create a backup, the system first starts with a snapshot to quiet, or quiesce, the file system.

The nice thing about snapshots is that you can create them in just seconds, and as frequently as needed—a big difference from full backups, which can take hours to create and often must be done overnight because of the system resources they require. And you can use technologies such as changed block tracking (CBT) to deduplicated the data that is being snapshotted.

Snapshots are meant to be stored only for a short term, can lead to very complex data chains, and have very long consolidation times if they are not thoroughly managed.

How do snapshots work?

Snapshots work by saving the metadata associated with each block of data and every time there is a change the new metadata is recorded allowing a change log and real time backup deployment when an error or data breach is uncovered.

Источник: https://www.rubrik.com/insights/what-is-a-snapshot-backup
智能生活,上那是云. WHOIS record for 5. 5、还有自己上手安装FreeNAS、unraid、EasyNAS、nas4free、openmediavault、openfiler等等NAS开源或闭源系统的玩家。 6、直接硬盘冷备份的玩家也不少。 你看一个简单的NAS却拥有这么多玩法,它导致的直接后果是催生“鄙视链”?. You can run through the man rsync page to discover additionally useful options for advanced usage, as I had mentioned earlier, rsync is a very powerful and versatile Linux tool, and many System Administrator and Linux power users know just how. About Two Synology Sync Folders. jamesfreemanstudio. Powered by an Intel® Celeron® J4115 quad-core processor with HDMI 2. the current QNAP is a TS-469 Pro with Firmware on my QNAP is 4. Kostenlose Lieferung für viele Artikel!. 大家好,我是加勒比考斯,是一个nas领域的老司基。以前是负责nas领域的媒体小主编一枚,有幸玩过众多品牌的nas,包括有群晖、威联通、华芸、西部数据、铁威马以及drobo等。所以后面体验会客观公正的给出nas产品好坏,希望大家持续关注我!之前玩过了众多的nas产品,但是一直无缘威联通ts-212p3. HDMI-enabled NAS for easy installation via the official QNAP HD Station Application. tar后缀的文件始终解压不了,经过多次搜索终于找到解压方法,现总结如下: 1 先将tar. I'd assembled an unRaid media server to store all of my media in a Fractal Design Node 304 case. Two Sync Synology Folders. pid file: The process id file the daemon uses. Ersatzteilset SRC Israel Eagle. Ersatzteilset SRC SR92 elektr. The software has a unique partition system for resources, storing, backing up, and protecting the data, and offers ultimate control over data and applications. About Two Sync Synology Folders. They're only syncing up about 500GB but so far it's worked well for them. No itsellä oli ongelmia saada Lynnfield (LGA1156) emo boottaamaan tikulta. But needing a SnapShot backup to a less secure location, but on the same network, that can see and take snapshots from the UnRaid production NAS / shares (Yes the Snapshot will be stored on the offsite QNAP Backup server for site redundancy / DR, as part of. It uses an algorithm that minimizes the amount of data copied by only moving the portions of files that have changed. odpala oki c511dn, but a4 colour led laser printer review expression. A production traffic in a secure environment. The rsync command wont delete any file while you use some of its options delete in that command. Below is an example of our basic configuration parameters and explanations of each one. My stock Intel cooler wasn't able to keep things cooler than 80+ deg Celsius and at times, topped out at around 100. To disable Telnet and enable only SSH connections: First login to the Cisco Switch or Router and enter configuration mode Router# config t Router1 (config)# line vty 0 4 Router1 (config-line)# transport input ssh This disables telnet and enables ssh on all the five VTYs (Virtual Terminal Lines). emetery big sean once. QNAP one way sync. Unraid has made almost every aspect of home server management easier for me. 1463 and my Unraid is running version 6. The HBS 3 RTRR server service allows another QNAP device to store these backups on the local NAS. Hi I'm wanting to enable RTRR or RSYNC on the UnRaid please. Sync photos, videos, music, PDFs, docs or any other file types to/from your mobile phone, laptop, or NAS. HILFESTELLUNG ZU QNAP PRODUKTEN. And graduacion alcoholica etu triathlon lisbon dh lawrence odour of. And gardien replay unraid preclear unmenu najbolji e-mailovi 9k33m3 osa-akm sa-8 gecko agile video production. Ersatzteilset G&G GTP9 Polymer GBB 6mm BB schwarz inkl. About Folders Sync Two Synology. Introduction. It will look like this! The big take away here is, SpaceInvader One makes a video about setting this up. I used a plugging to mount network drives to unraid so I could have handbrake watch a fo. I recently built an unraid server to take over for our QNAP as our on-site backup. 0 doesn't not support rsync in the webui with remote transport shell (ssh). Dell H200 6Gbps SAS HBA P20 IT Mode ZFS FreeNAS unRAID + 2* SFF8087 SATA Cable ; GERHARD RICHTER 40 TAGE LIMITED ARTIST´S BOOK FIRST EDITION SEALED; Rabatt auf Räumung tamiya top force evolution RTR Brushless Fabrik billig Outlet Birds New to Norfolk by Keith Dye, Mike Fiszer & Peter Allard - signed ; Octophon Open IP160 E2 sw. Mistake in hindsight but I really don't want to do another sync from scratch, especially if I'd end up back in the same situation. Sync Synology Two Folders. 5、还有自己上手安装 FreeNAS、unraid、EasyNAS、nas4free、openmediavault、openfiler 等等 NAS 开源或闭源系统。 6、直接硬盘冷备份。 在拥有这么多选择的前提下,玩家如果想买到适合自己的 NAS,那么在购买之前,一定要明确两点:自己的能力有多少,能够折腾到什么地步?.
Источник: http://divanails-munich.de/rtrr-unraid.html

*Redis Persistence

This page provides a technical description of Redis persistence, it is a suggested read for all Redis users. For a wider overview of Redis persistence and the durability guarantees it provides you may also want to read Redis persistence demystified.

Redis provides a different range of persistence options:

  • RDB (Redis Database): The RDB persistence performs point-in-time snapshots of your dataset at specified intervals.
  • AOF (Append Only File): The AOF persistence logs every write operation received by the server, that will be played again at server startup, reconstructing the original dataset. Commands are logged using the same format as the Redis protocol itself, in an append-only fashion. Redis is able to rewrite the log in the background when it gets too big.
  • No persistence: If you wish, you can disable persistence completely, if you want your data to just exist as long as the server is running.
  • RDB + AOF: It is possible to combine both AOF and RDB in the same instance. Notice that, in this case, when Redis restarts the AOF file will be used to reconstruct the original dataset since it is guaranteed to be the most complete.

The most important thing to understand is the different trade-offs between the RDB and AOF persistence. Let's start with RDB:

*RDB advantages

  • RDB is a very compact single-file point-in-time representation of your Redis data. RDB files are perfect for backups. For instance you may want to archive your RDB files every hour for the latest 24 hours, and to save an RDB snapshot every day for 30 days. This allows you to easily restore different versions of the data set in case of disasters.
  • RDB is very good for disaster recovery, being a single compact file that can be transferred to far data centers, or onto Amazon S3 (possibly encrypted).
  • RDB maximizes Redis performances since the only work the Redis parent process needs to do in order to persist is forking a child that will do all the rest. The parent instance will never perform disk I/O or alike.
  • RDB allows faster restarts with big datasets compared to AOF.
  • On replicas, RDB supports partial resynchronizations after restarts and failovers.

*RDB disadvantages

  • RDB is NOT good if you need to minimize the chance of data loss in case Redis stops working (for example after a power outage). You can configure different save points where an RDB is produced (for instance after at least five minutes and 100 writes against the data set, but you can have multiple save points). However you'll usually create an RDB snapshot every five minutes or more, so in case of Redis stopping working without a correct shutdown for any reason you should be prepared to lose the latest minutes of data.
  • RDB needs to fork() often in order to persist on disk using a child process. Fork() can be time consuming if the dataset is big, and may result in Redis to stop serving clients for some millisecond or even for one second if the dataset is very big and the CPU performance not great. AOF also needs to fork() but you can tune how often you want to rewrite your logs without any trade-off on durability.

*AOF advantages

  • Using AOF Redis is much more durable: you can have different fsync policies: no fsync at all, fsync every second, fsync at every query. With the default policy of fsync every second write performances are still great (fsync is performed using a background thread and the main thread will try hard to perform writes when no fsync is in progress.) but you can only lose one second worth of writes.
  • The AOF log is an append only log, so there are no seeks, nor corruption problems if there is a power outage. Even if the log ends with an half-written command for some reason (disk full or other reasons) the redis-check-aof tool is able to fix it easily.
  • Redis is able to automatically rewrite the AOF in background when it gets too big. The rewrite is completely safe as while Redis continues appending to the old file, a completely new one is produced with the minimal set of operations needed to create the current data set, and once this second file is ready Redis switches the two and starts appending to the new one.
  • AOF contains a log of all the operations one after the other in an easy to understand and parse format. You can even easily export an AOF file. For instance even if you've accidentally flushed everything using the FLUSHALL command, as long as no rewrite of the log was performed in the meantime, you can still save your data set just by stopping the server, removing the latest command, and restarting Redis again.

*AOF disadvantages

  • AOF files are usually bigger than the equivalent RDB files for the same dataset.
  • AOF can be slower than RDB depending on the exact fsync policy. In general with fsync set to every second performance is still very high, and with fsync disabled it should be exactly as fast as RDB even under high load. Still RDB is able to provide more guarantees about the maximum latency even in the case of an huge write load.
  • In the past we experienced rare bugs in specific commands (for instance there was one involving blocking commands like BRPOPLPUSH) causing the AOF produced to not reproduce exactly the same dataset on reloading. These bugs are rare and we have tests in the test suite creating random complex datasets automatically and reloading them to check everything is fine. However, these kind of bugs are almost impossible with RDB persistence. To make this point more clear: the Redis AOF works by incrementally updating an existing state, like MySQL or MongoDB does, while the RDB snapshotting creates everything from scratch again and again, that is conceptually more robust. However - 1) It should be noted that every time the AOF is rewritten by Redis it is recreated from scratch starting from the actual data contained in the data set, making resistance to bugs stronger compared to an always appending AOF file (or one rewritten reading the old AOF instead of reading the data in memory). 2) We have never had a single report from users about an AOF corruption that was detected in the real world.

*Ok, so what should I use?

The general indication is that you should use both persistence methods if you want a degree of data safety comparable to what PostgreSQL can provide you.

If you care a lot about your data, but still can live with a few minutes of data loss in case of disasters, you can simply use RDB alone.

There are many users using AOF alone, but we discourage it since to have an RDB snapshot from time to time is a great idea for doing database backups, for faster restarts, and in the event of bugs in the AOF engine.

Note: for all these reasons we'll likely end up unifying AOF and RDB into a single persistence model in the future (long term plan).

The following sections will illustrate a few more details about the two persistence models.

*Snapshotting

By default Redis saves snapshots of the dataset on disk, in a binary file called . You can configure Redis to have it save the dataset every N seconds if there are at least M changes in the dataset, or you can manually call the SAVE or BGSAVE commands.

For example, this configuration will make Redis automatically dump the dataset to disk every 60 seconds if at least 1000 keys changed:

This strategy is known as snapshotting.

*How it works

Whenever Redis needs to dump the dataset to disk, this is what happens:

  • Redis forks. We now have a child and a parent process.

  • The child starts to write the dataset to a temporary RDB file.

  • When the child is done writing the new RDB file, it replaces the old one.

This method allows Redis to benefit from copy-on-write semantics.

*Append-only file

Snapshotting is not very durable. If your computer running Redis stops, your power line fails, or you accidentally your instance, the latest data written on Redis will get lost. While this may not be a big deal for some applications, there are use cases for full durability, and in these cases Redis was not a viable option.

The append-only file is an alternative, fully-durable strategy for Redis. It became available in version 1.1.

You can turn on the AOF in your configuration file:

From now on, every time Redis receives a command that changes the dataset (e.g. SET) it will append it to the AOF. When you restart Redis it will re-play the AOF to rebuild the state.

*Log rewriting

As you can guess, the AOF gets bigger and bigger as write operations are performed. For example, if you are incrementing a counter 100 times, you'll end up with a single key in your dataset containing the final value, but 100 entries in your AOF. 99 of those entries are not needed to rebuild the current state.

So Redis supports an interesting feature: it is able to rebuild the AOF in the background without interrupting service to clients. Whenever you issue a BGREWRITEAOF Redis will write the shortest sequence of commands needed to rebuild the current dataset in memory. If you're using the AOF with Redis 2.2 you'll need to run BGREWRITEAOF from time to time. Redis 2.4 is able to trigger log rewriting automatically (see the 2.4 example configuration file for more information).

*How durable is the append only file?

You can configure how many times Redis will data on disk. There are three options:

  • : every time new commands are appended to the AOF. Very very slow, very safe. Note that the commands are apended to the AOF after a batch of commands from multiple clients or a pipeline are executed, so it means a single write and a single fsync (before sending the replies).
  • : every second. Fast enough (in 2.4 likely to be as fast as snapshotting), and you can lose 1 second of data if there is a disaster.
  • : Never , just put your data in the hands of the Operating System. The faster and less safe method. Normally Linux will flush data every 30 seconds with this configuration, but it's up to the kernel exact tuning.

The suggested (and default) policy is to every second. It is both very fast and pretty safe. The policy is very slow in practice, but it supports group commit, so if there are multiple parallel writes Redis will try to perform a single operation.

*What should I do if my AOF gets truncated?

It is possible that the server crashed while writing the AOF file, or that the volume where the AOF file is stored was full at the time of writing. When this happens the AOF still contains consistent data representing a given point-in-time version of the dataset (that may be old up to one second with the default AOF fsync policy), but the last command in the AOF could be truncated. The latest major versions of Redis will be able to load the AOF anyway, just discarding the last non well formed command in the file. In this case the server will emit a log like the following:

You can change the default configuration to force Redis to stop in such cases if you want, but the default configuration is to continue regardless the fact the last command in the file is not well-formed, in order to guarantee availability after a restart.

Older versions of Redis may not recover, and may require the following steps:

  • Make a backup copy of your AOF file.
  • Fix the original file using the tool that ships with Redis:

    $ redis-check-aof --fix

  • Optionally use to check what is the difference between two files.

  • Restart the server with the fixed file.

*What should I do if my AOF gets corrupted?

If the AOF file is not just truncated, but corrupted with invalid byte sequences in the middle, things are more complex. Redis will complain at startup and will abort:

The best thing to do is to run the utility, initially without the option, then understand the problem, jump at the given offset in the file, and see if it is possible to manually repair the file: the AOF uses the same format of the Redis protocol and is quite simple to fix manually. Otherwise it is possible to let the utility fix the file for us, but in that case all the AOF portion from the invalid part to the end of the file may be discarded, leading to a massive amount of data loss if the corruption happened to be in the initial part of the file.

*How it works

Log rewriting uses the same copy-on-write trick already in use for snapshotting. This is how it works:

  • Redis forks, so now we have a child and a parent process.

  • The child starts writing the new AOF in a temporary file.

  • The parent accumulates all the new changes in an in-memory buffer (but at the same time it writes the new changes in the old append-only file, so if the rewriting fails, we are safe).

  • When the child is done rewriting the file, the parent gets a signal, and appends the in-memory buffer at the end of the file generated by the child.

  • Profit! Now Redis atomically renames the old file into the new one, and starts appending new data into the new file.

*How I can switch to AOF, if I'm currently using dump.rdb snapshots?

There is a different procedure to do this in Redis 2.0 and Redis 2.2, as you can guess it's simpler in Redis 2.2 and does not require a restart at all.

Redis >= 2.2

  • Make a backup of your latest dump.rdb file.
  • Transfer this backup into a safe place.
  • Issue the following two commands:
  • redis-cli config set appendonly yes
  • redis-cli config set save ""
  • Make sure that your database contains the same number of keys it contained.
  • Make sure that writes are appended to the append only file correctly.

The first CONFIG command enables the Append Only File. In order to do so Redis will block to generate the initial dump, then will open the file for writing, and will start appending all the next write queries.

The second CONFIG command is used to turn off snapshotting persistence. This is optional, if you wish you can take both the persistence methods enabled.

IMPORTANT: remember to edit your redis.conf to turn on the AOF, otherwise when you restart the server the configuration changes will be lost and the server will start again with the old configuration.

Redis 2.0

  • Make a backup of your latest dump.rdb file.
  • Transfer this backup into a safe place.
  • Stop all the writes against the database!
  • Issue a . This will create the append only file.
  • Stop the server when Redis finished generating the AOF dump.
  • Edit redis.conf end enable append only file persistence.
  • Restart the server.
  • Make sure that your database contains the same number of keys it contained.
  • Make sure that writes are appended to the append only file correctly.

*Interactions between AOF and RDB persistence

Redis >= 2.4 makes sure to avoid triggering an AOF rewrite when an RDB snapshotting operation is already in progress, or allowing a BGSAVE while the AOF rewrite is in progress. This prevents two Redis background processes from doing heavy disk I/O at the same time.

When snapshotting is in progress and the user explicitly requests a log rewrite operation using BGREWRITEAOF the server will reply with an OK status code telling the user the operation is scheduled, and the rewrite will start once the snapshotting is completed.

In the case both AOF and RDB persistence are enabled and Redis restarts the AOF file will be used to reconstruct the original dataset since it is guaranteed to be the most complete.

*Backing up Redis data

Before starting this section, make sure to read the following sentence: Make Sure to Backup Your Database. Disks break, instances in the cloud disappear, and so forth: no backups means huge risk of data disappearing into /dev/null.

Redis is very data backup friendly since you can copy RDB files while the database is running: the RDB is never modified once produced, and while it gets produced it uses a temporary name and is renamed into its final destination atomically using rename(2) only when the new snapshot is complete.

This means that copying the RDB file is completely safe while the server is running. This is what we suggest:

  • Create a cron job in your server creating hourly snapshots of the RDB file in one directory, and daily snapshots in a different directory.
  • Every time the cron script runs, make sure to call the command to make sure too old snapshots are deleted: for instance you can take hourly snapshots for the latest 48 hours, and daily snapshots for one or two months. Make sure to name the snapshots with data and time information.
  • At least one time every day make sure to transfer an RDB snapshot outside your data center or at least outside the physical machine running your Redis instance.

If you run a Redis instance with only AOF persistence enabled, you can still copy the AOF in order to create backups. The file may lack the final part but Redis will be still able to load it (see the previous sections about truncated AOF files).

*Disaster recovery

Disaster recovery in the context of Redis is basically the same story as backups, plus the ability to transfer those backups in many different external data centers. This way data is secured even in the case of some catastrophic event affecting the main data center where Redis is running and producing its snapshots.

Since many Redis users are in the startup scene and thus don't have plenty of money to spend we'll review the most interesting disaster recovery techniques that don't have too high costs.

  • Amazon S3 and other similar services are a good way for implementing your disaster recovery system. Simply transfer your daily or hourly RDB snapshot to S3 in an encrypted form. You can encrypt your data using (in symmetric encryption mode). Make sure to store your password in many different safe places (for instance give a copy to the most important people of your organization). It is recommended to use multiple storage services for improved data safety.
  • Transfer your snapshots using SCP (part of SSH) to far servers. This is a fairly simple and safe route: get a small VPS in a place that is very far from you, install ssh there, and generate an ssh client key without passphrase, then add it in the file of your small VPS. You are ready to transfer backups in an automated fashion. Get at least two VPS in two different providers for best results.

It is important to understand that this system can easily fail if not implemented in the right way. At least make absolutely sure that after the transfer is completed you are able to verify the file size (that should match the one of the file you copied) and possibly the SHA1 digest if you are using a VPS.

You also need some kind of independent alert system if the transfer of fresh backups is not working for some reason.

Источник: https://redis.io/topics/persistence

This Chamber of Deputies release was published using machine translation.

(Drafting: Press - Communication Department). The president of the Chamber of Deputies Pedro Alliana (ANR-Ñeembucú), considers that the renegotiation of Annex C of the Itaipú Treaty should be a national cause, in order to promote the informed participation of Paraguayan citizens, in the defense of a transparent and fair agreement facing its review in 2023.

He considered that, since it is a matter of national interest, the various sectors should be aware of the negotiations so that the Paraguayan position truly reflects the country's position.

In this context, Deputy Alliana, in his dual capacity as president of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Republican National Association (ANR), paid a visit to the President of the Republic, Mario Abdo Benítez, whom I wish success in the negotiations that started the National Chancellery with Brazil, around the rate of energy produced by the hydroelectric plant.

“We came to bring greetings to the President of the Republic; also the support, backing and accompaniment of the Colorado Party for the steps that it is going to carry out with its counterpart, the president of Brazil, Jair Bolsonaro, in relation to the Itaipu Treaty ”, he said.

He clarified that he supported the National Government's position to maintain the energy tariff, as the Foreign Minister, Euclides Acevedo, had stated to his Brazilian counterpart, Carlos França, on November 5 in Brasilia.

“We agree with the position of trying to keep the rate in USD. 22.60; So we support that and hopefully it can happen ”, he stressed.

However, he indicated that whatever the final result of the negotiation, the idea is that it benefits the Paraguayan population and, above all, that it translates into an important bonus for the most vulnerable sectors.

Let us remember that, if the current price of the energy tariff is maintained, Itaipu will have an important cushion of money from which the National Electricity Administration (ANDE) could benefit, for the continuation of important works.

Otherwise, if the Itaipu tariff is lowered, ANDE would buy the energy at a lower cost and, therefore, there could be a reduction in the local electricity tariff. However, according to experts on the subject, the best negotiation for the country would be to maintain the current sale price in Itaipu.

“What we hope is that the energy tariff will be maintained; We must understand that there is a treaty that establishes that from next year it should go down, but from there, it is where the negotiations will take place and we hope it will be the most beneficial for the country ”, he concluded.

Источник: https://www.bnamericas.com/en/news/alliana-bets-that-the-itaipu-renegotiation-will-become-a-national-cause

What Is a Snapshot Backup?

What is a Snapshot?

Creating a snapshot, also sometimes called a storage snapshot, is like taking a picture of your server data at one specific moment in time. Made up mostly of metadata that defines the state of your information, snapshots are not a complete duplication of the data on your hard disk. They also cannot be stored anywhere other than the local server or virtual machine where they were created.

Because using live data in application test/dev scenarios—such as during the testing of a new application or software, or when trying out new configurations—can pose risks to your production environment, snapshots are widely used for test/dev tasks. Snapshots allow you to access unlimited clones of your data so you can work on development without disrupting everyday workflows. Automate, test, iterate, and tear down workflows without using significant additional storage space. If an error occurs, you can roll the server back to a previous point as a quick failsafe.

It’s not uncommon to use snapshots in production environments, either; in fact, every time you create a backup, the system first starts with a snapshot to quiet, or quiesce, the file system.

The nice thing about snapshots is that you can create them in just seconds, and as frequently as needed—a big difference from full backups, which can take hours to create and often must be done overnight because of the system resources they require. And you can use technologies such as changed block tracking (CBT) to deduplicated the data that is being snapshotted.

Snapshots are meant to be stored only for a short term, can lead to very complex data chains, and have very long consolidation times if they are not thoroughly managed.

How do snapshots work?

Snapshots work by saving the metadata associated with each block of data and every snapshot backup de there is a change the new metadata is recorded allowing a change log and real time backup deployment when an error or data breach is uncovered.

Источник: https://www.rubrik.com/insights/what-is-a-snapshot-backup

Snapshot 101: Copy-on-write vs Redirect-on-write

There are two very different ways to create snapshots: copy-on-write and redirect-on-write. If IT is considering using the snapshot functionality of their storage system, it is essential to understand which type of snapshot it creates and the pros and cons of using either method.

Rather than the more common term volume, this column will use the term protected entity to refer to the entity being protected by a given snapshot. While it is true that the protected entity is typically a RAID volume, it is also true that some object storage systems do not use RAID. Their snapshots may be designed to protect other entities, including containers, a NAS share, etc. In this case, the protected entity may reside on a number of disk drives, but it does not reside on a volume in the RAID or LUN sense.

snapshotswebbanner

What all snapshot types have in common is that they are virtual copies not physical copies. If something happens to the protected entity, then the snapshot will be useless. For example, if there is a triple disk failure on a RAID 6 volume, snapshots will not help. An object storage system should also protect against a certain number of simultaneous failures. But if it exceeds that number, snapshots will not help. A snapshot has two primary purposes: easy recovery of deleted or corrupted files, and a source for replication or backup. In order for the snapshot to protect against media failure, you must replicate or back it up to some other device. In other words, you must make a physical copy.

With a snapshot, nothing significant happens on the collection of hard drives where the protected entity resides. The storage system merely takes note that the way the protected entity looks at that moment means it needs preserving. The difference between copy-on-write and redirect-on-write snapshots is how they store the previous version of a modified block, and these two methods have serious performance ramifications.

Consider a copy-on-write system, which copies any blocks before they are overwritten with new information (i.e. it copies on writes). In other words, if a block in a protected entity is to be modified, the system will copy that block to a separate snapshot area before it is overwritten with the new information. This approach requires three I/O operations for each write: one read and two writes. Prior to overwriting a block, its previous value must be read and then written to a different location, followed by the write of the new information. If a process attempts to read the snapshot at some point in the future, it accesses it through the snapshot system that knows which blocks changed since the snapshot was taken. If a block has not been modified, the snapshot system will read that block from the Loaris Trojan Remover For Windows protected entity. If it has been modified, the snapshot system knows where the previous version of that block is stored and will read it from there. This decision process for each block also comes with some computational overhead.

A redirect-on-write system uses pointers to represent all protected entities. If a block needs modification, the storage system merely redirects the pointer for that block to another block and writes the data there (i.e. it redirects on writes). The snapshot system knows where all of the blocks are that comprise a given snapshot; in other words, it has a list of pointers and knows the location of the blocks those pointers are referring to. If a process attempts to access a given snapshot, it simply uses these pointers to access those blocks where they originally resided. The fact that some of those blocks were replaced and are now represented by other pointers is irrelevant to the snapshot process. There is zero computational overhead of reading a snapshot in a redirect-on-write system.

The redirect-on-write system uses 1/3 the number of I/O operations when modifying a protected block, and it uses no extra computational overhead reading a snapshot. Copy-on-write systems can therefore have a big impact on the performance of the protected entity. The more snapshots are created and the longer they are stored, the greater the impact to performance on the protected entity. This is why copy-on-write snapshots are typically used only as temporary sources for backup; they are created, backed up, and then immediately deleted. Redirect-on-write snapshots, however, are often created every hour – or even every few minutes — and stored for days or even months when they are deleted only for space reasons. (The longer a snapshot is stored, the more extra space is required to hold the previous versions of changed blocks.)

StorageSwiss Take

Redirect-on-write snapshots are the preferred snapshot method if the plan is to use snapshots for medium-to-long-term protection against file deletions and corruptions. If a vendor is using copy-on-write snapshots and is recommending them for anything other than temporary sources for backups, make sure to ask them how they overcome the inherent performance penalties of copy-on-write.

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Tagged with: Backup, Object Storage, performance, RAID, Replication, Snapshot
Posted in Blog

Источник: https://storageswiss.com/2016/04/01/snapshot-101-copy-on-write-vs-redirect-on-write/
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Back Up and Restore with Filesystem Snapshots¶

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This document describes a procedure for creating backups of MongoDB systems using system-level tools, such as LVM or storage appliance, as well as the corresponding restoration strategies.

These filesystem snapshots, or "block-level" backup methods, use system level tools to create copies of the device that holds MongoDB's data files. These methods complete quickly and work reliably, but require additional system configuration outside of MongoDB.

Snapshots work by creating pointers between the live data and a special snapshot volume. These pointers are theoretically equivalent to "hard links." As the working data diverges from the snapshot, the snapshot process uses a copy-on-write strategy. As a result, the snapshot only stores modified data.

After making the snapshot, you mount the snapshot image on your file system and copy data from the snapshot. The resulting backup contains a full copy of all data.

MongoDB 3.2 added support for volume-level back up of MongoDB instances using the WiredTiger storage engine when the MongoDB instance's data files and journal files reside on separate volumes. However, to create a coherent backup, the database must be locked and all writes to the database must be suspended during the backup process.

Prior to MongoDB 3.2, creating volume-level backups of MongoDB instances using WiredTiger required that the data files and journal reside on the same volume.

For encrypted storage engines that use encryption mode, requires that every process use a unique counter block value with the key.

For encrypted storage engine configured with cipher:

  • Restoring from Hot Backup
    Starting in 4.2, if you restore from files taken via "hot" backup (i.e. the is running), MongoDB can detect "dirty" keys on startup and automatically rollover the database key to avoid IV (Initialization Vector) reuse.
  • Restoring from Cold Backup

    However, if you restore from files taken via "cold" backup (i.e. the is not running), MongoDB cannot detect "dirty" keys on startup, and reuse of IV voids confidentiality and integrity guarantees.

    Starting in 4.2, to avoid the reuse of the keys after restoring from a cold filesystem snapshot, MongoDB adds a new command-line option. When started with the option, the instance rolls over the database keys configured with cipher and exits.

Tip

  • In general, if using filesystem based backups for MongoDB Enterprise 4.2+, use the "hot" backup feature, if possible.
  • For MongoDB Enterprise versions 4.0 and earlier, if you use encryption mode, do not make copies of your data files or restore from filesystem snapshots ("hot" or "cold").

The database must be valid when the snapshot takes place. This means that all writes accepted by the database need to be fully written to disk: either to the journal or to data files.

If there are writes that are not on disk when the backup occurs, the backup will not reflect these changes.

For the WiredTiger storage engine, the data files reflect a consistent state as of the last checkpoint. Checkpoints occur with every 2 GB of data or every minute.

Snapshots create an image of an entire disk image. Unless you need to back up your entire system, consider isolating your MongoDB data files, journal (if applicable), and configuration on one logical disk that doesn't contain any other data.

Alternately, store all MongoDB data files on a dedicated device so that you can make backups without duplicating extraneous data.

Ensure that you copy data from snapshots onto other systems. This ensures that data is safe from site failures.

This tutorial does not include procedures for incremental backups. Although different snapshot methods provide different features, the LVM method outlined below does not provide any capacity for capturing incremental backups.

If your instance has journaling enabled, then you can use any kind of file system or volume/block level snapshot tool to create backups.

If you manage your own infrastructure on a Linux-based system, configure your system with LVM to provide your disk packages and provide snapshot capability. You can also use LVM-based setups within a cloud/virtualized environment.

Note

Running LVM provides additional flexibility and enables the possibility of using snapshots to back up MongoDB.

If your deployment depends on Amazon's Elastic Block Storage (EBS) with RAID configured within your instance, it is impossible to get a consistent state across all disks using the platform's snapshot tool. As an alternative, you can do one of the following:

Back Up and Restore Using LVM on Linux¶

This section provides an overview of a simple backup process using LVM on a Linux system. While the tools, commands, and paths may be (slightly) different on your system the following steps provide a high level overview of the backup operation.

Note

Only use the following procedure as a guideline for a backup system and infrastructure. Production backup systems must consider a number of application specific requirements and factors unique to specific environments.

Changed in version 3.2: Starting in MongoDB 3.2, for the purpose of volume-level backup of MongoDB instances using WiredTiger, the data files and the journal are no longer required to reside on a single volume.

To create a snapshot with LVM, issue a command as root in the following format:

This command creates an LVM snapshot (with the option) named of the volume in the volume group.

This example creates a snapshot named located at. The location and paths to your systems volume groups snapshot backup de devices may vary slightly depending on your operating system's LVM configuration.

The snapshot has a cap of at 100 megabytes, because of the parameter. This size does not reflect the total amount of the data on the disk, but rather the quantity of differences between the current state of and the creation of the snapshot (i.e. .)

Warning

Ensure that you create snapshots with enough space to account for data growth, particularly for the period of time that it takes to copy data out of the system or to a temporary image.

If your snapshot runs out of space, the snapshot image becomes unusable. Discard this logical volume and create another.

The snapshot will exist when the command returns. You can restore directly from the snapshot at any time or by snapshot backup de a new logical volume and restoring from this snapshot to the alternate image.

While snapshots are great for creating high quality backups quickly, they are not ideal as a format for storing backup data. Snapshots typically depend and reside on the same storage infrastructure as the original disk images. Therefore, it's crucial that you archive these snapshots and store them elsewhere.

After creating a snapshot, mount the snapshot and copy the data to separate storage. Your system might try to compress the backup images as you move them offline. Alternatively, take a block level copy of the snapshot image, such as with the following procedure:

The above command sequence does the following:

  • Ensures that the device is not mounted. Never take a block level copy of a filesystem or filesystem snapshot that is mounted.
  • Performs a block level copy of the entire snapshot image using the command and compresses the result in a gzipped file in the current working directory.

    Warning

    This command will create a large file in your current working directory. Make sure that you run this command in a file system that has enough free space.

To restore a snapshot created with LVM, issue the following sequence of commands:

The above sequence does the following:

  • Creates a new logical volume namedin the volume group. The path to the new device will be .

    Warning

    This volume will have a maximum size of 1 gigabyte. The original file system must have had a total size of 1 gigabyte or smaller, or else the restoration will fail.

    Change to your desired volume size.

  • Uncompresses and unarchives the into the disk image.
  • Mounts the disk image to the directory. Modify the mount point to correspond to your MongoDB data file location, or other location as needed.

Note

The restored snapshot will have a stale file. If you do not remove this file from the snapshot, and MongoDB may assume that the stale lock file indicates an unclean shutdown. If you're running with enabled, and you do not useyou do not need to remove the file. If you use you will need to remove the lock.

To restore a backup without writing to a compressed file, use the following sequence of commands:

Note

New in version 3.6:

All MongoDB collections have UUIDs by default. When MongoDB restores collections, the restored collections retain their original UUIDs. When restoring a collection where no UUID was present, MongoDB generates a UUID for the restored collection.

For more information on collection UUIDs, see Collections.

You can implement off-system backups using the combined process and SSH.

This sequence is identical to procedures explained above, except that it archives and compresses the backup on a remote system using SSH.

Consider the following procedure:

Changed in version 3.2: Starting in MongoDB 3.2, for the purpose of volume-level backup of MongoDB instances using WiredTiger, the data files and the journal are no snapshot backup de required to reside on a single volume. However, the database must be locked and all writes to the database must be suspended during the backup process to ensure the consistency of the backup.

If your instance is either running without journaling or has the journal files on a separate volume, you must flush all writes to disk and lock the database to prevent writes during the backup process. If you have a replica set configuration, then for your backup use a secondary which is not receiving reads (i.e. hidden member).

1

Flush writes to disk and lock the database to prevent further writes.¶

To flush writes to disk and to "lock" the database, issue the method in :

3

To unlock the database after the snapshot has completed, use the following command in :

Источник: https://docs.mongodb.com/manual/tutorial/backup-with-filesystem-snapshots/
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