the valerie solanas

Valerie Solanas (9 April 1936 – 26 April 1988) was an American feminist. She is notable for writing SCUM Manifesto and having shot Andy Warhol. Known for shooting Andy Warhol in 1968 and for writing the polemical diatribe SCUM Manifesto, Solanas is one of the most famous women of her era. SCUM. Solanas, a writer and women's rights activist, pushed feminism to radical new heights in 1967, when she founded the Society for Cutting Up Men .
the valerie solanas

The valerie solanas -

Valerie Solanas

Valerie Jean Solanas (April 9, 1936 – April 25, 1988) was an American radical feminist and author best known for writing the SCUM Manifesto, which she self-published in 1967, and attempting to murder Andy Warhol in 1968.

Solanas had a turbulent childhood. She said her father regularly sexually abused her and she had a volatile relationship with her mother and stepfather after her parents' divorce. She was sent to live with her grandparents but ran away after being physically abused by her alcoholic grandfather. Solanas came out as a lesbian in the 1950s. After graduating with a degree in psychology from the University of Maryland, College Park, Solanas relocated to Berkeley, California, where she began writing her most notable work, the SCUM Manifesto, which urged women to "overthrow the government, eliminate the money system, institute complete automation and eliminate the male sex".

Solanas moved to New York City in the mid-1960s. She met pop artist Andy Warhol and asked him to produce her play Up Your Ass. She gave him her script, which she later accused him of losing or stealing. After Solanas demanded financial compensation for the lost script, Warhol hired her to perform in his film, I, a Man, paying her $25. In 1967, Solanas began self-publishing the SCUM Manifesto. Olympia Press owner Maurice Girodias offered to publish Solanas's future writings, and she understood the contract to mean that Girodias would own her writing. Convinced that Girodias and Warhol were conspiring to steal her work, Solanas purchased a gun in early 1968.

On June 3, 1968, she went to The Factory, where she found Warhol. She shot at Warhol three times, the first two shots missing and the third wounding Warhol. She also shot art critic Mario Amaya and attempted to shoot Warhol's manager, Fred Hughes, point blank, but the gun jammed. Solanas then turned herself in to the police. She was charged with attempted murder, assault, and illegal possession of a gun. She was diagnosed with paranoid schizophreniaand pleaded guilty to "reckless assault with intent to harm", serving a three-year prison sentence, including treatment in a psychiatric hospital. After her release, she continued to promote the SCUM Manifesto. She died in 1988 of pneumonia in San Francisco.

Early life

Solanas was born in 1936 in Ventnor City, New Jersey, to Louis Solanas and Dorothy Marie Biondo. Her father was a bartender and her mother a dental assistant. She had a younger sister, Judith Arlene Solanas Martinez. Her father was born in Montreal to parents who immigrated from Spain and her mother was an Italian-American of Genoan and Sicilian descent born in Philadelphia.

Solanas said that her father regularly sexually abused her. Her parents divorced when she was young, and her mother remarried shortly afterwards. Solanas disliked her stepfather and began rebelling against her mother, becoming a truant. As a child, she wrote insults for children to use on one another, for the cost of a dime. She beat up a boy in high school who was bothering a younger girl, and also hit a nun. Because of her rebellious behavior, in 1949 her mother sent her to be raised by her grandparents. Solanas said that her grandfather was a violent alcoholic who often beat her. When she was 15, she left her grandparents and became homeless. In 1953, she gave birth to a son, fathered by a married sailor. The child, named David (later David Blackwell by adoption), was taken away from Solanas and she never saw him again.

Despite this, she graduated from high school on time and earned a degree in psychology from the University of Maryland, College Park, where she was in the Psi Chi Honor Society. While at the University of Maryland, she hosted a call-in radio show where she gave advice on how to combat men. She was also an open lesbian, despite the conservative cultural climate of the 1950s.

She attended the University of Minnesota's Graduate School of Psychology, where she worked in the animal research laboratory, before dropping out and moving to attend Berkeley for a few courses. It was during this time that she began writing the SCUM Manifesto.

New York City and the Factory

In the mid-1960s Solanas moved to New York City, where she supported herself through begging and prostitution. 

In 1965 she wrote two works: an autobiographical short story, "A Young Girl's Primer on How to Attain the Leisure Class", and a play, Up Your Ass, about a young prostitute. According to James Martin Harding, the play is "based on a plot about a woman who 'is a man-hating hustler and panhandler' and who ... ends up killing a man." Harding describes it as more a "provocation than ... a work of dramatic literature" and "rather adolescent and contrived." The short story was published in Cavaliermagazine in July 1966. Up Your Ass remained unpublished until 2014.

In 1967, Solanas encountered Andy Warhol outside his studio, The Factory, and asked him to produce her play. He accepted the script for review, told Solanas it was "well typed", and promised to read it. According to Factory lore, Warhol, whose films were often shut down by the police for obscenity, thought the script was so pornographic that it must have been a police trap. Solanas contacted Warhol about the script, and was told that he had lost it. He also jokingly offered her a job at the Factory as a typist. Insulted, Solanas demanded money for the lost manuscript. Instead, Warhol paid her $25 to appear in his film I, a Man.

In her role in I, a Man, she leaves the film's title character (played by Tom Baker) to fend for himself, explaining "I gotta go beat my meat" as she exits the scene. Solanas was satisfied with her experience working with Warhol and her performance in the film, and brought Maurice Girodias to see the film. Girodias described her as being "very relaxed and friendly with Warhol." Solanas also had a nonspeaking role in Warhol's film Bikeboy, in 1967.

SCUM Manifesto

In 1967, Solanas self-published her best-known work, the SCUM Manifesto, a scathing critique of patriarchal culture. The manifesto's opening words are:

"Life" in this "society" being, at best, an utter bore and no aspect of "society" being at all relevant to women, there remains to civic-minded, responsible, thrill-seeking females only to overthrow the government, eliminate the money system, institute complete automation and eliminate the male sex.

Some authors have argued that the Manifesto is a parody of patriarchy and a satirical work and, according to Harding, Solanas described herself as "a social propagandist", but Solanas denied that the work was "a put on" and insisted that her intent was "dead serious". The Manifesto has been translated into over a dozen languages and is excerpted in several feminist anthologies.

While living at the Chelsea Hotel, Solanas introduced herself to Maurice Girodias, the founder of Olympia Press and a fellow resident of the hotel. In August 1967, Girodias and Solanas signed an informal contract stating that she would give Girodias her "next writing, and other writings". In exchange, Girodias paid her $500. She took this to mean that Girodias would own her work. She told Paul Morrissey that "everything I write will be his. He's done this to me ... He's screwed me!" Solanas intended to write a novel based on the SCUM Manifesto, and believed that a conspiracy was behind Warhol's failure to return the Up Your Ass script. She suspected that he was coordinating with Girodias to steal her work.

Shooting

On May 31, 1968, Solanas went to writer Paul Krassner to ask him for $50, which he loaned to her. Krassner later speculated that Solanas could have used the money to buy the gun she used to shoot Warhol, as the shooting was only three days later.

According to an unquoted source in The Outlaw Bible of American Literature, on June 3, 1968, at 9:00 am, Solanas arrived at the Chelsea Hotel, where Girodias lived. She asked for him at the desk but was told he was gone for the weekend. She remained for three hours before heading to the Grove Press, where she asked for Barney Rosset, who was also not available.

In her 2014 biography Valerie Solanas, Breanne Fahs argues that it is unlikely that Solanas appeared at the Chelsea Hotel looking for Girodias. Fahs states that Girodias may have fabricated the account in order to boost sales of the SCUM Manifesto, which he had published. Fahs states that "the more likely story ... places Valerie at the Actor's Studio at 432 West Forty-Fourth Street early that morning." Actress Sylvia Miles states that Solanas appeared at the Actor's Studio looking for Lee Strasberg, asking to leave her play for him. Miles said that Solanas "had a different look, a bit tousled, like somebody whose appearance is the last thing on her mind." Miles told Solanas that Strasberg would not be in until the afternoon. Miles said that she accepted a copy of the play from Solanas and then "shut the door because I knew she was trouble. I didn't know what sort of trouble, but I knew she was trouble."

Fahs records that Solanas then traveled to producer Margo Feiden's (then Margo Eden) residence in Crown Heights, Brooklyn, as Solanas believed that Feiden would be willing to produce her play. As related to Fahs, Solanas talked to Feiden for almost four hours, trying to convince her to produce the play and discussing her vision for a world without men. Throughout this time, Feiden repeatedly refused to produce Solanas's play. According to Feiden, Solanas then pulled out her gun, and when Feiden again refused to commit to producing the play, Solanas responded, "Yes, you will produce the play because I'll shoot Andy Warhol and that will make me famous and the play famous, and then you'll produce it." As she was leaving Feiden's residence, Solanas handed Feiden a copy of her play (a partial copy of an earlier draft of Up Your Ass) and other personal papers.

Fahs describes how Feiden then "frantically called her local police precinct, Andy Warhol's precinct, police headquarters in Lower Manhattan, and the offices of Mayor John Lindsay and Governor Nelson Rockefellerto report what happened and inform them that Solanas was on her way at that very moment to shoot Andy Warhol." In some instances, the police responded that "You can't arrest someone because you believe she is going to kill Andy Warhol," and even asked Feiden "Listen lady, how would you know what a real gun looked like?" In a 2009 interview with James Barron of The New York Times, Feiden said that she knew Solanas intended to kill Warhol, but could not prevent it  (A New York Times assistant Metro editor responded to an online comment regarding the story, saying that the Times "does not present the account as definitive.")

Fahs additionally cites Assistant District Attorney Roderick Lankler's handwritten notes on the case, written on June 4, 1968, which begin with Margo Feiden's stage name, "Margo Eden", address, and telephone numbers at the top of the page.

Later that day, Solanas arrived at the Factory and waited outside. Morrissey arrived and asked her what she was doing there, and she replied "I'm waiting for Andy to get money". Morrissey tried to get rid of her by telling her that Warhol was not coming in that day, but she told him she would wait. At 2:00 pm she went up into the studio. Morrissey told her again that Warhol was not coming in and that she had to leave. She left but rode the elevator up and down until Warhol finally boarded it.

She entered The Factory with Warhol, who complimented her on her appearance as she was uncharacteristically wearing makeup. Morrissey told her to leave, threatening to "beat the hell" out of her and throw her out otherwise. The phone rang and Warhol answered while Morrissey went to the bathroom. While Warhol was on the phone, Solanas fired at him three times. Her first two shots missed, but the third went through both lungs, his spleen, stomach, liver, and esophagus. She then shot art critic Mario Amayain the hip. She tried to shoot Fred Hughes, Warhol's manager, in the head, but her gun jammed. Hughes asked her to leave, which she did, leaving behind a paper bag with her address book on a table. Warhol was taken to Columbus–Mother Cabrini Hospital, where he underwent a successful five-hour operation.

Later that day, Solanas turned herself in, gave up her gun, and confessed to the shooting, telling a police officer that Warhol "had too much control in my life." She was fingerprinted and charged with felonious assault and possession of a deadly weapon. The next morning, the New York Daily News ran the front-page headline "Actress Shoots Andy Warhol." Solanas demanded a retraction of the statement that she was an actress. The Daily News changed the headline in its later edition and added a quote from Solanas stating "I'm a writer, not an actress." At her arraignment in Manhattan Criminal Court she denied shooting Warhol because he wouldn't produce her play but said "it was for the opposite reason", that "he has a legal claim on my works." Solanas told the judge that "it's not often that I shoot somebody. I didn't do it for nothing. Warhol had tied me up, lock, stock, and barrel. He was going to do something to me which would have ruined me." She told the judge she wanted to represent herself[and she declared that she "was right in what I did! I have nothing to regret!" "The judge struck her comments from the court record" and had her admitted to Bellevue Hospital for psychiatric observation.

Trial I consider that a moral act. And I consider it immoral that I missed. I should have done target practice.

— Valerie Solanas on her assassination attempt on Andy Warhol

After a cursory evaluation, Solanas was declared mentally unstable and transferred to the prison ward of Elmhurst Hospital. Solanas appeared at New York Supreme Court on June 13, 1968. Florynce Kennedy represented her and asked for a writ of habeas corpus, arguing that Solanas was being held inappropriately at Elmhurst. The judge denied the motion and Solanas returned to Elmhurst. On June 28, Solanas was indicted on charges of attempted murder, assault, and illegal possession of a gun. She was declared "incompetent" in August and sent to Matteawan State Hospital for the Criminally Insane. That same month, Olympia Press published the SCUM Manifesto with essays by Girodias and Krassner.

In January 1969, Solanas underwent psychiatric evaluation and was diagnosed with chronic paranoid schizophrenia. In June, she was finally deemed fit to stand trial. She represented herself without an attorney and pleaded guilty to "reckless assault with intent to harm". She was sentenced to three years in prison, with one year of time served.

After murder attempt

The shooting of Warhol propelled Solanas into the public spotlight, prompting a flurry of commentary and opinions in the media. Robert Marmorstein, writing in The Village Voice, declared that Solanas "has dedicated the remainder of her life to the avowed purpose of eliminating every single male from the face of the earth." Norman Mailer called her the "Robespierre of feminism."

Ti-Grace Atkinson, the New York chapter president of the National Organization for Women (NOW), described Solanas as "the first outstanding champion of women's rights" and "a 'heroine' of the feminist movement", and "smuggled [her manifesto] ... out of the mental hospital where Solanas was confined." According to Betty Friedan, the NOW board rejected Atkinson. Atkinson left NOW and started another feminist organization, According to Friedan, "the media continued to treat Ti-Grace as a leader of the women's movement, despite its repudiation of her."

Another NOW member, Florynce Kennedy, called Solanas "one of the most important spokeswomen of the feminist movement."

English professor Dana Heller argued that Solanas was "very much aware of feminist organizations and activism", but "had no interest in participating in what she often described as 'a civil disobedience luncheon club.'"  Heller also stated that Solanas could "reject mainstream liberal feminism for its blind adherence to cultural codes of feminine politeness and decorum which the SCUM Manifesto identifies as the source of women's debased social status."

Solanas and Warhol

After Solanas was released from the New York State Prison for Women in 1971, she stalked Warhol and others over the telephone and was arrested again in November 1971.  She was subsequently institutionalized several times and then drifted into obscurity.

The attack had a profound impact on Warhol and his art, and security at the Factory scene became much stronger afterward. For the rest of his life, Warhol lived in fear that Solanas would attack him again. "It was the Cardboard Andy, not the Andy I could love and play with," said close friend and collaborator Billy Name. "He was so sensitized you couldn't put your hand on him without him jumping. I couldn't even love him anymore, because it hurt him to touch him."

Later life

Solanas may have intended to write an eponymous autobiography. In a 1977 Village Voice interview, she announced a book with her name as the title. The book, possibly intended as a parody, was supposed to deal with the "conspiracy" that led to her imprisonment. In a corrective 1977 Village Voice interview, Solanas said the book would not be autobiographical other than a small portion and that it would be about many things, include proof of statements in the manifesto, and would "deal very intensively with the subject of bullshit", but she said nothing about parody.

In the mid-1970s, in New York City, according to Heller, Solanas was "apparently homeless", "continued to defend her political beliefs and the SCUM Manifesto", and "actively promoted" her new Manifestorevision.

A decade later, Ultra Violet tracked down Solanas in northern California and interviewed her over the phone. According to Ultra Violet, Solanas was then known as Onz Loh. Solanas stated that the August 1968 version of the manifesto had many errors, unlike her own printed version of October 1967, and that the book had not sold well. She also said that, until told by Violet, she was unaware of Warhol's death.

Death

On April 25, 1988, at the age of 52, Solanas died of pneumonia at the Bristol Hotel in the Tenderloin district of San Francisco.  A building superintendent at the hotel, not on duty that night, had a vague memory of Solanas: "Once, he had to enter her room, and he saw her typing at her desk. There was a pile of typewritten pages beside her. What she was writing and what happened to the manuscript remain a mystery." Her mother burned all her belongings posthumously.

Legacy

Popular culture

Solanas's life has been the focus of numerous performances, films, musical compositions, and publications.

In 1996, actress Lili Taylor played Solanas in the film I Shot Andy Warhol, which focused on Solanas's assassination attempt on Warhol (played by Jared Harris). Taylor won Special Recognition for Outstanding Performance at the Sundance Film Festival for her role.[84] The film's director, Mary Harron, requested permission to use songs by The Velvet Underground, but was denied by Lou Reed, who feared that Solanas would be glorified in the film. Six years before the film's release, Reed and John Cale included a song about Solanas, "I Believe", on their concept album about Warhol, Songs for Drella (1990). In "I Believe", Reed sings, "I believe life's serious enough for retribution... I believe being sick is no excuse. And I believe I would've pulled the switch on her myself." Reed believed Solanas was to blame for Warhol's death from a gallbladder infection 20 years after she shot him.

Solanas's life has inspired three plays. Valerie Shoots Andy (2001), by Carson Kreitzer, starred two actors playing a younger (Heather Grayson) and an older (Lynne McCollough) Solanas. Tragedy in Nine Lives(2003), by Karen Houppert, examined the encounter between Solanas and Warhol as a Greek tragedy and starred Juliana Francis as Solanas. Most recently, in 2011, Pop!, a musical by Maggie-Kate Coleman and Anna K. Jacobs, focused mainly on Warhol (played by Tom Story). Rachel Zampelli played Solanas and sang "Big Gun", described as the "evening's strongest number" by The Washington Post.

Up Your Ass was rediscovered in 1999 and produced in 2000 by George Coates Performance Works in San Francisco. The copy Warhol had lost was found in a trunk of lighting equipment owned by Billy Name. Coates learned about the rediscovered manuscript while at an exhibition at The Andy Warhol Museummarking the 30th anniversary of the shooting. Coates turned the piece into a musical with an all-female cast. Coates consulted with Solanas's sister, Judith, while writing the piece, and sought to create a "very funny satirist" out of Solanas, not just showing her as Warhol's attempted assassin.

Swedish author Sara Stridsberg wrote a semi-fictional novel about Solanas called Drömfakulteten (English: The Dream Faculty). The book's narrator visits Solanas toward the end of her life at the Bristol Hotel. Stridsberg was awarded the Nordic Council's Literature Prize for the book.

Composer Pauline Oliveros released "To Valerie Solanas and Marilyn Monroe in Recognition of Their Desperation" in 1970. In the work Oliveros seeks to explore how "Both women seemed to be desperate and caught in the traps of inequality: Monroe needed to be recognized for her talent as an actress. Solanas wished to be supported for her own creative work."

Solanas was featured in a 2017 episode of the FX series American Horror Story: Cult, "Valerie Solanas Died for Your Sins: Scumbag". She was played by Lena Dunham. The episode portrayed Solanas as the instigator of most of the Zodiac Killer murders.

Influence and analysis

Solanas's role as a cult figure was solidified with the publication of the SCUM Manifesto and her shooting of Warhol. Harding explained that, by declaring herself independent from Warhol, after her arrest she "aligned herself with the historical avant-garde's rejection of the traditional structures of bourgeois theater", and that her anti-patriarchal "militant hostility ... pushed the avant-garde in radically new directions." Harding believed that Solanas' assassination attempt on Warhol was its own theatrical performance. At the shooting, she left on a table at the Factory a paper bag containing a gun, her address book, and a sanitary napkin. Harding stated that leaving behind the sanitary napkin was part of the performance, and called "attention to basic feminine experiences that were publically [sic] taboo and tacitly elided within avant-garde circles."

Feminist philosopher Avital Ronell compared Solanas to an array of people: Lorena Bobbitt; a "girl Nietzsche"; Medusa; the Unabomber; and Medea. Ronell believed that Solanas was threatened by the hyper-feminine women of the Factory that Warhol liked and felt lonely because of the rejection she felt due to her own butch androgyny. She believed Solanas was ahead of her time, living in a period before feminist and lesbian revolutionaries such as the Guerrilla Girls and the Lesbian Avengers.

Solanas has also been credited with instigating radical feminism. Catherine Lord wrote that "the feminist movement would not have happened without Valerie Solanas." Lord believed that the reissuing of the SCUM Manifesto and the disowning of Solanas by "women's liberation politicos" triggered a wave of radical feminist publications. According to Vivian Gornick, many of the women's liberation activists who initially distanced themselves from Solanas changed their minds a year later, developing the first wave of radical feminism. At the same time, perceptions of Warhol were transformed from largely nonpolitical into political martyrdom because the motive for the shooting was political, according to Harding and Victor Bockris.

Breanne Fahs describes Solanas as a contradiction that "alienates her from the feminist movement." Fahs argues that Solanas never wanted to be "in movement" but nevertheless fractured the feminist movement by provoking NOW members to disagree about her case. Many contradictions are seen in her lifestyle as a lesbian who sexually serviced men, her claim to be asexual, a rejection of queer culture, and a non-interest in working with others despite a dependency on others. Fahs also brings into question the contradictory stories of Solanas's life. She is described as a victim, a rebel, and a desperate loner, yet Solanas' cousin says she worked as a waitress in her late 20s and 30s, not primarily as a prostitute, and friend Geoffrey LaGear said she had a "groovy childhood." Solanas also kept in touch with her father throughout her life, despite claiming that he sexually abused her. Fahs believes that Solanas embraced these contradictions as a key part of her identity.

Works

  • Up Your Ass (1965)
  • "A Young Girl's Primer on How to Attain the Leisure Class", Cavalier (1966)
  • SCUM Manifesto (1967)

Source: wikipedia.org

Источник: https://timenote.info/en/Valerie-Solanas

Valerie Jean Solanas was born April 9, 1936, to Dorothy and Louis Solanas of Ventnor City, New Jersey. Her parents split by the time she was four, sending their two daughters to live with their grandparents in nearby Atlantic City before Valerie eventually reunited with her mother.

According to Breanne Fahs' Valerie Solanas: The Defiant Life of the Woman Who Wrote SCUM (and Shot Andy Warhol), Solanas was a smart, funny child. She learned to play piano at age 7, and before long was rewriting popular songs with silly substitute lyrics.

Solanas also may have been sexually abused by her alcoholic father (a claim she later repeated to friends and psychologists), and by adolescence, an aggressive rebellious streak had emerged. Pulled from her Catholic middle school after attacking a nun, she twice became pregnant by age 15 – the first time allegedly by a relative, the other likely by an older sailor; both babies were taken to be raised elsewhere.

Amid the turmoil, Solanas began discovering an identity: She started exploring her romantic feelings for women and her grades markedly improved. Wrote her high school principal in a college letter of recommendation, "She is an exceptionally bright girl with lots of courage and determination."

In college, Solanas was ordered to counseling for her anger

At the University of Maryland, College Park, Solanas supported herself by working in the psychology department's experimental animal laboratory and possibly through prostitution. The aggression was still there – she was disciplined and ordered to counseling multiple times – but Solanas continued to thrive academically and gained a few friends among the artsy-intellectual sect. She also found an outlet through contributions to the school paper, developing a reputation for letters that railed against sexism in a biting yet hilarious fashion.

Solanas then enrolled in a master's psychology program at the University of Minnesota, where, Fahs suggests, she became frustrated by the realization of the glass ceiling on her career prospects. She dropped out after a year and hitchhiked to California, before returning to New Jersey in the early 1960s.

Solanas was drawn to the lifestyle of New York City artists

As she formulated the ideas that would show up in her later works, Solanas was smitten by the allure of the bohemian lifestyle of the artists, poets and musicians who flocked to New York City's Greenwich Village, and she decided to join them in the summer of 1962.

She initially lived in a women's residence hotel on the Upper West Side and worked in a coffee house, but eventually became a Greenwich Village fixture without ever really finding a community. She bounced between the Hotel Earle, the Chelsea Hotel and the Village Plaza Hotel, lugging her old typewriter everywhere she went, always hustling for customers to pay for her writing, conversation or sex.

In 1965, Solanas completed her first major work: A play called Up Your Ass (Full title: Up Your Ass or From the Cradle to the Boat or The Big Suck or Up from the Slime), about a street-smart lesbian prostitute and her off-color associates. She tried finding a producer for the play, even sending it to the city's resident celebrity artist, Andy Warhol (who she hadn't formally met yet), but no one wanted to touch the overtly lewd material.

Warhol declined to produce Solanas' play

Two years later, the writer completed her calling card, The SCUM Manifesto. Laying out the mission of her Society for Cutting Up Men, the treatise called for the elimination of the male sex and the establishment of a utopian society of women. To some, it was a radical feminist call to arms; to others, an obvious, attention-seeking attempt at satire.

That year Solanas also finally gained an audience of Warhol at the Factory, his legendary Midtown loft known for its art shows, dazzling parties and counterculture icons. She badgered him to produce Up Your Ass. He responded by giving her a scene in one of his films, I, a Man, for $25.

Around this time she met publisher Maurice Girodias, who had built a career via Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita and other controversial books bypassed by mainstream houses. He gave Solanas a $500 advance to write a novel, but she pushed him to publish The SCUM Manifesto instead. Furthermore, she began to conflate Warhol – who never returned the edition of Up Your Ass she sent years earlier – and Girodias as men who were out to steal her ideas.

Solanas shot Warhol because he 'had too much control over my life'

On June 3, 1968, Solanas waited for Warhol outside his new Factory and rode the elevator up with him. After a few minutes, she shot both Warhol and London art critic Mario Amaya with a .32 Beretta. Amaya wasn't seriously hurt, but Warhol was rushed to the hospital with a ruptured stomach, liver, spleen, and lungs. His grueling recovery required him to wear a surgical corset for the rest of his life.

Meanwhile, Solanas casually wandered around before confessing to a Times Square policeman a few hours after the shooting, reportedly informing him that Warhol "had too much control over my life." She was diagnosed as a paranoid schizophrenic and institutionalized until deemed fit to stand trial the following June, at which point she was sentenced to two more years in prison.

Upon her release, Solanas continued levying threats toward other publishing figures, landing her back in psychiatric care until 1975. She resurfaced later in the decade with a revised edition of The SCUM Manifesto and a contentious interview with The Village Voice, in which she boasted of being offered a $100 million advance to write her life story and called shooting Warhol a "moral issue."

She was found dead 14 months after Warhol's passing

Dropping off the radar, Solanas moved to Phoenix, where she reportedly lived on the streets, and then to San Francisco. She was discovered dead in her hotel room on April 25, 1988, after the owner came to investigate her lapsed payments. Her death, from pneumonia, came 14 months after Warhol's.

While many of Warhol's superstars and sycophants enjoyed their 15 minutes of fame in the cocoon of their subculture, Solanas' name has quietly endured through the audacity of her actions, her unique writing voice and the tragic and bizarre recollections left in her wake.

Solanas was portrayed by Lili Taylor in the 1996 film I Shot Andy Warhol, and by Lena Dunham in a 2017 episode of American Horror Story, but the tribute she likely would have enjoyed most came in 2000 when Up Your Ass finally enjoyed a professionally staged debut before an audience at the George Coates Theater in San Francisco.

Источник: https://www.biography.com

Our friend, Valerie Solanas

Dear Valerie,

This exhibition is dedicated to you. We like to think of it as a group of ideal friends, supportive colleagues, and brilliant minds coming together. You did not know each other, but your conversations unfold over time and still echo poignantly with our present. Your strong and powerful voices were never afraid to embrace fragility. 

Ellen writes somewhere that “when a body loves it shows an admirable frailty.” Close friends and collaborators that informed her work, she called the circle of “magical intuitive co-operation.” Her struggles with her last work Pinochet Porn became, in part, her friends' struggles too, and after she passed away it was these friends that finished the tale of her beloved characters. In a way, she had created something larger than all parts involved; political in intent, figurative, precise, dramatic, emotional, and “adult in subject matter.” Is tragedy a choice, she asks. 

When Chiara reads your Manifesto, she mimics the political rhetorics we live in today with such precision, as if she knew what ugly mess was coming our way. And when she channels the spirits of various women in history that voiced their dissent, she is not only mixing spiritism and politics. She reveals a motley crew of relentless minds—activists, terrorists, freak-show performers, philosophers—who collectively represent the fears of a bourgeois society.

In voice-over, Carole explains that since your Manifesto was no longer available in French or English, she and Delphine decided to transform several passages of the book into sound and image. The Manifesto as a true utopia that inverts power relations to denounce a situation that has become normality: the state of permanent war, waged by men throughout the world. This is almost too clear in the passages of live images from the news broadcast on the television screen behind them.

And Pauline says it best in her own words: “Shortly after it was published in 1968 the SCUM Manifesto by Valerie Solanas fell into my hands. Intrigued by the egalitarian feminist principles set forth in the Manifesto, I wanted to incorporate them in the structure of a new piece that I was composing. The women’s movement was surfacing and I felt the need to express my resonance with this energy. Marilyn Monroe had taken her own life. Valerie Solanas had attempted to take the life of Andy Warhol. Both women seemed to be desperate and caught in the traps of inequality: Monroe needed to be recognized for her talent as an actress. Solanas wished to be supported for her own creative work. To Valerie Solanas and Marilyn Monroe in Recognition of Their Desperation had its premiere in 1970. Though everyone knew Marilyn Monroe hardly anyone recognized Valerie Solanas or took her Manifesto seriously. I brought the names of these two women together in the title of the piece to draw attention to their inequality and to dedicate the piece.”

This exhibition is our tribute to strength and fragility, politics and aesthetics, wilfulness and clarity. This exhibition is for you.

Thank you Valerie Solanas, we miss you.

 

Ellen Cantor, Chiara Fumai, Pauline Oliveros, Carole Roussopoulos & Delphine Seyrig

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    Источник: https://www.e-flux.com/announcements/275802/our-friend-valerie-solanas/

    Valerie Solanas

    American radical feminist, author, stalker and attempted murderer

    Valerie Solanas

    Valerie Solanas.jpg

    Solanas at The Village Voice offices in February 1967

    Born(1936-04-09)April 9, 1936

    Ventnor City, New Jersey, U.S.

    DiedApril 25, 1988(1988-04-25) (aged 52)

    San Francisco, California, U.S.

    CitizenshipUnited States
    OccupationWriter
    MovementRadical feminism
    Criminal charge(s)Attempted murder, assault, and illegal possession of a gun, plead to reckless assault with intent to harm
    Criminal penalty3 years incarceration
    Criminal statusdeceased
    Children1
    Writing career
    SubjectRadical feminism
    Notable worksSCUM Manifesto (1967)
    Up Your Ass, a play (wr. 1965, prem. 2000, publ. 2014)
    Solanas-signature.png

    Valerie Jean Solanas (April 9, 1936 – April 25, 1988) was an American radical feminist known for the SCUM Manifesto, which she self-published in 1967, and for her attempt to murder Andy Warhol in 1968.

    Solanas had a turbulent childhood, reportedly suffering sexual abuse from both her father and grandfather, and experiencing a volatile relationship with her mother and stepfather. She came out as a lesbian in the 1950s. After graduating with a degree in psychology from the University of Maryland, College Park, Solanas relocated to Berkeley, where she began writing the SCUM Manifesto, which urged women to "overthrow the government, eliminate the money system, institute complete automation and eliminate the male sex."

    In New York City, she asked pop artistAndy Warhol to produce her play Up Your Ass, but he claimed to have lost her script, hiring her to perform in his film, I, a Man, by way of compensation. At this time, a Parisian publisher of censored works, Maurice Girodias, offered her a contract which she interpreted as a conspiracy between him and Warhol to steal her future writings.

    On June 3, 1968, she went to The Factory, and shot Warhol and art critic Mario Amaya, and attempted to shoot Warhol's manager, Fred Hughes. Solanas then turned herself in to the police. She was charged with attempted murder, assault, and illegal possession of a gun. She was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and pleaded guilty to "reckless assault with intent to harm," serving a three-year prison sentence, including treatment in a psychiatric hospital. After her release, she continued to promote the SCUM Manifesto. She died in 1988 of pneumonia in San Francisco.

    Early life[edit]

    Solanas was born in 1936 in Ventnor City, New Jersey, to Louis Solanas and Dorothy Marie Biondo.[1][2][3][4] Her father was a bartender and her mother a dental assistant.[3][5] She had a younger sister, Judith Arlene Solanas Martinez.[6] Her father was born in Montreal to parents who immigrated from Spain and her mother was an Italian-American of Genoan and Sicilian descent born in Philadelphia.[5]

    Solanas said that her father regularly sexually abused her.[7] Her parents divorced when she was young, and her mother remarried shortly afterwards.[8] Solanas disliked her stepfather and began rebelling against her mother, becoming a truant. As a child, she wrote insults for children to use on one another, for the cost of a dime. She beat up a boy in high school who was bothering a younger girl, and also hit a nun.[3] Because of her rebellious behavior, in 1949 her mother sent her to be raised by her grandparents. Solanas said that her grandfather was a violent alcoholic who often beat her. When she was 15, she left her grandparents and became homeless.[9] In 1953, she gave birth to a son, fathered by a married sailor.[10][a] The child, named David (later David Blackwell by adoption), was taken away from Solanas and she never saw him again.[12][13][14][b]

    Despite this, she graduated from high school on time and earned a degree in psychology from the University of Maryland, College Park, where she was in the Psi Chi Honor Society.[15][16] While at the University of Maryland, she hosted a call-in radio show where she gave advice on how to combat men.[7] She was also an open lesbian, despite the conservative cultural climate of the 1950s.[17]

    She attended the University of Minnesota's Graduate School of Psychology, where she worked in the animal research laboratory,[18] before dropping out and moving to attend Berkeley for a few courses. It was during this time that she began writing the SCUM Manifesto.[13]

    New York City and the Factory[edit]

    In the mid-1960s Solanas moved to New York City, where she supported herself through begging and prostitution.[17][19] In 1965 she wrote two works: an autobiographical[20] short story, "A Young Girl's Primer on How to Attain the Leisure Class," and a play, Up Your Ass,[c] about a young prostitute.[17] According to James Martin Harding, the play is "based on a plot about a woman who 'is a man-hating hustler and panhandler' and who ... ends up killing a man."[21] Harding describes it as more a "provocation than ... a work of dramatic literature"[22] and "rather adolescent and contrived."[21] The short story was published in Cavalier magazine in July 1966.[23][24]Up Your Ass remained unpublished until 2014.[25]

    In 1967, Solanas encountered Andy Warhol outside his studio, The Factory, and asked him to produce her play. He accepted the script for review, told Solanas it was "well typed," and promised to read it.[18] According to Factory lore, Warhol, whose films were often shut down by the police for obscenity, thought the script was so pornographic that it must have been a police trap.[26][27] Solanas contacted Warhol about the script, and was told that he had lost it. He also jokingly offered her a job at the Factory as a typist. Insulted, Solanas demanded money for the lost manuscript. Instead, Warhol paid her $25 to appear in his film I, a Man.[18]

    In her role in I, a Man, she leaves the film's title character (played by Tom Baker) to fend for himself, explaining "I gotta go beat my meat" as she exits the scene.[28] Solanas was satisfied with her experience working with Warhol and her performance in the film, and brought Maurice Girodias to see it. Girodias described her as being "very relaxed and friendly with Warhol." Solanas also had a nonspeaking role in Warhol's film Bikeboy, in 1967.[27]

    SCUM Manifesto[edit]

    Main article: SCUM Manifesto

    In 1967, Solanas self-published her best-known work, the SCUM Manifesto, a scathing critique of patriarchal culture. The manifesto's opening words are:

    "Life" in this "society" being, at best, an utter bore and no aspect of "society" being at all relevant to women, there remains to civic-minded, responsible, thrill-seeking females only to overthrow the government, eliminate the money system, institute complete automation and eliminate the male sex.[29][30]

    Some authors have argued that the Manifesto is a parody of patriarchy and a satirical work and, according to Harding, Solanas described herself as "a social propagandist,"[31] but Solanas denied that the work was "a put on"[32] and insisted that her intent was "dead serious."[32] The Manifesto has been translated into over a dozen languages and is excerpted in several feminist anthologies.[33][34][35][36]

    While living at the Chelsea Hotel, Solanas introduced herself to Maurice Girodias, the founder of Olympia Press and a fellow resident of the hotel. In August 1967, Girodias and Solanas signed[37] an informal contract stating that she would give Girodias her "next writing, and other writings."[38] In exchange, Girodias paid her $500.[38][39][40] She took this to mean that Girodias would own her work.[40] She told Paul Morrissey that "everything I write will be his. He's done this to me ... He's screwed me!"[40] Solanas intended to write a novel based on the SCUM Manifesto, and believed that a conspiracy was behind Warhol's failure to return the Up Your Ass script. She suspected that he was coordinating with Girodias to steal her work.

    Shooting[edit]

    Andy Warhol, one of her two victims

    On May 31, 1968, Solanas went to writer Paul Krassner to ask him for $50, which he loaned to her.[41] Krassner later speculated that Solanas could have used the money to buy the gun she used to shoot Warhol, as the shooting occurred just three days later.[41]

    According to an unquoted source in The Outlaw Bible of American Literature, on June 3, 1968, at 9:00 a.m., Solanas arrived at the Chelsea Hotel, where Girodias lived. She asked for him at the desk but was told he was gone for the weekend. She remained for three hours before heading to the Grove Press, where she asked for Barney Rosset, who was also not available.[42]

    In her 2014 biography Valerie Solanas, Breanne Fahs argues that it is unlikely that Solanas appeared at the Chelsea Hotel looking for Girodias.[43] Fahs states that Girodias may have fabricated the account in order to boost sales of the SCUM Manifesto, which he had published. Fahs states that "the more likely story ... places Valerie at the Actor's Studio at 432 West Forty-Fourth Street early that morning." Actress Sylvia Miles states that Solanas appeared at the Actor's Studio looking for Lee Strasberg, asking to leave her play for him.[44] Miles said that Solanas "had a different look, a bit tousled, like somebody whose appearance is the last thing on her mind."[43] Miles told Solanas that Strasberg would not be in until the afternoon. Miles said that she accepted a copy of the play from Solanas and then "shut the door because I knew she was trouble. I didn't know what sort of trouble, but I knew she was trouble."[43]

    Fahs records that Solanas then traveled to producer Margo Feiden's (then Margo Eden) residence in Crown Heights, Brooklyn, as Solanas believed that Feiden would be willing to produce her play. As related to Fahs, Solanas talked to Feiden for almost four hours, trying to convince her to produce the play and discussing her vision for a world without men. Throughout this time, Feiden repeatedly refused to produce Solanas's play. According to Feiden, Solanas then pulled out her gun, and when Feiden again refused to commit to producing the play, Solanas responded, "Yes, you will produce the play because I'll shoot Andy Warhol and that will make me famous and the play famous, and then you'll produce it." As she was leaving Feiden's residence, Solanas handed Feiden a copy of her play (a partial copy of an earlier draft of Up Your Ass[45]) and other personal papers.[46]

    Fahs describes how Feiden then "frantically called her local police precinct, Andy Warhol's precinct, police headquarters in Lower Manhattan, and the offices of Mayor John Lindsay and Governor Nelson Rockefeller to report what happened and inform them that Solanas was on her way at that very moment to shoot Andy Warhol."[47] In some instances, the police responded that "You can't arrest someone because you believe she is going to kill Andy Warhol," and even asked Feiden "Listen lady, how would you know what a real gun looked like?"[47] In a 2009 interview with James Barron of The New York Times, Feiden said that she knew Solanas intended to kill Warhol, but could not prevent it.[26][d][49][50] (A New York Times assistant Metro editor responded to an online comment regarding the story, saying that the Times "does not present the account as definitive.")[48]

    Fahs additionally cites Assistant District Attorney Roderick Lankler's handwritten notes on the case, written on June 4, 1968, which begin with Margo Feiden's stage name, "Margo Eden," address, and telephone numbers at the top of the page.[51]

    Later that day, Solanas arrived at the Factory and waited outside. Morrissey arrived and asked her what she was doing there, and she replied "I'm waiting for Andy to get money."[52] Morrissey tried to get rid of her by telling her that Warhol was not coming in that day, but she told him she would wait. At 2:00 p.m. she went up into the studio. Morrissey told her again that Warhol was not coming in and that she had to leave. She left but rode the elevator up and down until Warhol finally boarded it.[42]

    She entered The Factory with Warhol, who complimented her on her appearance as she was uncharacteristically wearing makeup. Morrissey told her to leave, threatening to "beat the hell"[52] out of her and throw her out otherwise. The phone rang and Warhol answered while Morrissey went to the bathroom. While Warhol was on the phone, Solanas fired at him three times. Her first two shots missed, but the third went through both lungs, his spleen, stomach, liver, and esophagus.[42] She then shot art critic Mario Amaya in the hip. She tried to shoot Fred Hughes, Warhol's manager, in the head, but her gun jammed.[53] Hughes asked her to leave, which she did, leaving behind a paper bag with her address book on a table.[53] Warhol was taken to Columbus–Mother Cabrini Hospital, where he underwent a successful five-hour operation.[42][54]

    Later that day, Solanas turned herself in, gave up her gun, and confessed to the shooting,[55] telling a police officer that Warhol "had too much control in my life."[56] She was fingerprinted and charged with felonious assault and possession of a deadly weapon.[57] The next morning, the New York Daily News ran the front-page headline "Actress Shoots Andy Warhol." Solanas demanded a retraction of the statement that she was an actress. The Daily News changed the headline in its later edition and added a quote from Solanas stating "I'm a writer, not an actress."[56] At her arraignment in Manhattan Criminal Court she denied shooting Warhol because he wouldn't produce her play but said "it was for the opposite reason,"[58] that "he has a legal claim on my works."[58] Solanas told the judge that "it's not often that I shoot somebody. I didn't do it for nothing. Warhol had tied me up, lock, stock, and barrel. He was going to do something to me which would have ruined me."[57] She told the judge she wanted to represent herself[57] and she declared that she "was right in what I did! I have nothing to regret!"[57] "The judge struck her comments from the court record"[57] and had her admitted to Bellevue Hospital for psychiatric observation.[57]

    Trial[edit]

    I consider that a moral act. And I consider it immoral that I missed. I should have done target practice.

    — Valerie Solanas on her assassination attempt on Andy Warhol[59][60]

    After a cursory evaluation, Solanas was declared mentally unstable and transferred to the prison ward of Elmhurst Hospital.[61] Solanas appeared at New York Supreme Court on June 13, 1968. Florynce Kennedy represented her and asked for a writ of habeas corpus, arguing that Solanas was being held inappropriately at Elmhurst. The judge denied the motion and Solanas returned to Elmhurst. On June 28, Solanas was indicted on charges of attempted murder, assault, and illegal possession of a gun. She was declared "incompetent" in August and sent to Matteawan State Hospital for the Criminally Insane.[62] That same month, Olympia Press published the SCUM Manifesto with essays by Girodias and Krassner.[57]

    In January 1969, Solanas underwent psychiatric evaluation and was diagnosed with chronic paranoid schizophrenia.[7] In June, she was finally deemed fit to stand trial. She represented herself without an attorney and pleaded guilty to "reckless assault with intent to harm."[63][64] She was sentenced to three years in prison, with one year of time served.[63][64]

    After murder attempt[edit]

    The shooting of Warhol propelled Solanas into the public spotlight, prompting a flurry of commentary and opinions in the media. Robert Marmorstein, writing in The Village Voice, declared that Solanas "has dedicated the remainder of her life to the avowed purpose of eliminating every single male from the face of the earth."[32]Norman Mailer called her the "Robespierre of feminism."[65]

    Ti-Grace Atkinson, the New York chapter president of the National Organization for Women (NOW), described Solanas as "the first outstanding champion of women's rights"[65] and "a 'heroine' of the feminist movement,"[66][67] and "smuggled [her manifesto] ... out of the mental hospital where Solanas was confined."[66][67] According to Betty Friedan, the NOW board rejected Atkinson.[67] Atkinson left NOW and founded another feminist organization.[68] According to Friedan, "the media continued to treat Ti-Grace as a leader of the women's movement, despite its repudiation of her."[69]

    Another NOW member, Florynce Kennedy, who had represented her in court, called Solanas "one of the most important spokeswomen of the feminist movement."[18][70]

    English professor Dana Heller argued that Solanas was "very much aware of feminist organizations and activism,"[71] but "had no interest in participating in what she often described as 'a civil disobedienceluncheon club.'"[71] Heller also stated that Solanas could "reject mainstream liberal feminism for its blind adherence to cultural codes of feminine politeness and decorum which the SCUM Manifesto identifies as the source of women's debased social status."[71]

    Solanas and Warhol[edit]

    After Solanas was released from the New York State Prison for Women in 1971,[72] she stalked Warhol and others over the telephone and was arrested again in November 1971.[64] She was subsequently institutionalized several times and then drifted into obscurity.[73]

    The attack had a profound impact on Warhol and his art, and security at the Factory scene became much stronger afterward. For the rest of his life, Warhol lived in fear that Solanas would attack him again. "It was the Cardboard Andy, not the Andy I could love and play with," said close friend and collaborator Billy Name. "He was so sensitized you couldn't put your hand on him without him jumping. I couldn't even love him anymore, because it hurt him to touch him."[74]

    Later life[edit]

    Solanas died in 1988 of pneumonia at the Bristol Hotel in San Francisco.

    Solanas may have intended to write an eponymous autobiography.[75] In a 1977 Village Voice interview,[76] she announced a book with her name as the title.[77] The book, possibly intended as a parody, was supposed to deal with the "conspiracy" that led to her imprisonment.[76] In a corrective 1977 Village Voice interview, Solanas said the book would not be autobiographical other than a small portion and that it would be about many things, include proof of statements in the manifesto, and would "deal very intensively with the subject of bullshit," but she said nothing about parody.[59]

    In the mid-1970s, in New York City, according to Heller, Solanas was "apparently homeless",[78] "continued to defend her political beliefs and the SCUM Manifesto",[78] and "actively promoted" her new Manifesto revision.[78]

    A decade later, Ultra Violet tracked down Solanas in northern California and interviewed her over the phone.[79] According to Ultra Violet, Solanas was then known as Onz Loh. Solanas stated that the August 1968 version of the manifesto had many errors, unlike her own printed version of October 1967, and that the book had not sold well. She also said that, until told by Violet, she was unaware of Warhol's death.[80][e]

    Death[edit]

    The grave of Valerie Jean Solanas at Saint Marys Catholic Church Cemetery, Fairfax County, Virginia

    On April 25, 1988, at the age of 52, Solanas died of pneumonia at the Bristol Hotel in the Tenderloin district of San Francisco.[82] A building superintendent at the hotel, not on duty that night, had a vague memory of Solanas: "Once, he had to enter her room, and he saw her typing at her desk. There was a pile of typewritten pages beside her. What she was writing and what happened to the manuscript remain a mystery.".[12][83] Her mother burned all her belongings posthumously.[12]

    Legacy[edit]

    Popular culture[edit]

    Composer Pauline Oliveros released "To Valerie Solanas and Marilyn Monroe in Recognition of Their Desperation" in 1970. In the work Oliveros seeks to explore how "Both women seemed to be desperate and caught in the traps of inequality: Monroe needed to be recognized for her talent as an actress. Solanas wished to be supported for her own creative work."[84][85]

    Actress Lili Taylor played Solanas in the film I Shot Andy Warhol (1996), which focused on Solanas's assassination attempt on Warhol (played by Jared Harris). Taylor won Special Recognition for Outstanding Performance at the Sundance Film Festival for her role.[86] The film's director, Mary Harron, requested permission to use songs by The Velvet Underground, but was denied by Lou Reed, who feared that Solanas would be glorified in the film. Six years before the film's release, Reed and John Cale included a song about Solanas, "I Believe," on their concept album about Warhol, Songs for Drella (1990). In "I Believe," Reed sings, "I believe life's serious enough for retribution... I believe being sick is no excuse. And I believe I would've pulled the switch on her myself." Reed believed Solanas was to blame for Warhol's death from a gallbladder infection 20 years after she shot him.[87]

    Up Your Ass by Solanas was rediscovered in 1999 and produced in 2000 by George Coates Performance Works in San Francisco. The copy Warhol had lost was found in a trunk of lighting equipment owned by Billy Name. Coates learned about the rediscovered manuscript while at an exhibition at The Andy Warhol Museum marking the 30th anniversary of the shooting. Coates turned the piece into a musical with an all-female cast. Coates consulted with Solanas's sister, Judith, while writing the piece, and sought to create a "very funny satirist" out of Solanas, not just showing her as Warhol's attempted assassin.[12][88]

    Solanas's life has inspired three plays. Valerie Shoots Andy (2001), by Carson Kreitzer, starred two actors playing a younger (Heather Grayson) and an older (Lynne McCollough) Solanas.[89]Tragedy in Nine Lives (2003), by Karen Houppert, examined the encounter between Solanas and Warhol as a Greek tragedy and starred Juliana Francis as Solanas.[88] Most recently, in 2011, Pop!, a musical by Maggie-Kate Coleman and Anna K. Jacobs, focused mainly on Warhol (played by Tom Story). Rachel Zampelli played Solanas and sang "Big Gun," described as the "evening's strongest number" by The Washington Post.[90]

    Swedish author Sara Stridsberg wrote a semi-fictional novel about Solanas called Drömfakulteten (English: The Dream Faculty), published in 2006. The book's narrator visits Solanas toward the end of her life at the Bristol Hotel. Stridsberg was awarded the Nordic Council's Literature Prize for the book.[91] The novel was later translated into and published in English under the title Valerie, or, The Faculty of Dreams: A Novel in 2019.[92]

    Solanas was featured in a 2017 episode of the FX series American Horror Story: Cult, "Valerie Solanas Died for Your Sins: Scumbag." She was played by Lena Dunham.[93] The episode portrayed Solanas as the instigator of most of the Zodiac Killer murders.

    Influence and analysis[edit]

    Author James Martin Harding explained that, by declaring herself independent from Warhol, after her arrest she "aligned herself with the historical avant-garde's rejection of the traditional structures of bourgeois theater,"[94] and that her anti-patriarchal "militant hostility... pushed the avant-garde in radically new directions."[95] Harding believed that Solanas's assassination attempt on Warhol was its own theatrical performance.[96] At the shooting, she left on a table at the Factory a paper bag containing a gun, her address book, and a sanitary napkin.[97] Harding stated that leaving behind the sanitary napkin was part of the performance,[98] and called "attention to basic feminine experiences that were publically [sic] taboo and tacitly elided within avant-garde circles."[99]

    Feminist philosopher Avital Ronell compared Solanas to an array of people: Lorena Bobbitt; a "girl Nietzsche"; Medusa; the Unabomber; and Medea.[100] Ronell believed that Solanas was threatened by the hyper-feminine women of the Factory that Warhol liked and felt lonely because of the rejection she felt due to her own butchandrogyny. She believed Solanas was ahead of her time, living in a period before feminist and lesbian activists such as the Guerrilla Girls and the Lesbian Avengers.[65]

    Solanas has also been credited with instigating radical feminism.[60]Catherine Lord wrote that "the feminist movement would not have happened without Valerie Solanas."[3] Lord believed that the reissuing of the SCUM Manifesto and the disowning of Solanas by "women's liberation politicos" triggered a wave of radical feminist publications. According to Vivian Gornick, many of the women's liberation activists who initially distanced themselves from Solanas changed their minds a year later, developing the first wave of radical feminism.[3] At the same time, perceptions of Warhol were transformed from largely nonpolitical into political martyrdom because the motive for the shooting was political, according to Harding and Victor Bockris.[101] Solanas's idiosyncratic views on gender are a major focus of Andrea Long Chu's 2019 book, Females.[citation needed]

    Breanne Fahs describes Solanas as a contradiction that "alienates her from the feminist movement." Fahs argues that Solanas never wanted to be "in movement" but nevertheless fractured the feminist movement by provoking NOW members to disagree about her case. Many contradictions are seen in her lifestyle as a lesbian who sexually serviced men, her claim to be asexual, a rejection of queer culture, and a non-interest in working with others despite a dependency on others. Fahs also brings into question the contradictory stories of Solanas's life. She is described as a victim, a rebel, and a desperate loner, yet Solanas's cousin says she worked as a waitress in her late 20s and 30s, not primarily as a prostitute, and friend Geoffrey LaGear said she had a "groovy childhood." Solanas also kept in touch with her father throughout her life, despite claiming that he sexually abused her. Fahs believes that Solanas embraced these contradictions as a key part of her identity.[11]

    In 2018, The New York Times started a series of delayed obituaries, of significant individuals whose importance the paper's obituary writers had not recognized at the time of their deaths. In June 2020, they started a series of obituaries on LGBTQ individuals, and on June 26, they profiled Solanas.[102]

    Works[edit]

    Notes[edit]

    1. ^Solanas's cousin claimed the man was a sailor, and that Solanas may have also given birth to a second child before leaving home.[11]
    2. ^Lord stated that Solanas and her son lived with "a middle-class military couple outside of Washington, D.C." before she went to the University of Maryland. This couple might have paid for her college tuition, according to Lord.[3]
    3. ^The original title of the work is Up Your Ass, or, From the Cradle to the Boat, or, The Big Suck, or, Up from the Slime.[3][11]
    4. ^"The Times does not present Ms. Fieden's account as definitive.... [but] consider[s] this just one angle of the story".[48]
    5. ^Violet objected to assassination;[81] for a possible contrast in her views, see Violet (1990), p. 241 for another near-killing of Andy Warhol.
    6. ^Although Up Your Ass was written in 1965, it was not produced as a play until 2000, and was not published until 2014 (as a Kindle ebook).[103]

    References[edit]

    1. ^State of California. California Death Index, 1940–1997. Sacramento, CA: State of California Department of Health Services, Center for Health Statistics.
    2. ^Violet (1990), p. 184
    3. ^ abcdefgLord (2010)
    4. ^Harron (1996), p. xi
    5. ^ abFahs (2014), p. 3
    6. ^Jansen (2011), p. 141
    7. ^ abcWatson (2003), pp. 35–36
    8. ^Solanas (1996), p. 48
    9. ^Buchanan (2011), p. 132
    10. ^Fahs (2014), pp. 23–24
    11. ^ abcFahs (2008)
    12. ^ abcdCoburn, Judith (January 11, 2000). "Solanas Lost and Found". The Village Voice. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
    13. ^ abJobey, Liz, Liz (August 24, 1996). "Solanas and Son". The Guardian.
    14. ^Hewitt (2004), p. 602
    15. ^Heller (2008), p. 154
    16. ^Regarding the honor society: Jansen (2011), p. 152
    17. ^ abcHeller (2001)
    18. ^ abcdNickels (2005), pp. 15–16
    19. ^Hamilton (2002), pp. 264–
    20. ^Solanas (1968), p. 89
    21. ^ abHarding (2010), p. 168
    22. ^Harding (2010), p. 169
    23. ^Watson (2003), p. 447
    24. ^Solanas, Valerie (July 1966). "For 2¢: pain". Cavalier: 38–40, 76–77.
    25. ^Solanas, Valerie (March 31, 2014). Up Your Ass. VandA.ePublishing. ASIN B00JE6N2UG.
    26. ^ abBarron, James (June 23, 2009). "A Manuscript, a Confrontation, a Shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved July 6, 2009.
    27. ^ abKaufman, Ortenberg & Rosset (2004), p. 201
    28. ^Warhol, Andy (Director) (1967). I, a Man (Motion picture).
    29. ^Solanas (1967), p. 1
    30. ^DeMonte (2010), p. 178
    31. ^Harding (2010), p. 152, citing Frank (1996), p. 211
    32. ^ abcMarmorstein (1968), p. 9
    33. ^Hewitt (2004), p. 603
    34. ^Morgan (1970), pp. 514–519
    35. ^See also Rich (1993), p. 17
    36. ^Heller (2008), p. 165, citing as excerpting SCUM Manifesto Kolmar, Wendy, & Frances Bartkowski, eds., Feminist Theory: A Reader (Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield, 2000), & Albert, Judith Clavir, & Stewart Edward Albert, eds., The Sixties Papers: Documents of a Rebellious Decade (1984).
    37. ^Harron (1996), p. xxi
    38. ^ abKaufman, Ortenberg & Rosset (2004), p. 202
    39. ^Watson (2003), p. 334
    40. ^ abcBaer (1996), p. 51
    41. ^ abKrassner, Paul (September 10, 2009). "Brain Damage Control: Phil Spector, Valerie Solanas and Me". High Times. Archived from the original on May 14, 2012.
    42. ^ abcdKaufman, Ortenberg & Rosset (2004), pp. 202–203
    43. ^ abcFahs (2014), p. 133
    44. ^Fahs (2014), pp. 133–134
    45. ^Fahs (2014), footnote 198
    46. ^Fahs (2014), pp. 134–137
    47. ^ abFahs (2014), p. 137
    48. ^ abCollins, Nicole (assistant metropolitan editor), comment 3, June 23, 2009, 10:03 a.m., as accessed June 13, 2013.
    49. ^"Ghomeshi, Jian, host, Q: The Podcast, from CBC Radio 1". Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2009., as accessed November 18, 2012 (interview of Margo Feiden overall approx. 1:14–18:56 from start) (fragment approx. 5:06–5:45 from start) (based on cbc.ca link before archive.org link provided here).
    50. ^O'Brien, Glenn (March 24, 2009). "History Rewrite". Interview Magazine: 1–3. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
    51. ^Fahs (2014), p. 347
    52. ^ abKaufman, Ortenberg & Rosset (2004), p. 203
    53. ^ abHarding (2010), pp. 151–173
    54. ^Dillenberger (2001), p. 31
    55. ^Baer (1996), p. 53
    56. ^ abHarding (2010), p. 152
    57. ^ abcdefgKaufman, Ortenberg & Rosset (2004), p. 204
    58. ^ abFaso, Frank; Lee, Henry (June 5, 1968). "Actress defiant: 'I'm not sorry'". New York Daily News. 49 (297). p. 42.
    59. ^ ab"Valerie Solanas replies". The Village Voice. XXII (31): 29. August 1, 1977.
    60. ^ abThird (2006)
    61. ^Fahs (2014), p. 198
    62. ^Fahs (2014), p. 221
    63. ^ abJansen (2011), p. 153
    64. ^ abcSolanas (1996), p. 55
    65. ^ abcNickels (2005), p. 17
    66. ^ abFriedan (1976), p. 109
    67. ^ abcFriedan (1998), p. 138
    68. ^Willis (1992), p. 124
    69. ^Friedan (1998), p. 139
    70. ^Solanas (1996), p. 54
    71. ^ abcHeller (2008), p. 160
    72. ^Buchanan (2011), p. 48
    73. ^Solanas (1996), pp. 55–56
    74. ^Making the Scene: Factory Made: Warhol and the Sixties by Steven WatsonArchived April 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Dennis Drabelle, The Washington Post book review, November 16, 2003.
    75. ^Winkiel (1999), p. 74
    76. ^ abHeller (2008), p. 151
    77. ^Smith, Howard, & Brian Van der Horst, Valerie Solanas Interview, in Scenes (col.), in The Village Voice (New York, N.Y.), vol. XXII, no. 30, July 25, 1977, p. 32, col. 2.
    78. ^ abcHeller (2008), p. 164
    79. ^Violet (1990), p. v
    80. ^Violet (1990), pp. 183–189
    81. ^Violet (1990), p. 189
    82. ^Watson (2003), p. 425
    83. ^Harron (1996), p. xxxi
    84. ^Oliveros, Pauline (September 1970). "To Valerie Solanas and Marilyn Monroe in Recognition of Their Desperation (1970)". Deep Listening. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
    85. ^"Pauline Oliveros". Roaratorio. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
    86. ^B. Ruby Rich (1996). "I Shot Andy Warhol". Archives. Sundance Institute. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
    87. ^Michael Schaub (November 2003). "The 'Idiot Madness' of Valerie Solanis". Bookslut. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
    88. ^ abCarr, C. (July 22, 2003). "SCUM Goddess". The Village Voice. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
    89. ^Genzlinger, Neil (March 1, 2001). "Theater Review; A Writer One Day, a Would-Be Killer the Next: Reliving the Warhol Shooting". The New York Times. New York City. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
    90. ^Marks, Peter (July 19, 2011). "Theater review: 'Pop!' paints bold portrait of Warhol and his inner circle". The Washington Post. Washington DC: Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
    91. ^"Sara Stridsberg wins the Literature Prize". News. Norden. 2007. Archived from the original on May 7, 2014. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
    92. ^"Valerie | Sara Stridsberg | Macmillan". Us.macmillan.com. 2019. Retrieved August 7, 2019.
    93. ^Bradley, Laura (August 29, 2017). "How American Horror Story: Cult Will Change the A.H.S. Game". Vanity Fair. New York City: Condé Nast. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
    94. ^Harding (2010), p. 153
    95. ^Harding (2010), pp. 29, 30, 31, 33, 153
    96. ^Harding (2010), chap. 6 esp. pp. 151–158 and see pp. 21, 24, 26, 29, 63 & 178
    97. ^Harding (2010), p. 151
    98. ^Harding (2010), pp. 151–153
    99. ^Harding (2010), pp. 152, 153
    100. ^Ronell (2004)
    101. ^Harding (2010), p. 172, citing Bockris, Victor, The Life and Death of Andy Warhol, op. cit., p. 236.
    102. ^Bonnie Wertheim (June 26, 2020). "Overlooked No More: Valerie Solanas, Radical Feminist Who Shot Andy Warhol". The New York Times.
    103. ^Solanas, Valerie (March 31, 2014). Up Your Ass. VandA.ePublishing. ASIN B00JE6N2UG.

    Bibliography[edit]

    • Baer, Freddie (1996). "About Valerie Solanas". In Valerie Solanas (ed.). SCUM Manifesto. Edinburgh: AK Press. pp. 48–57. ISBN .
    • Buchanan, Paul D. (2011). Radical Feminists: A Guide to an American Subculture. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood. ISBN .
    • Chu, Andrea Long (Winter 2018). "On Liking Women". N Plus One (30). Retrieved August 10, 2019.
    • DeMonte, Alexandra (2010). "Feminism: second-wave". In Roger Chapman (ed.). Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe. ISBN .
    • Dillenberger, Jane Daggett (2001). The Religious Art of Andy Warhol. New York: Continuum. ISBN .
    • Fahs, Breanne (Fall 2008). "The radical possibilities of Valerie Solanas". Feminist Studies. 34 (3): 591–617. JSTOR 20459223.
    • Fahs, Breanne (2014). Valerie Solanas: The Defiant Life of the Woman Who Wrote SCUM (and Shot Andy Warhol). New York: The Feminist Press. ISBN .
    • Frank, Marcie (1996). "Popping off Warhol: from the gutter to the underground and beyond". In Doyle, Jennifer; Flatley, Jonathan; Muñoz, José Esteban (eds.). Pop Out: Queer Warhol. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 210–223. ISBN .
    • Friedan, Betty (1976). It Changed My Life: Writings on the Women's Movement. New York: Random House. ISBN .
    • Friedan, Betty (1998) [1963]. It Changed My Life: Writings on the Women's Movement. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN .
    • Hamilton, Neil A. (2002). Rebels and Renegades: a Chronology of Social and Political Dissent in the United States. Taylor & Francis. ISBN .
    • Harding, James Martin (2010). Cutting Performances: Collage Events, Feminist Artists, and the American Avant-Garde. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN .
    • Harron, Mary (1996). "Introduction: on Valerie Solanas". In Harron, Mary; Minahan, Daniel (eds.). I Shot Andy Warhol. New York: Grove Press. pp. vii–xxxi. ISBN .
    • Heller, Dana (2001). "Shooting Solanas: radical feminist history and the technology of failure". Feminist Studies. 27 (1): 167–189. doi:10.2307/3178456. JSTOR 3178456.
    • Heller, Dana (2008). "Shooting Solanas: radical feminist history and the technology of failure". In Hesford, Victoria; Diedrich, Lisa (eds.). Feminist Time against Nation Time: Gender, Politics, and the Nation-State in an Age of Permanent War. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. pp. 151–168. ISBN .
    • Hewitt, Nancy A. (2004). "Solanas, Valerie". In Ware, Susan; Braukman, Stacy Lorraine (eds.). Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary Completing the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN .
    • Jansen, Sharon L. (2011). Reading Women's Worlds from Christine de Pizan to Doris Lessing: A Guide to Six Centuries of Women Writers Imagining Rooms of Their Own. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN .
    • Kaufman, Alan; Ortenberg, Neil; Rosset, Barney, eds. (2004). The Outlaw Bible of American Literature. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN .
    • Lord, Catherine (2010). "Wonder waif meets super neuter". October. 132 (132): 135–136. doi:10.1162/octo.2010.132.1.135. S2CID 57566909.
    • Marmorstein, Robert (June 13, 1968). "A winter memory of Valerie Solanis [sic]: scum goddess". The Village Voice. XIII (35): 9–10, 20.
    • Morgan, Robin (1970). Sisterhood is Powerful: An Anthology of Writings From the Women's Liberation Movement. New York: Random House. ISBN .
    • Nickels, Thom (2005). Out in History: Collected Essays. STARbooks Press. ISBN .
    • Rich, B. Ruby (1993). "Manifesto destiny: drawing a bead on Valerie Solanas". Voice Literary Supplement. 119: 16–17.
    • Ronell, Avital (2004). "Deviant payback: the aims of Valerie Solanas". In Valerie Solanas (ed.). SCUM Manifesto. London: Verso. pp. 1–32. ISBN .
    • Solanas, Valerie (1967). SCUM Manifesto. self-published.
    • Solanas, Valerie (1968). SCUM Manifesto. Olympia Press.
    • Solanas, Valerie (1996). SCUM Manifesto. San Francisco, CA: AK Press. ISBN .
    • Third, Amanda (2006). "'Shooting from the hip': Valerie Solanas, SCUM and the apocalyptic politics of radical feminism". Hecate. 32 (2): 104–132.
    • Violet, Ultra (1990). Famous for 15 Minutes: My Years with Andy Warhol. New York: Avon Books. ISBN .
    • Watson, Steven (2003). Factory Made: Warhol and the Sixties (1st ed.). New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN .
    • Willis, Ellen (1992). "Radical feminism and feminist radicalism". In Ellen Willis (ed.). No More Nice Girls: Countercultural Essays. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 117–150. ISBN .
    • Winkiel, Laura (1999). "The "sweet assassin" and the performative politics of SCUM Manifesto". In Patricia Juliana Smith (ed.). The Queer Sixties. New York: Routledge. pp. 62–86. ISBN .

    External links[edit]

    • Quotations related to Valerie Solanas at Wikiquote
    • Media related to Valerie Solanas at Wikimedia Commons
    • Valerie Solanas The Defiant Life of the Woman Who Wrote SCUM (and Shot Andy Warhol), by Breanne Fahs (2014)
    • About Valerie Solanas, by Freddie Baer (1999)
    • Whose Soiree Now?, by Alisa Solomon (The Village Voice, February 2001)
    • Valerie Jean Solanas (1936–88) (Guardian Unlimited, March 2005)
    • Valerie Solanas bibliography at the Wayback Machine (archived August 17, 2005)
    • Valerie Solanas at IMDb
    • "The Shot That Shattered the Velvet Underground," written June 6, 1968, from The Village Voice archives.
    Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valerie_Solanas

    Antwerps Erf(Goed) - Bar Oost & Minigolf Beatrijs

    Jun, 2021 Music

    Zaterdag 10 juli Spoor Oost en zondag 1 augustus Minigolf Beatrijs. Telkens om 13u. 

    Naast eigen werk brengen de Solanas ook bewerkingen van Wannes Van de Velde, La Esterella, Arbeid Adelt, John Lundström in het kader van Antwerps (Erf)goed. Michaël Brijs, Tom Tiest, Diederik Van Remoortere, Filip Vandebril en Bert Lezy.

    Het voorprogramma wordt verzorgd door Peter Verhelst, die ook enkele bewerkingen van Wannes Van De Velde zal spelen voor het publiek.

    Aansluitend Blaastaal 'Den BRT draait door' met een breed palet aan uitsluitend Antwerps geluid.

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    Источник: https://solanas.be/

    Paperback. Condition: New. Language: Italian. Brand new Book. Fu proprio questo testo a provocare la violenta reazione della Solanas contro Andy Wharol. Offesa dal silenzio del celebre e potente padre della pop art, Valerie estenuata e furiosa dopo mesi e mesi di attesa sullesito di una possibile pubblicazione o messa in scena dellopera, spar� a Wharol. Up Your Ass (In culo a te), che tanto terrorizz� il guru della provocazione Andy Warhol, � un atto unico che racconta la giornata di una giovane prostituta, Bongi Perez spiritosa, lesbica, implacabile castigatrice delle dinamiche di potere uomo-donna a colpi di battute folgoranti, nonch� palesemente alter ego della stessa Solanas e della variegata fauna metropolitana con cui questultima si trova a interagire: drag queen, marchettari pi� o meno sfortunati, attempati sporcaccioni, dinamici intellettuali, casalinghe disperate e ragazze emancipate. Di ognuno di essi Bongi, con esilarante e scanzonata puntualit�, rivela idiosincrasie, paradossi e contraddizioni non ultima la grottesca assurdit� dei comportamenti tramite cui le donne passivamente adagiate su modelli patriarcali tentano di compiacere gli uomini.


    More buying choices from other sellers on AbeBooks

    New offers fromUS$ 16.80

    Источник: https://www.abebooks.com/book-search/author/solanas-valerie/

    The valerie solanas -

    Inside the Many Tragedies Spawned From Valerie Solanas' Attempted Murder of Andy Warhol

    In 1968, Andy Warhol was at the top of his game in the art world and had room to experiment with film. Then one summer afternoon in early June, everything changed.

    Writer Valerie Solanas went into Warhol’s office, pulled out a gun and shot him. Warhol just barely survived the shooting, but some have said it may have led to his death nearly 20 years later.

    But how many have remembered the attack on the man who claimed everyone would be famous for 15 minutes is a saga unto itself.  

    The Artist and The Writer

    Andy Warhol was from the working-class, blue-collar city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. But from a young age, he had his sights on a bigger world than the one his immigrant parents raised him in. In 1949, he arrived in New York City and immediately got to work as an illustrator for various ad agencies.

    “In early 1961, he really turned himself into one of the new pop artists of that moment,” “Warhol” biographer Blake Gopnik told Inside Edition Digital. “He had a big hand in creating the movement known as pop art, where artists took everyday objects, objects made commercially, and presented them as the subject of fine art. And that's really his discovery.”

    He would go on to shake up the art world and the scene in New York City from his infamous Silver Factory, his Midtown space he used as an office, art studio and event area. Inside “The Factory,” he dictated what was cool.

    “Andy Warhol is possibly the greatest artist of all time. He redefined what art is. He not only elevated drag and trans personalities to the realm of superstar, he changed what cinema can be, what art can be,” culture critic Michael Musto told Inside Edition Digital. “He took American capitalism and consumerism and spat it back in your face, by doing Campbell's Soup art, and he made a fortune while doing it. And at the same time, he conquered every medium there is and was a very inspiring person on the scene.”

    People sought out Warhol’s validation and approval. His endorsement was life-changing and career-catapulting.

    “Just having him in our midst was like having some great messiah or wonderful shaman who seemed to know everything and was clued in. And we turned to for guidance, we turned to him for validation,” Musto said.

    And there was no better place to seek Warhol’s approval than The Factory. One such person who flocked to the creative’s headquarters was writer Valerie Solanas.

    Solanas, who grew up in New Jersey, had a traumatic upbringing. She was reportedly sexually assaulted by her father at a young age and allegedly physical abused at the hands of her grandfather

    She left home when she was 15 and soon became pregnant. She went on to have two children, a girl and later a boy, whom she had to give up.

    “Her daughter, her first child was raised, so she was sort of sent away to have the baby and then she was raised as her sister,” Breanne Fahs, who wrote the biography, “Valerie Solanas: The Defiant Life of the Woman Who Wrote Scum (and Shot Andy Warhol)” told Inside Edition Digital.

    Solanas’ biological son told Fahs he had no contact with her after he was placed for adoption.

    Solanas went on to get a degree in psychology from the University of Maryland. She attended the University of Minnesota's Graduate School of Psychology before dropping out and moving to attend Berkeley, where she took several courses.

    It was during this time that she came out as a lesbian and began writing. what she called the “SCUM Manifesto.” SCUM stood for Society for Cutting Up Men.

    “The ‘SCUM Manifesto,’ which involved overturning capitalism, getting rid of everything, especially men. She just wanted men to be eliminated from the populace. People said, ‘Oh, she's kidding. It's a satire.’ She said, ‘No, I'm not,’” Musto said.

    Solanas struggled with mental health and as she was finding her path in life, she stood out from the crowd, according to Fahs.

    “Here's a very bright, very ambitious woman, she sort of sticks out like a sore thumb from the pearl-clutching kind of the '50s and '60s women that are her contemporaries,” Fahs said.

    Solanas arrived in New York City in 1962. It was there and then that she set out live her truth as best she could, Fahs said.

    “This bohemian New York City scene, where she's finally in a place where she gets to sort of be openly bisexual, openly lesbian, openly, whatever she wants,” Fahs said.

    Solanas eventually moved to the Chelsea Hotel, which had long been home to artists, writers, musicians and other people who didn't quite fit into mainstream society. Solanas did odd jobs and sex work while she pursued her career as a writer and obsessed over “SCUM.”

    She wrote and obsessively revised “SCUM” between 1965 and 1967, according to Nicole Dezelon, associate director of learning at the Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh.

    “Initially, she self-published the document and sold mimeographed copies to men for $2.50, but women could have it for a dollar, which I think just sums up the philosophy of Valerie Solanas right there,” Dezelon said.

    While living at the Chelsea, she met and signed the rights to “SCUM” over to publisher Maurice Girodias.

    “She signed a contract with Girodias to publish ‘SCUM Manifesto,’ but as her paranoia worsened, she kind of misinterpreted the document and the contract and feared that she had signed away the rights to her future, her writings as well,” Dezelon said.

    It was during this time that she also met Andy Warhol and tried to get the artist to produce her play, “Up Your A**.” She gave Warhol one of her only copies of the play. Warhol reportedly discarded it and laughed at how explicit it was. But Solanas would not be deterred. She continued to follow up with Warhol about the play, and he began feeling bad. He began giving her money and paid her $25 to act in his experimental film, “I, a Man.”

    But the more flippant Warhol became with Solanas, the more her paranoia heightened. When Warhol told Solanas he would give her a job as a typist at The Factory because of how well-typed her play was, she took the gesture to mean he was trying to steal her property, Dezelon said.

    “So she developed this theory that [Girodias] and Warhol were both conspiring to steal her work, but in reality the two men, they barely knew one another,” Dezelon added.

    The Shooting of Andy Warhol Amid a Changing America

    In early 1968, Warhol moved out of the Factory in Midtown and into a new place in Union Square, which many still called his Factory. As the artist marked a period of change for himself, America was seeing its own revolution.

    The Vietnam War, which was still raging, divided America into Hawks and Doves, or those who supported the fighting and those who didn’t. Students protested on campuses and cities across the country. In February 1968, sanitation workers went on strike in Memphis. It became a watershed moment for the Civil Rights movement.

    That March, President Lyndon B. Johnson announced he would not seek reelection, opening the door for New York Senator Robert F. Kennedy as the Democratic favorite. In April, Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis by White Supremacist James Earl Ray; two days after King’s killing, the Black Panthers and Oakland Police engaged in a shootout that saw 17-year-old Bobby Hutton shot dead as he tried to surrender.

    New York City saw its fair share of upheaval as well. Students protested the war and that February, sanitation workers went on strike, demanding better wages and leaving the streets of the five boroughs piled high with trash for nine days. That spring, the musical “Hair” introduced audiences to sex, drugs and nudity on stage.

    “In the '60s, America was in tumult. There was a lot of rage in the air, along with the hippy dippy love fest that was the counter to that. And there were assassinations left and right,” Musto said. “Things seem to be helter-skelter and out of control. And it set the scene for Valerie Solanas, for somebody that unhinged to claim center stage, in such a dark, dangerous way.”

    On June 3, 1968, Solanas showed up at Girodias’ office that morning. He was not there and she allegedly told his secretary she was planning to kill her boss. She then went to Union Square and waited for Warhol outside his office.

    Warhol arrived at the office later that afternoon. Solanas and Warhol rode the elevator together up to his office, where a group of people were already congregated. As those people began speaking to Solanas, she reached for something.

    “All of a sudden she pulls out a gun and starts shooting for no real reason,” Gopnik said.

    Solanas used a .32-caliber pistol to open fire. She eventually struck Warhol, hitting him with a bullet that ripped through many of his major organs.

    “Warhol falls to the ground, cowering, he smashes into a desk, he smashes his head. And eventually she comes right up, presses the gun against his side just under his armpit and shoots. The bullet pierces all sorts of organs,” Gopnik said.

    Solanas also shot London art critic Mario Amaya who was in the office that day. A bullet grazed his back. He was discharged from the hospital later that day. Solanas also aimed at Fred Hughes, Warhol's business manager, who pleaded for his life. As begged to not be shot, the elevators abruptly opened.

    “Solanas flees the scene of the crime and rides down the elevator. So you couldn't get any more cinematic than that,” Dezelon said.

    Three hours after the shooting, Solanas surrendered to the NYPD near Times Square, telling a traffic cop that Warhol “had too much control over my life.”

    Solanas quickly became the center of the New York media’s attention.  The New York Daily News put on their front page the next day with the headline, “Actress Shoots Warhol.” Solanas demanded a retraction after seeing it, reportedly telling the paper, “I'm a writer, not an actress.” The Daily News issued the retraction and changed the headline for the later edition of the June 4, 1968 paper.

    The Aftermath of the Shooting of Andy Warhol

    It took nearly 20 minutes for the ambulance to arrive following the first shots inside the office. Warhol was shot just over a month before New York City would implement its 911 system.

    Warhol was rushed to Columbus–Mother Cabrini Hospital with a ruptured stomach, liver, spleen and lungs. It was unclear if he would make it and was pronounced clinically dead.

    Doctors massaged his heart and he was then operated on for five hours by Italian immigrant Dr. Giuseppe Rossi.

    “My parents had just recently immigrated to the United States and my father was a working doctor and wasn't as plugged into the visual arts, fine arts scene, certainly not enough for him to recognize the name and immediately know who he was operating on,” Dr. Rossi’s son, Roberto, told Inside Edition Digital.

    Dezelon said that Warhol spent two months in the hospital. “His injuries were so severe that he had to wear a surgical corset for the rest of his life,” Dezelon said.

    Two days after Warhol was shot, on June 5, Robert Kennedy was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan as he spoke to supporters inside the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles.

    While recovering in the hospital, Warhol heard the news that Kennedy had been killed. The news was so surreal that he thought he was dreaming, according to Gopnik.

    Warhol was eventually released from the hospital, but he never forgot what Dr. Rossi had done for him.

    “The presence Andy Warhol had in our lives was a very dutiful orchid sent pretty much every holiday season with a thank you note. So we always got an orchid from Andy Warhol around Christmas time thanking my dad. ‘To Dr. Rossi, thanks so much.’ And that's the extent of it. My father really did not dwell on this much,” Rossi said.

    Warhol also gifted the Rossis with a series of paintings of his infamous Campbell’s Soup cans, something that Roberto Rossi said was stashed under his parents’ bed because there was no room in the apartment for them to be hung.

    The family auctioned the paintings in 2017 for an undisclosed amount.

    “We just made the choice that if we weren't going to put them up and we were going to be keeping them in storage, wherever it was anyway, that there might be people out there who may want to be putting them up,” Rossi said.

    Following the shooting, Warhol chose not to press charges against his would-be assassin.

    According to Fahs, Warhol said his reasoning was because Solanas was “acting in her nature” and that is who she was.

    “Warhol, for all of his limitations, had this ability to take people for who they were and truly allow them to be extremely weird or eccentric or even violent,” Fahs added.

    Appearing before a judge, Solanas said what she did to Warhol was “a moral act. And I consider it immoral that I missed. I should have done target practice.”

    Solanas was charged with attempted murder, assault and illegal possession of a gun. She was later declared mentally unstable and a paranoid schizophrenic.

    Months after the shooting, the SCUM Manifesto was officially published by Girodias and his company Olympia.

    “The manifesto would not have been published by Girodias or probably by any other major publisher if it didn't have this sensationalistic story around it,” Fahs said.

    In June 1969, a year after the shooting, Solanas was deemed competent and was able to stand trial. Refusing an attorney, she represented herself and pleaded guilty to reckless assault with intent to harm. She was sentenced to three years in prison, with one year of time served.

    While in prison, Solanas tried to get in touch with Warhol in a series of letters.

    “She would write him letters like ‘Dear Toad,’ and these hilarious, hateful, strange sort of letters,” Fahs said.

    Trying to Lead Their Own Lives But Always Together

    Warhol continued to make his art and be a fixture of New York City nightlife as he recovered from the shooting. He showed off the scars he sustained from his life-saving surgery to photographer friends and documented his body’s recovery himself.

    All the while, as Solanas served her time in prison, she split the feminist movement of the 1960s into two.

    “This shooting didn't just have an impact in terms of the Warhol scene or the art world or that thing. It also had a huge impact on the entire history of the feminist movement from that point forward, which largely then divides between radical and liberal feminism,” Fahs said. “And we get to see the birth of very different political priorities from that point forward as well.”

    Fahs said that some women inside the National Organization for Women saw Valerie's Solanas shooting Andy Warhol as “a symbol of women being pushed to the edge.”

    “It's a symbol of women's anger,” Fahs said of their take on the shooting. “’We need to see this as a feminist cause. We need to rush to her aid. We need to provide legal counsel. She is one of us.’”

    Others inside the organization said violence had no place in the group and didn’t see Solanas as relevant, according to Fahs.

    Solanas was released from prison in 1971 and continued to stalk Warhol, according to Dezelon. The idea of her out of prison frightened Warhol.

    “The shooting mercifully did not end Andy's life, but it did alter it irrevocably, because he was nervous and afraid ever since that happened, that it could happen again. And if he ever saw someone that reminded him even vaguely of Valerie, he was wary of them. He was terrified of another Valerie Solanas,” Musto said. “Andy was a public figure. He depended on going out, meeting people in restaurants, going to nightclubs. He was always wary from that point on, to try to prevent another shooting. It certainly could have happened again with another crackpot.”

    By the mid-1970s Solanas was out of prison, and found herself homeless in New York City. She had several breakdowns and mental health episodes, according to Fahs.

    “She becomes completely consumed with a paranoid idea that her uterus has a uterine transmitter that's communicating messages to the mob,” Fahs said. “At one point, she tries to dig that transmitter out of her body with a fork. It was really violent, terrible disintegration of the self.”

    She was arrested again in November 1971 for stalking Warhol and went back to prison several times before moving out of New York. She lived in Arizona and San Francisco, where she began writing again, publishing what she believed was the purest form of the SCUM manifesto.

    While living in San Francisco, Solanas resided in a single-occupancy hotel, Fahs said.

    “One of those little welfare hotels that they had at the time,” Fahs said. “And she sort of gets into drugs and is prostituting, again.”

    The Legacies of Andy Warhol and Valerie Solanas

    Warhol would take a fear of hospitals from his near-death experience. He continued to face a series of health problems in the wake of the shooting.

    “His body had been damaged by the shooting, there's no doubt about that, he actually had to have follow up surgery…he had infections or all sorts of problems. And he for a while at least is taking speed every day, he's addicted to or he takes a lot of Valium, he's on downers, he's on uppers, he's part of the party scene. None of that's great for your body,” Gopnik said.

    Warhol suffered from an infected gallbladder but wanted to find a holistic cure. However, his condition became so bad that despite his fear of hospitals, he went under the knife in February 1987 for gallbladder surgery.

    “What people call a routine gallbladder operation that Andy underwent in 1987 wasn't really routine at all. It was tricky, it wasn't beyond the skills of this very talented surgeon, but it wasn't straightforward at all. Andy has simply left his illness go too long, his gallbladder was too rotten, there was too much infection,” Gopnik said.

    Warhol’s heart gave out on Feb. 22, 1987. He was 58. Some say his death was a result of the shooting.

    “Somewhere around 4 o'clock in the morning, his heart stopped. They tried to revive him, they tried again and again. They did find his heartbeat again I think two times, they did CPR, they inject him full of all sorts of emergency drugs to bring him back to life. But in the end, frankly, his heart just stopped,” Gopnik said.

    Musto eulogized Warhol in The Village Voice, where he declared “The Death of Downtown” because of the artist’s death.

    “One of the impetus for that was not only that the clubs were kind of tired or closing, but our leader was gone. He was the leader of the scene. He was a leader of the nightlife scene, the art scene, the magazines, everything,” Musto said. “He really was like the unofficial mayor of New York.”

    Solanas was told the news by a friend and former Factory alum, Ultra Violet.

    “Ultra Violet calls Valerie Solanas and says, ‘Did you hear the news about Andy Warhol?’ And Valerie had not heard,” Fahs said. “It was kind of like the reaction was basically like, ‘Oh, he died? Yea. Let me ask you some questions about the copyright for the SCUM Manifesto. How do I get to the Library of Congress and get the copy?’”

    “Andy always felt everyone on Earth will ultimately have their own TV show and be famous for 15 minutes,” Musto said. “Tragically enough, Valerie Solanas became famous as a result of shooting Andy Warhol. But it also made him more famous in a way he didn't want. It did generate a lot of publicity, but it's not the kind of publicity he relished. He wanted things to be happy. He loved gossip. He liked being a bitchy queen, believe me, but that's about as mean as he got.”

    Just over a year after Warhol’s death, Solanas died of pneumonia at the Bristol Hotel in San Francisco, where she was living in squalor. Her body was found after the owner arrived looking for her due to delinquent rent payments, according to Biography. She was 52.

    “She's stuck in that world where she is forever linked to Andy Warhol instead of to herself, which is maybe the most horrifying outcome for somebody who always wanted to be self-defined and who never would have wanted to be defined according to being associated with a man,” Fahs said. “She is interesting in her own right.”

    The incident between Solanas and Warhol has been referenced many times over the years in pop culture.

    Lou Reed wrote two songs over the years to cheer up his mentor and close friend. In 1969, he released “Andy’s Chest,” and later in 1990, Reed and John Cale released “I Believe.” Both songs reference the near-death experience the artist had.

    Solanas was portrayed by Lili Taylor in the acclaimed 1996 film “I Shot Andy Warhol.” In 2017, Lena Dunham played Solanas in an episode of “American Horror Story: Cult.”

    Dezelon said that Solanas’ script she gave Warhol for her play, “Up You’re A**,” was found by the Andy Warhol Museum years later.

    The SCUM Manifesto continues to be published to this day, but its popularity pales in comparison to Warhol’s art, which is as popular today as it was when the artist created it.

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    Источник: https://www.insideedition.com/inside-the-many-tragedies-spawned-from-valerie-solanas-attempted-murder-of-andy-warhol-70636

    Valerie Jean Solanas was born April 9, 1936, to Dorothy and Louis Solanas of Ventnor City, New Jersey. Her parents split by the time she was four, sending their two daughters to live with their grandparents in nearby Atlantic City before Valerie eventually reunited with her mother.

    According to Breanne Fahs' Valerie Solanas: The Defiant Life of the Woman Who Wrote SCUM (and Shot Andy Warhol), Solanas was a smart, funny child. She learned to play piano at age 7, and before long was rewriting popular songs with silly substitute lyrics.

    Solanas also may have been sexually abused by her alcoholic father (a claim she later repeated to friends and psychologists), and by adolescence, an aggressive rebellious streak had emerged. Pulled from her Catholic middle school after attacking a nun, she twice became pregnant by age 15 – the first time allegedly by a relative, the other likely by an older sailor; both babies were taken to be raised elsewhere.

    Amid the turmoil, Solanas began discovering an identity: She started exploring her romantic feelings for women and her grades markedly improved. Wrote her high school principal in a college letter of recommendation, "She is an exceptionally bright girl with lots of courage and determination."

    In college, Solanas was ordered to counseling for her anger

    At the University of Maryland, College Park, Solanas supported herself by working in the psychology department's experimental animal laboratory and possibly through prostitution. The aggression was still there – she was disciplined and ordered to counseling multiple times – but Solanas continued to thrive academically and gained a few friends among the artsy-intellectual sect. She also found an outlet through contributions to the school paper, developing a reputation for letters that railed against sexism in a biting yet hilarious fashion.

    Solanas then enrolled in a master's psychology program at the University of Minnesota, where, Fahs suggests, she became frustrated by the realization of the glass ceiling on her career prospects. She dropped out after a year and hitchhiked to California, before returning to New Jersey in the early 1960s.

    Solanas was drawn to the lifestyle of New York City artists

    As she formulated the ideas that would show up in her later works, Solanas was smitten by the allure of the bohemian lifestyle of the artists, poets and musicians who flocked to New York City's Greenwich Village, and she decided to join them in the summer of 1962.

    She initially lived in a women's residence hotel on the Upper West Side and worked in a coffee house, but eventually became a Greenwich Village fixture without ever really finding a community. She bounced between the Hotel Earle, the Chelsea Hotel and the Village Plaza Hotel, lugging her old typewriter everywhere she went, always hustling for customers to pay for her writing, conversation or sex.

    In 1965, Solanas completed her first major work: A play called Up Your Ass (Full title: Up Your Ass or From the Cradle to the Boat or The Big Suck or Up from the Slime), about a street-smart lesbian prostitute and her off-color associates. She tried finding a producer for the play, even sending it to the city's resident celebrity artist, Andy Warhol (who she hadn't formally met yet), but no one wanted to touch the overtly lewd material.

    Warhol declined to produce Solanas' play

    Two years later, the writer completed her calling card, The SCUM Manifesto. Laying out the mission of her Society for Cutting Up Men, the treatise called for the elimination of the male sex and the establishment of a utopian society of women. To some, it was a radical feminist call to arms; to others, an obvious, attention-seeking attempt at satire.

    That year Solanas also finally gained an audience of Warhol at the Factory, his legendary Midtown loft known for its art shows, dazzling parties and counterculture icons. She badgered him to produce Up Your Ass. He responded by giving her a scene in one of his films, I, a Man, for $25.

    Around this time she met publisher Maurice Girodias, who had built a career via Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita and other controversial books bypassed by mainstream houses. He gave Solanas a $500 advance to write a novel, but she pushed him to publish The SCUM Manifesto instead. Furthermore, she began to conflate Warhol – who never returned the edition of Up Your Ass she sent years earlier – and Girodias as men who were out to steal her ideas.

    Solanas shot Warhol because he 'had too much control over my life'

    On June 3, 1968, Solanas waited for Warhol outside his new Factory and rode the elevator up with him. After a few minutes, she shot both Warhol and London art critic Mario Amaya with a .32 Beretta. Amaya wasn't seriously hurt, but Warhol was rushed to the hospital with a ruptured stomach, liver, spleen, and lungs. His grueling recovery required him to wear a surgical corset for the rest of his life.

    Meanwhile, Solanas casually wandered around before confessing to a Times Square policeman a few hours after the shooting, reportedly informing him that Warhol "had too much control over my life." She was diagnosed as a paranoid schizophrenic and institutionalized until deemed fit to stand trial the following June, at which point she was sentenced to two more years in prison.

    Upon her release, Solanas continued levying threats toward other publishing figures, landing her back in psychiatric care until 1975. She resurfaced later in the decade with a revised edition of The SCUM Manifesto and a contentious interview with The Village Voice, in which she boasted of being offered a $100 million advance to write her life story and called shooting Warhol a "moral issue."

    She was found dead 14 months after Warhol's passing

    Dropping off the radar, Solanas moved to Phoenix, where she reportedly lived on the streets, and then to San Francisco. She was discovered dead in her hotel room on April 25, 1988, after the owner came to investigate her lapsed payments. Her death, from pneumonia, came 14 months after Warhol's.

    While many of Warhol's superstars and sycophants enjoyed their 15 minutes of fame in the cocoon of their subculture, Solanas' name has quietly endured through the audacity of her actions, her unique writing voice and the tragic and bizarre recollections left in her wake.

    Solanas was portrayed by Lili Taylor in the 1996 film I Shot Andy Warhol, and by Lena Dunham in a 2017 episode of American Horror Story, but the tribute she likely would have enjoyed most came in 2000 when Up Your Ass finally enjoyed a professionally staged debut before an audience at the George Coates Theater in San Francisco.

    Источник: https://www.biography.com

    Valerie Solanas

    Valerie Jean Solanas (April 9, 1936 – April 25, 1988) was an American radical feminist and author best known for writing the SCUM Manifesto, which she self-published in 1967, and attempting to murder Andy Warhol in 1968.

    Solanas had a turbulent childhood. She said her father regularly sexually abused her and she had a volatile relationship with her mother and stepfather after her parents' divorce. She was sent to live with her grandparents but ran away after being physically abused by her alcoholic grandfather. Solanas came out as a lesbian in the 1950s. After graduating with a degree in psychology from the University of Maryland, College Park, Solanas relocated to Berkeley, California, where she began writing her most notable work, the SCUM Manifesto, which urged women to "overthrow the government, eliminate the money system, institute complete automation and eliminate the male sex".

    Solanas moved to New York City in the mid-1960s. She met pop artist Andy Warhol and asked him to produce her play Up Your Ass. She gave him her script, which she later accused him of losing or stealing. After Solanas demanded financial compensation for the lost script, Warhol hired her to perform in his film, I, a Man, paying her $25. In 1967, Solanas began self-publishing the SCUM Manifesto. Olympia Press owner Maurice Girodias offered to publish Solanas's future writings, and she understood the contract to mean that Girodias would own her writing. Convinced that Girodias and Warhol were conspiring to steal her work, Solanas purchased a gun in early 1968.

    On June 3, 1968, she went to The Factory, where she found Warhol. She shot at Warhol three times, the first two shots missing and the third wounding Warhol. She also shot art critic Mario Amaya and attempted to shoot Warhol's manager, Fred Hughes, point blank, but the gun jammed. Solanas then turned herself in to the police. She was charged with attempted murder, assault, and illegal possession of a gun. She was diagnosed with paranoid schizophreniaand pleaded guilty to "reckless assault with intent to harm", serving a three-year prison sentence, including treatment in a psychiatric hospital. After her release, she continued to promote the SCUM Manifesto. She died in 1988 of pneumonia in San Francisco.

    Early life

    Solanas was born in 1936 in Ventnor City, New Jersey, to Louis Solanas and Dorothy Marie Biondo. Her father was a bartender and her mother a dental assistant. She had a younger sister, Judith Arlene Solanas Martinez. Her father was born in Montreal to parents who immigrated from Spain and her mother was an Italian-American of Genoan and Sicilian descent born in Philadelphia.

    Solanas said that her father regularly sexually abused her. Her parents divorced when she was young, and her mother remarried shortly afterwards. Solanas disliked her stepfather and began rebelling against her mother, becoming a truant. As a child, she wrote insults for children to use on one another, for the cost of a dime. She beat up a boy in high school who was bothering a younger girl, and also hit a nun. Because of her rebellious behavior, in 1949 her mother sent her to be raised by her grandparents. Solanas said that her grandfather was a violent alcoholic who often beat her. When she was 15, she left her grandparents and became homeless. In 1953, she gave birth to a son, fathered by a married sailor. The child, named David (later David Blackwell by adoption), was taken away from Solanas and she never saw him again.

    Despite this, she graduated from high school on time and earned a degree in psychology from the University of Maryland, College Park, where she was in the Psi Chi Honor Society. While at the University of Maryland, she hosted a call-in radio show where she gave advice on how to combat men. She was also an open lesbian, despite the conservative cultural climate of the 1950s.

    She attended the University of Minnesota's Graduate School of Psychology, where she worked in the animal research laboratory, before dropping out and moving to attend Berkeley for a few courses. It was during this time that she began writing the SCUM Manifesto.

    New York City and the Factory

    In the mid-1960s Solanas moved to New York City, where she supported herself through begging and prostitution. 

    In 1965 she wrote two works: an autobiographical short story, "A Young Girl's Primer on How to Attain the Leisure Class", and a play, Up Your Ass, about a young prostitute. According to James Martin Harding, the play is "based on a plot about a woman who 'is a man-hating hustler and panhandler' and who ... ends up killing a man." Harding describes it as more a "provocation than ... a work of dramatic literature" and "rather adolescent and contrived." The short story was published in Cavaliermagazine in July 1966. Up Your Ass remained unpublished until 2014.

    In 1967, Solanas encountered Andy Warhol outside his studio, The Factory, and asked him to produce her play. He accepted the script for review, told Solanas it was "well typed", and promised to read it. According to Factory lore, Warhol, whose films were often shut down by the police for obscenity, thought the script was so pornographic that it must have been a police trap. Solanas contacted Warhol about the script, and was told that he had lost it. He also jokingly offered her a job at the Factory as a typist. Insulted, Solanas demanded money for the lost manuscript. Instead, Warhol paid her $25 to appear in his film I, a Man.

    In her role in I, a Man, she leaves the film's title character (played by Tom Baker) to fend for himself, explaining "I gotta go beat my meat" as she exits the scene. Solanas was satisfied with her experience working with Warhol and her performance in the film, and brought Maurice Girodias to see the film. Girodias described her as being "very relaxed and friendly with Warhol." Solanas also had a nonspeaking role in Warhol's film Bikeboy, in 1967.

    SCUM Manifesto

    In 1967, Solanas self-published her best-known work, the SCUM Manifesto, a scathing critique of patriarchal culture. The manifesto's opening words are:

    "Life" in this "society" being, at best, an utter bore and no aspect of "society" being at all relevant to women, there remains to civic-minded, responsible, thrill-seeking females only to overthrow the government, eliminate the money system, institute complete automation and eliminate the male sex.

    Some authors have argued that the Manifesto is a parody of patriarchy and a satirical work and, according to Harding, Solanas described herself as "a social propagandist", but Solanas denied that the work was "a put on" and insisted that her intent was "dead serious". The Manifesto has been translated into over a dozen languages and is excerpted in several feminist anthologies.

    While living at the Chelsea Hotel, Solanas introduced herself to Maurice Girodias, the founder of Olympia Press and a fellow resident of the hotel. In August 1967, Girodias and Solanas signed an informal contract stating that she would give Girodias her "next writing, and other writings". In exchange, Girodias paid her $500. She took this to mean that Girodias would own her work. She told Paul Morrissey that "everything I write will be his. He's done this to me ... He's screwed me!" Solanas intended to write a novel based on the SCUM Manifesto, and believed that a conspiracy was behind Warhol's failure to return the Up Your Ass script. She suspected that he was coordinating with Girodias to steal her work.

    Shooting

    On May 31, 1968, Solanas went to writer Paul Krassner to ask him for $50, which he loaned to her. Krassner later speculated that Solanas could have used the money to buy the gun she used to shoot Warhol, as the shooting was only three days later.

    According to an unquoted source in The Outlaw Bible of American Literature, on June 3, 1968, at 9:00 am, Solanas arrived at the Chelsea Hotel, where Girodias lived. She asked for him at the desk but was told he was gone for the weekend. She remained for three hours before heading to the Grove Press, where she asked for Barney Rosset, who was also not available.

    In her 2014 biography Valerie Solanas, Breanne Fahs argues that it is unlikely that Solanas appeared at the Chelsea Hotel looking for Girodias. Fahs states that Girodias may have fabricated the account in order to boost sales of the SCUM Manifesto, which he had published. Fahs states that "the more likely story ... places Valerie at the Actor's Studio at 432 West Forty-Fourth Street early that morning." Actress Sylvia Miles states that Solanas appeared at the Actor's Studio looking for Lee Strasberg, asking to leave her play for him. Miles said that Solanas "had a different look, a bit tousled, like somebody whose appearance is the last thing on her mind." Miles told Solanas that Strasberg would not be in until the afternoon. Miles said that she accepted a copy of the play from Solanas and then "shut the door because I knew she was trouble. I didn't know what sort of trouble, but I knew she was trouble."

    Fahs records that Solanas then traveled to producer Margo Feiden's (then Margo Eden) residence in Crown Heights, Brooklyn, as Solanas believed that Feiden would be willing to produce her play. As related to Fahs, Solanas talked to Feiden for almost four hours, trying to convince her to produce the play and discussing her vision for a world without men. Throughout this time, Feiden repeatedly refused to produce Solanas's play. According to Feiden, Solanas then pulled out her gun, and when Feiden again refused to commit to producing the play, Solanas responded, "Yes, you will produce the play because I'll shoot Andy Warhol and that will make me famous and the play famous, and then you'll produce it." As she was leaving Feiden's residence, Solanas handed Feiden a copy of her play (a partial copy of an earlier draft of Up Your Ass) and other personal papers.

    Fahs describes how Feiden then "frantically called her local police precinct, Andy Warhol's precinct, police headquarters in Lower Manhattan, and the offices of Mayor John Lindsay and Governor Nelson Rockefellerto report what happened and inform them that Solanas was on her way at that very moment to shoot Andy Warhol." In some instances, the police responded that "You can't arrest someone because you believe she is going to kill Andy Warhol," and even asked Feiden "Listen lady, how would you know what a real gun looked like?" In a 2009 interview with James Barron of The New York Times, Feiden said that she knew Solanas intended to kill Warhol, but could not prevent it  (A New York Times assistant Metro editor responded to an online comment regarding the story, saying that the Times "does not present the account as definitive.")

    Fahs additionally cites Assistant District Attorney Roderick Lankler's handwritten notes on the case, written on June 4, 1968, which begin with Margo Feiden's stage name, "Margo Eden", address, and telephone numbers at the top of the page.

    Later that day, Solanas arrived at the Factory and waited outside. Morrissey arrived and asked her what she was doing there, and she replied "I'm waiting for Andy to get money". Morrissey tried to get rid of her by telling her that Warhol was not coming in that day, but she told him she would wait. At 2:00 pm she went up into the studio. Morrissey told her again that Warhol was not coming in and that she had to leave. She left but rode the elevator up and down until Warhol finally boarded it.

    She entered The Factory with Warhol, who complimented her on her appearance as she was uncharacteristically wearing makeup. Morrissey told her to leave, threatening to "beat the hell" out of her and throw her out otherwise. The phone rang and Warhol answered while Morrissey went to the bathroom. While Warhol was on the phone, Solanas fired at him three times. Her first two shots missed, but the third went through both lungs, his spleen, stomach, liver, and esophagus. She then shot art critic Mario Amayain the hip. She tried to shoot Fred Hughes, Warhol's manager, in the head, but her gun jammed. Hughes asked her to leave, which she did, leaving behind a paper bag with her address book on a table. Warhol was taken to Columbus–Mother Cabrini Hospital, where he underwent a successful five-hour operation.

    Later that day, Solanas turned herself in, gave up her gun, and confessed to the shooting, telling a police officer that Warhol "had too much control in my life." She was fingerprinted and charged with felonious assault and possession of a deadly weapon. The next morning, the New York Daily News ran the front-page headline "Actress Shoots Andy Warhol." Solanas demanded a retraction of the statement that she was an actress. The Daily News changed the headline in its later edition and added a quote from Solanas stating "I'm a writer, not an actress." At her arraignment in Manhattan Criminal Court she denied shooting Warhol because he wouldn't produce her play but said "it was for the opposite reason", that "he has a legal claim on my works." Solanas told the judge that "it's not often that I shoot somebody. I didn't do it for nothing. Warhol had tied me up, lock, stock, and barrel. He was going to do something to me which would have ruined me." She told the judge she wanted to represent herself[and she declared that she "was right in what I did! I have nothing to regret!" "The judge struck her comments from the court record" and had her admitted to Bellevue Hospital for psychiatric observation.

    Trial I consider that a moral act. And I consider it immoral that I missed. I should have done target practice.

    — Valerie Solanas on her assassination attempt on Andy Warhol

    After a cursory evaluation, Solanas was declared mentally unstable and transferred to the prison ward of Elmhurst Hospital. Solanas appeared at New York Supreme Court on June 13, 1968. Florynce Kennedy represented her and asked for a writ of habeas corpus, arguing that Solanas was being held inappropriately at Elmhurst. The judge denied the motion and Solanas returned to Elmhurst. On June 28, Solanas was indicted on charges of attempted murder, assault, and illegal possession of a gun. She was declared "incompetent" in August and sent to Matteawan State Hospital for the Criminally Insane. That same month, Olympia Press published the SCUM Manifesto with essays by Girodias and Krassner.

    In January 1969, Solanas underwent psychiatric evaluation and was diagnosed with chronic paranoid schizophrenia. In June, she was finally deemed fit to stand trial. She represented herself without an attorney and pleaded guilty to "reckless assault with intent to harm". She was sentenced to three years in prison, with one year of time served.

    After murder attempt

    The shooting of Warhol propelled Solanas into the public spotlight, prompting a flurry of commentary and opinions in the media. Robert Marmorstein, writing in The Village Voice, declared that Solanas "has dedicated the remainder of her life to the avowed purpose of eliminating every single male from the face of the earth." Norman Mailer called her the "Robespierre of feminism."

    Ti-Grace Atkinson, the New York chapter president of the National Organization for Women (NOW), described Solanas as "the first outstanding champion of women's rights" and "a 'heroine' of the feminist movement", and "smuggled [her manifesto] ... out of the mental hospital where Solanas was confined." According to Betty Friedan, the NOW board rejected Atkinson. Atkinson left NOW and started another feminist organization, According to Friedan, "the media continued to treat Ti-Grace as a leader of the women's movement, despite its repudiation of her."

    Another NOW member, Florynce Kennedy, called Solanas "one of the most important spokeswomen of the feminist movement."

    English professor Dana Heller argued that Solanas was "very much aware of feminist organizations and activism", but "had no interest in participating in what she often described as 'a civil disobedience luncheon club.'"  Heller also stated that Solanas could "reject mainstream liberal feminism for its blind adherence to cultural codes of feminine politeness and decorum which the SCUM Manifesto identifies as the source of women's debased social status."

    Solanas and Warhol

    After Solanas was released from the New York State Prison for Women in 1971, she stalked Warhol and others over the telephone and was arrested again in November 1971.  She was subsequently institutionalized several times and then drifted into obscurity.

    The attack had a profound impact on Warhol and his art, and security at the Factory scene became much stronger afterward. For the rest of his life, Warhol lived in fear that Solanas would attack him again. "It was the Cardboard Andy, not the Andy I could love and play with," said close friend and collaborator Billy Name. "He was so sensitized you couldn't put your hand on him without him jumping. I couldn't even love him anymore, because it hurt him to touch him."

    Later life

    Solanas may have intended to write an eponymous autobiography. In a 1977 Village Voice interview, she announced a book with her name as the title. The book, possibly intended as a parody, was supposed to deal with the "conspiracy" that led to her imprisonment. In a corrective 1977 Village Voice interview, Solanas said the book would not be autobiographical other than a small portion and that it would be about many things, include proof of statements in the manifesto, and would "deal very intensively with the subject of bullshit", but she said nothing about parody.

    In the mid-1970s, in New York City, according to Heller, Solanas was "apparently homeless", "continued to defend her political beliefs and the SCUM Manifesto", and "actively promoted" her new Manifestorevision.

    A decade later, Ultra Violet tracked down Solanas in northern California and interviewed her over the phone. According to Ultra Violet, Solanas was then known as Onz Loh. Solanas stated that the August 1968 version of the manifesto had many errors, unlike her own printed version of October 1967, and that the book had not sold well. She also said that, until told by Violet, she was unaware of Warhol's death.

    Death

    On April 25, 1988, at the age of 52, Solanas died of pneumonia at the Bristol Hotel in the Tenderloin district of San Francisco.  A building superintendent at the hotel, not on duty that night, had a vague memory of Solanas: "Once, he had to enter her room, and he saw her typing at her desk. There was a pile of typewritten pages beside her. What she was writing and what happened to the manuscript remain a mystery." Her mother burned all her belongings posthumously.

    Legacy

    Popular culture

    Solanas's life has been the focus of numerous performances, films, musical compositions, and publications.

    In 1996, actress Lili Taylor played Solanas in the film I Shot Andy Warhol, which focused on Solanas's assassination attempt on Warhol (played by Jared Harris). Taylor won Special Recognition for Outstanding Performance at the Sundance Film Festival for her role.[84] The film's director, Mary Harron, requested permission to use songs by The Velvet Underground, but was denied by Lou Reed, who feared that Solanas would be glorified in the film. Six years before the film's release, Reed and John Cale included a song about Solanas, "I Believe", on their concept album about Warhol, Songs for Drella (1990). In "I Believe", Reed sings, "I believe life's serious enough for retribution... I believe being sick is no excuse. And I believe I would've pulled the switch on her myself." Reed believed Solanas was to blame for Warhol's death from a gallbladder infection 20 years after she shot him.

    Solanas's life has inspired three plays. Valerie Shoots Andy (2001), by Carson Kreitzer, starred two actors playing a younger (Heather Grayson) and an older (Lynne McCollough) Solanas. Tragedy in Nine Lives(2003), by Karen Houppert, examined the encounter between Solanas and Warhol as a Greek tragedy and starred Juliana Francis as Solanas. Most recently, in 2011, Pop!, a musical by Maggie-Kate Coleman and Anna K. Jacobs, focused mainly on Warhol (played by Tom Story). Rachel Zampelli played Solanas and sang "Big Gun", described as the "evening's strongest number" by The Washington Post.

    Up Your Ass was rediscovered in 1999 and produced in 2000 by George Coates Performance Works in San Francisco. The copy Warhol had lost was found in a trunk of lighting equipment owned by Billy Name. Coates learned about the rediscovered manuscript while at an exhibition at The Andy Warhol Museummarking the 30th anniversary of the shooting. Coates turned the piece into a musical with an all-female cast. Coates consulted with Solanas's sister, Judith, while writing the piece, and sought to create a "very funny satirist" out of Solanas, not just showing her as Warhol's attempted assassin.

    Swedish author Sara Stridsberg wrote a semi-fictional novel about Solanas called Drömfakulteten (English: The Dream Faculty). The book's narrator visits Solanas toward the end of her life at the Bristol Hotel. Stridsberg was awarded the Nordic Council's Literature Prize for the book.

    Composer Pauline Oliveros released "To Valerie Solanas and Marilyn Monroe in Recognition of Their Desperation" in 1970. In the work Oliveros seeks to explore how "Both women seemed to be desperate and caught in the traps of inequality: Monroe needed to be recognized for her talent as an actress. Solanas wished to be supported for her own creative work."

    Solanas was featured in a 2017 episode of the FX series American Horror Story: Cult, "Valerie Solanas Died for Your Sins: Scumbag". She was played by Lena Dunham. The episode portrayed Solanas as the instigator of most of the Zodiac Killer murders.

    Influence and analysis

    Solanas's role as a cult figure was solidified with the publication of the SCUM Manifesto and her shooting of Warhol. Harding explained that, by declaring herself independent from Warhol, after her arrest she "aligned herself with the historical avant-garde's rejection of the traditional structures of bourgeois theater", and that her anti-patriarchal "militant hostility ... pushed the avant-garde in radically new directions." Harding believed that Solanas' assassination attempt on Warhol was its own theatrical performance. At the shooting, she left on a table at the Factory a paper bag containing a gun, her address book, and a sanitary napkin. Harding stated that leaving behind the sanitary napkin was part of the performance, and called "attention to basic feminine experiences that were publically [sic] taboo and tacitly elided within avant-garde circles."

    Feminist philosopher Avital Ronell compared Solanas to an array of people: Lorena Bobbitt; a "girl Nietzsche"; Medusa; the Unabomber; and Medea. Ronell believed that Solanas was threatened by the hyper-feminine women of the Factory that Warhol liked and felt lonely because of the rejection she felt due to her own butch androgyny. She believed Solanas was ahead of her time, living in a period before feminist and lesbian revolutionaries such as the Guerrilla Girls and the Lesbian Avengers.

    Solanas has also been credited with instigating radical feminism. Catherine Lord wrote that "the feminist movement would not have happened without Valerie Solanas." Lord believed that the reissuing of the SCUM Manifesto and the disowning of Solanas by "women's liberation politicos" triggered a wave of radical feminist publications. According to Vivian Gornick, many of the women's liberation activists who initially distanced themselves from Solanas changed their minds a year later, developing the first wave of radical feminism. At the same time, perceptions of Warhol were transformed from largely nonpolitical into political martyrdom because the motive for the shooting was political, according to Harding and Victor Bockris.

    Breanne Fahs describes Solanas as a contradiction that "alienates her from the feminist movement." Fahs argues that Solanas never wanted to be "in movement" but nevertheless fractured the feminist movement by provoking NOW members to disagree about her case. Many contradictions are seen in her lifestyle as a lesbian who sexually serviced men, her claim to be asexual, a rejection of queer culture, and a non-interest in working with others despite a dependency on others. Fahs also brings into question the contradictory stories of Solanas's life. She is described as a victim, a rebel, and a desperate loner, yet Solanas' cousin says she worked as a waitress in her late 20s and 30s, not primarily as a prostitute, and friend Geoffrey LaGear said she had a "groovy childhood." Solanas also kept in touch with her father throughout her life, despite claiming that he sexually abused her. Fahs believes that Solanas embraced these contradictions as a key part of her identity.

    Works

    • Up Your Ass (1965)
    • "A Young Girl's Primer on How to Attain the Leisure Class", Cavalier (1966)
    • SCUM Manifesto (1967)

    Source: wikipedia.org

    Источник: https://timenote.info/en/Valerie-Solanas

    Paperback. Condition: New. Language: Italian. Brand new Book. Fu proprio questo testo a provocare la violenta reazione della Solanas contro Andy Wharol. Offesa dal silenzio del celebre e potente padre della pop art, Valerie estenuata e furiosa dopo mesi e mesi di attesa sullesito di una possibile pubblicazione o messa in scena dellopera, spar� a Wharol. Up Your Ass (In culo a te), che tanto terrorizz� il guru della provocazione Andy Warhol, � un atto unico che racconta la giornata di una giovane prostituta, Bongi Perez spiritosa, lesbica, implacabile castigatrice delle dinamiche di potere uomo-donna a colpi di battute folgoranti, nonch� palesemente alter ego della stessa Solanas e della variegata fauna metropolitana con cui questultima si trova a interagire: drag queen, marchettari pi� o meno sfortunati, attempati sporcaccioni, dinamici intellettuali, casalinghe disperate e ragazze emancipate. Di ognuno di essi Bongi, con esilarante e scanzonata puntualit�, rivela idiosincrasie, paradossi e contraddizioni non ultima la grottesca assurdit� dei comportamenti tramite cui le donne passivamente adagiate su modelli patriarcali tentano di compiacere gli uomini.


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    Valerie Solanas

    Valerie Solanas (9 April 1936 – 26 April 1988) was an American feminist. She is notable for writing SCUM Manifesto and having shot Andy Warhol.

    Quotes[edit]

    SCUM MANIFESTO (1967)[edit]

    (This is from a photocopy by Northwestern University of the 1967 original.)

    • "Life" in this "society" being, at best, an utter bore and no aspect of "society" being at all relevant to women, there remains to civic-minded, responsible, thrill-seeking females only to overthrow the government, eliminate the money system, institute complete automation and eliminate the male sex.
    • It is now technically feasible to reproduce without the aid of males (or, for that matter, females) and to produce only females. We must begin immediately to do so. Retaining the male has not even the dubious purpose of reproduction.
    • The male is a biological accident: the y(male) gene is an incomplete x(female) gene, that is, has an incomplete set of chromosomes. In other words, the male is an incomplete female, a walking abortion.... To be male is to be deficient, emotionally limited; maleness is a deficiency disease and males are emotional cripples.
      • p. [1] ("y(male)" & "x(female)" spaceless in original).
    • The male is completely egocentric, trapped inside himself, incapable of empathizing or identifying with others, or love, friendship, affection or tenderness. He is a completely isolated unit, incapable of rapport with anyone. His responses are entirely visceral, not cerebral; his intelligence is a mere tool in the services of his drives and needs; he is incapable of mental passion, mental interaction; he can't relate to anything other than his own physical sensations. He is a half-dead, unresponsive lump, incapable of giving or receiving pleasure or happiness; consequently, he is at best an utter bore, an inoffensive blob, since only those capable of absorption in others can be charming.
    • He ["the male"] is trapped in a twilight zone halfway between humans and apes, and is far worse off than apes, because he is, first of all, capable of a large array of negative feelings that the apes aren't - hate, jealousy, contempt, disgust, guilt, shame, disgrace, doubt - and, secondly, he is aware of what he is and isn't.
      • p. [1] (hyphens so in original (en-dashes probably not available on most typewriters in 1967)).
    • To call a man an animal is to flatter him; he's a machine, a walking dildo. It's often said that men use women. Use them for what? Surely not pleasure.
    • Eaten up with guilt, shame, fears and insecurities and obtaining, if he's lucky, a barely perceptible physical feeling, the male is, nonetheless, obsessed with screwing; he'll swim a river of snot, wade nostril-deep through a mile of vomit, if he thinks there'll be a friendly pussy awaiting him. He'll screw a woman he despises, any snaggle-toothed hag, and, further, pay for the opportunity. Why? Relieving physical tension isn't the answer, as masturbation suffices for that. It's not ego satisfaction; that doesn't explain screwing corpses and babies.
      • pp. [1]–2 (page break between "pay for" & "the opportunity") (commas in "he despises, any snaggle-toothed hag, and, further, pay for" presumed despite horizontal line truncation in source, due to consistency with copy of same edition from The Andy Warhol Museum (Jansen, Sharon L., Reading Women's Worlds from Christine de Pizan to Doris Lessing: A Guide to Six Centuries of Women Writers Imagining Rooms of Their Own (N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 1st ed. Apr., 2011 ISBN 978-0-230-11066-3, p. 143 (author a teacher)).
    • Completely egocentric, unable to relate, empathize or identify and consisting of a vast, pervasive, diffuse sexuality, the male is psychically passive. He hates his passivity, so he projects it onto women, defines the male as active, then sets out to prove that he is ("prove he's a Man"). His main means of attempting to prove it is screwing (Big Man with a Big Dick tearing off a Big Piece). Since he's attempting to prove an error, he must "prove" it again and again. Screwing, then, is a desperate, compulsive attempt to prove he's not passive, not a woman; but he is passive and does want to be a woman.
    • Being an incomplete female, the male spends his life attempting to complete himself, become female. He attempts to do this by constantly seeking out, fraternizing with and trying to live through and fuse with the female and by claiming as his own all female characteristics - emotional strength and independence, forcefulness, dynamism, decisiveness, coolness, objectivity, assertiveness, courage, integrity, vitality, intensity, depth of character, grooviness, etc. - and projecting onto women all male traits - vanity, frivolity, triviality, weakness, etc. It should be said, though, that the male has one glaring area of superiority over the female - public relations. He has done a brilliant job of convincing millions of women that men are women and women are men.
      • p. 2 (hyphens (not en- or em-dashes) so in original).
    • The male claim that females find fulfillment through motherhood and sexuality reflects what males think they'd find fulfilling if they were female.
    • Women, in other words, don't have penis envy; men have pussy envy. When the male accepts his passivity, defines himself as a woman (Males as well as females think men are women and women are men), and becomes a transvestite he loses his desire to screw (or to do anything else, for that matter; he fulfills himself as a dragqueen) and gets his cock chopped off. He then derives a continuous diffuse sexual feeling from "being a woman." Screwing is, for a man, a defense against his desire to be female. Sex is, itself, a sublimation.
      • p. 2 ("Males" & "dragqueen" so in original).
    • Every man, deep down, knows he's a worthless peice of shit.
      • p. 2 ("peice" so in original, probably intended as "piece").
    • The male has a negative Midas Touch - everything he touches turns to shit.
      • p. 5 (hyphen (not en- or em-dash) so in original).
    • Our "society" is not a community, but merely a collection of isolated family units. Desperately insecure, fearing his woman will leave him if she's exposed to other men or to anything remotely resembling life, the male seeks to isolate her from other men and from what little civilization there is, so he moves her out to the suburbs, a collection of self-absorbed couples and their kids. Isolation, further, enables him to try to maintain his pretense of being an individual by being a "rugged individualist", a loner, equating non-co-operation and solitariness with individuality.
      • p. 7 (line break in "non-"/"co-operation").
    • A true community consists of individuals - not mere species members, not couples - respecting each others individuality and privacy while at the same time interacting with each other mentally and emotionally - free spirits in free relation to each other - and co-operating with each other to achieve common ends. Traditionalists say the basic unit of "society" is the family; "hippies" say the tribe; noone says the individual.
      • p. 7 (hyphens (not en- or em-dashes) so in original; "others" so in original, probably intended as "other's"; line break across "inter-"/"acting"; "noone" so in original, probably intended as "no one").
    • Although wanting to be an individual, the male is scared of anything about him that's the slightest bit different from other men; it causes him to suspect he's not really a "Man," that he's passive and totally sexual, a highly upsetting suspicion. If other men are A and he's not, he must be not a man; he must be a fag. So he tries to affirm his "Manhood" by being like all the other men. Differentness in other men, as well as in himself, threatens him; it means they're fags, who he must, at all costs, avoid, so he tries to ensure that all other men conform.
    • The male dares to be different to the degree that he accepts his passivity and his desire to be female, his fagginess. The farthest out male is the dragqueen, but he, although different from most men, is exactly like all other dragqueens; like the functionalist, he has an identity - a female; he tries to define all his troubles away - but still no individuality. Not completely convinced that he's a woman, highly insecure about being sufficiently female, he conforms compulsively to the man-made feminine stereotype, ending up as nothing but a bundle of stilted mannerisms.
      • p. 8 ("dragqueen", "dragqueens", & hyphens (not en- or em-dashes) so in original).
    • To be sure he's a "Man," the male must see to it that the female be clearly a "Woman," the opposite of a "Man," that is, the female must act like a faggot. And Daddy's Girl, all of whose female instincts were tromped out of her when little, easily and obligingly adapts herself to the role.
    • The male is just a bundle of conditioned reflexes, is incapable of a mentally free response, is tied to his early conditioning, is determined completely by his past experiences. His earliest experiences are with his mother, and he is throughout his life tied to her. It never becomes completely clear to the male that he is not part of his mother, that he is him and she is her.
    • His greatest need is to be guided, sheltered, protected and admired by Mama (Men expect women to adore what men shrink from in horror - themselves), and, being completely physical, he yearns to spend his time - that's not spent "out in the world" grimly defending against his passivity - in wallowing in basic animal activities - eating, sleeping, shitting, relaxing and being soothed by Mama. Passive, rattle-headed Daddy's Girl, ever eager for approval, for a pat on the head, for the "respect" of any passing piece of garbage, is easily reduced to Mama, mindless administrator to physical needs, soother of the weary, apey brow, booster of the puny ego, appreciator of the contemptible, a hot water bottle with tits.
      • pp. 5–6 (capitalization of "Men" so in original; hyphens (not en- or em-dashes) so in original; page break between "soother of" & "the weary").
    • [T]he male .... tries to convince himself and women - he's succeeded best at convincing women - that the female function is to bear and raise children and relax, comfort and boost the egos of the male, that her function is such as to make her interchangeable with every other female. In actual fact, the female function is to relate, groove, love and be herself, irreplacable by anyone else; the male function is to produce sperm. We now have sperm banks.
      • p. 6 (hyphens (not en- or em-dashes); "the egos of the male" so in original & "irreplacable" so in original).
    • In actual fact, the female function is to explore, discover, invent, solve problems crack jokes, make music - all with love. In other words, create a magic world.
    • Love can't flourish in a "society" based on money and meaningless work, but rather requires complete economic, as well as personal, freedom, leisure time and the opportunity to engage in intensely absorbing, emotionally satisfying activities which, when shared with those you respect, lead to deep friendship, but which our "society" provides practically no opportunity to engage in.
    • Love is not dependency or sex, but is friendship, and, therefore, love can't exist between two males, between a male and a female or between two females, one or both of whom is a mindless, insecure, pandering male; like conversation it can exist only between two secure, free-wheeling, independent, groovy female females, as friendship is based on [respect, not contempt.]
      • p. 10 ("respect, not contempt." (not bracketed in original) not certain in original due to truncation of bottom of photocopy page but consistent with it).
    • Sex is the refuge of the mindless. And the more mindless the woman, the more deeply embedded in the male "culture," in short, the nicer she is, the more sexual she is. The nicest women in our "society" are raving sex maniacs.
    • Sex is not part of a relationship, but is, to the contrary, a solitary experience as well as being non-creative and a gross waste of time. The female can easily - far more easily than she may think - condition her sex drive away, leaving her completely cool and cerebral and free to pursue truly worthy relationships and activities; but the male, who seems to dig women sexually and who seeks constantly to arouse them, stimulates the highly-sexed female to frenzies of lust, throwing her into a sex bag from which few women ever escape. The lecherous male excites the lustful female; he has to - when the female transcends her body, rises above animalism, the male, whose ego consists of his cock, will disappear.
      • p. 12 (hyphens (not en- or em-dashes) so in original; line break across "highly-"/"sexed").
    • [M]any females would, even assuming complete economic equality between the sexes, prefer residing with males or peddling their asses on the street, thereby having most of their time for themselves, to spending many hours of their days doing boring, stultifying, non-creative work for somebody else, functioning as less than animals, as machines, or, at best - if able to get a "good" job - co-managing the shitpile. What will liberate women, therefore, from male control is the total elimination of the money-work system, not the attainment of economic equality with men within it.
      • p. 3 (hyphens (not en- or em-dashes) so in original).

    "A Young Girl's Primer" (1966)[edit]

    • Being fresh out of college, I found myself in the typically feminine dilemma of carving out for myself in a male world a way of life appropriate to a young woman of taste, cultivation and sensitivity. There must be nothing crass—like work. However, a girl must survive. So, after a cool appraisal of the social scene, I finally hit upon an excellent-paying occupation, challenging to the ingenuity, dealing on one's own terms with people and affording independence, flexible hours, great stability and, most important, a large amount of leisure time, an occupation highly appropriate to female sensibilities. I contemplate my good fortune as I begin work for the day: "Pardon me, Sir, do you have fifteen cents?"
    • That's conversation. I charge six bucks an hour for that.
    • This job offers broad opportunity for travel—around and around and around the block. And to think—some girls settle for Europe.

    External links[edit]

    Источник: https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Valerie_Solanas

    Valerie Solanas’s SCUM Manifesto is Great Literature

    It’s too bad that Valerie Solanas—who died of bronchopneumonia 25 years ago today—shot Andy Warhol, because her SCUM Manifesto is a great piece of literature: a very funny, very lucid expression of feelings that most of us have but know better than to accept as beliefs. When I say “most of us,” I don’t only mean women (SCUM stands for Society for Cutting Up Men). The manifesto is both a screed against men and a screed against everything wrong with the world, which, for Solanas, men happened to represent. Solanas, as you probably know, seems to have lacked the capacity to distinguish between feelings and reasonable beliefs: she lived in that moment where the guy next to you on the bus sneezes without covering his mouth and you hope he gets bisected by a falling window. I think a dozen horrible thoughts just getting to the office, but when I step off the streetcar, I’m back in society. Solanas was never in society, which is probably why she was such a good social satirist, whether or not she intended to be.

    If you can ignore the fact that Solanas tried to murder three people on June 3, 1968 (Warhol, whom she shot through multiple organs; the art critic and curator Mario Amaya, whom she shot near the hip; and Warhol’s manager Fred Hughes, whom she’d have shot in the head had the gun not jammed), you might find her manifesto exhilarating. As the monologue of an angry brain, without a social chip to tell it to shush, that’s terrible, the essay is clear and abides a logic—most of her points are valid, if deeply unsound—and it galvanizes the way a Nine Inch Nails song does. (To my knowledge, no Nine Inch Nails song advocates for the extermination of males, though there might be a Swans song that does.) Solanas had excellent brain-gut synergy; and she had a conscience, albeit one dangerously out of tune with the real world. “I consider [the shooting] a moral act,” she told The Village Voice. “And I consider it immoral that I missed.”

    Solanas didn’t shoot Warhol because he was male; she shot him at least partly because she believed he was conspiring with her editor, Maurice Girodias of Olympia Press, to steal her work (she is often said to have been diagnosed with schizophrenia). But she did hate men, purely and truly, and from accounts of her life, she had reason to. Her father sexually abused her, Freddie Baer writes in a biography printed with the Manifesto, and after her mother remarried, her grandfather beat her. By age 15 she was on her own, but she finished school and attended the University of Maryland at College Park for psychology. (There, she worked as a research assistant for Dr. Robert Brush, whom Mary Harron, director of I Shot Andy Warhol, tracked down with the help of researcher Diane Tucker. “I had a warm spot for her,” he told Harron. “I felt she’d come up the hard way.”) Solanas put herself through college by way of sex work, and when she landed in Greenwich Village in the mid-’60s, she made money by panhandling, turning tricks, and, as Harron writes, selling her conversation to passersby for six bucks an hour. (“The male’s ‘conversation,’ when not about himself, is an impersonal droning on, removed from anything of human value,” she later wrote.) She completed a play called Up Your Ass and gave it to Warhol, who lost it; and the SCUM Manifesto, which she peddled on the street.

    The contempt, and the disgust, and the homicidal fervour is very real, but her grievances are often relatable, taken with a grain of salt. She writes what plenty of women have felt, with reason, if not believed. In her view, males are responsible for war, disease, work (everything would be automated by now, if men didn’t need projects to justify their existence), fear, conformity, authority. Everything a rebel rebels against. But you can substitute “male” for whoever your beef is with—rich people, lizards in human disguises—and if you substitute “maleness” for a more abstract quality, something you couldn’t pin on any one type of person and then set out to destroy them for, you’d have a pretty righteous philosophical tract. Solanas, for her part, thought philosophy was a farce: men, being empty and incapable of empathy, have to “label the male condition the Human Condition,” and “post their nothingness problem… as a philosophical dilemma,” whereas a woman “knows instinctively that the only wrong is to hurt others, and that the meaning of life is love.” But that’s what I’m talking about.

    Shining under the bile is insight. Harron wrote that Solanas wasn’t very interested in art, which is weird because SCUM’s endpoint is basically creative utopia: “In actual fact the female function is to explore, discover, invent, solve problems, crack jokes, make music—all with love. In other words, create a magic world.” Men (or the bourgeoisie, or kids these days) “[have] no deep-seated individuality, which stems from what intrigues you, what outside yourself absorbs you, what you’re in relation to,” which is a great rule of thumb. She believes that Western philosophy only plants flags in the true and obvious, and that “Great Art” passes off obscurity for depth. I can see where she’s coming from.

    Ignore the madness and the bigotry—she didn’t much care for gay men or trans people—and you realize the SCUM Manifesto is really funny. In a ranty, cathartic way that makes me wish she had done standup (so does her brief appearance in Warhol’s I, a Man, as well as in a more elegant, Swiftian sense—although Swift, now that I think of it, was quite ranty, and the SCUM Manifesto is funnier than A Modest Proposal. For men sympathetic to her objectives—that is, men who accept their inferiority—she prescribes “Turd Sessions, at which every male present will give a speech beginning with the sentence: ‘I am a turd, a lowly abject turd,’ then proceed to list all the ways in which he is. His reward for doing so will be the opportunity to fraternize after the session for a whole, solid hour with the SCUM who will be present.” Among the most harmful men are those “who sit idly on the street and mar the landscape with their presence.”

    Solanas rants about women, too. Privileged, middle-class “Daddy’s Girls,” for instance, are so brainwashed “that they try to groove on labour pains and lie around in the most advanced nation in the world in the middle of the twentieth century with babies chomping away on their tits.” It’s hard to figure out what a SCUM woman is, exactly—a free-wheeling bitch among free-wheeling bitches, grooving on each other and being themselves, sure, but what does that involve? Writing manifestos and mauling Great Artists, most likely, because SCUM, at the end of the day, was just Solanas. “Man” was almost everyone else.

    After shooting Warhol and Amaya, Solanas handed her gun to a cop in Time Square. She pleaded guilty to reckless assault with intent to harm, and received a three-year sentence; Olympia Press published the SCUM Manifesto a couple of months later. Shortly after her release, Baer writes, she was arrested again, for making threats to Warhol and others. In 1977, she contacted a columnist at The Village Voice, asking him to mention a new, self-published edition of the manifesto. “It’s just a literary device,” she said, of the Society for Cutting Up Men. “…It’s either nothing or it’s just me, depending on how you define it. I mean, I thought of it as a state of mind.” The interviewer asked if her views had changed. Solanas said, “No.”

    As far as anyone knows, she spent the last decade of her life in New York and California, presumably bouncing around crash pads. “She was writing,” her mother told an interviewer for New York Magazine. “She fancied herself a writer, and I think she did have some talent,” as well as a “terrific sense of humor.” Twenty-five years ago, her body was found kneeling by the bed of a single-room occupancy unit in San Francisco’s Tenderloin District, where, Harron says, she’d been spotted typing away at a desk next to a stack of papers. According to the police report, “Her body was covered in maggots and the room appeared orderly.”


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    Источник: https://hazlitt.net/feature/valerie-solanass-scum-manifesto-great-literature
    the valerie solanas

    Inside the Many Tragedies Spawned From Valerie Solanas' Attempted Murder of Andy Warhol

    In 1968, Andy Warhol was at the top of his game in the art world and had room to experiment with film. Then one summer afternoon in early June, everything changed.

    Writer Valerie Solanas went into Warhol’s office, pulled out a gun and shot him. Warhol just barely survived the shooting, but some have said it may have led to his death nearly 20 years later.

    But how many have remembered the attack on the man who claimed everyone would be famous for 15 minutes is a saga unto itself.  

    The Artist and The Writer

    Andy Warhol was from the working-class, blue-collar city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. But from a young age, he had his sights on a bigger world than the one his immigrant parents raised him in. In 1949, he arrived in New York City and immediately got to work as an illustrator for various ad agencies.

    “In early 1961, he really turned himself into one of the new pop artists of that moment,” “Warhol” biographer Blake Gopnik told Inside Edition Digital. “He had a big hand in creating the movement known as pop art, where artists took everyday objects, objects made commercially, and presented them as the subject of fine art. And that's really his discovery.”

    He would go on to shake up the art world and the scene in New York City from his infamous Silver Factory, his Midtown space he used as an office, art studio and event area. Inside “The Factory,” he dictated what was cool.

    “Andy Warhol is possibly the greatest artist of all time. He redefined what art is. He not only elevated drag and trans personalities to the realm of superstar, he changed what cinema can be, what art can be,” culture critic Michael Musto told Inside Edition Digital. “He took American capitalism and consumerism and spat it back in your face, by doing Campbell's Soup art, and he made a fortune while doing it. And at the same time, he conquered every medium there is and was a very inspiring person on the scene.”

    People sought out Warhol’s validation and approval. His endorsement was life-changing and career-catapulting.

    “Just having him in our midst was like having some great messiah or wonderful shaman who seemed to know everything and was clued in. And we turned to for guidance, we turned to him for validation,” Musto said.

    And there was no better place to seek Warhol’s approval than The Factory. One such person who flocked to the creative’s headquarters was writer Valerie Solanas.

    Solanas, who grew up in New Jersey, had a traumatic upbringing. She was reportedly sexually assaulted by her father at a young age and allegedly physical abused at the hands of her grandfather

    She left home when she was 15 and soon became pregnant. She went on to have two children, a girl and later a boy, whom she had to give up.

    “Her daughter, her first child was raised, so she was sort of sent away to have the baby and then she was raised as her sister,” Breanne Fahs, who wrote the biography, “Valerie Solanas: The Defiant Life of the Woman Who Wrote Scum (and Shot Andy Warhol)” told Inside Edition Digital.

    Solanas’ biological son told Fahs he had no contact with her after he was placed for adoption.

    Solanas went on to get a degree in citi premier card credit limit from the University of Maryland. She attended the University of Minnesota's Graduate School of Psychology before dropping out and moving to attend Berkeley, where she took several courses.

    It was during this time that she came out as a lesbian and began writing. what she called the “SCUM Manifesto.” SCUM stood for Society for Cutting Up Men.

    “The ‘SCUM Manifesto,’ which involved overturning capitalism, getting rid of everything, especially men. She just wanted men to be eliminated from the populace. People said, ‘Oh, she's kidding. It's a satire.’ She said, ‘No, I'm not,’” Musto said.

    Solanas struggled with mental health and as she was finding her path in life, she stood out from the crowd, according to Fahs.

    “Here's a very bright, very ambitious woman, she sort of sticks out like a sore thumb from the pearl-clutching kind of the '50s and '60s women that are her contemporaries,” Fahs said.

    Solanas arrived in New York City in 1962. It was there and then that she set out live her truth as best she could, Fahs said.

    “This bohemian New York City scene, where she's finally in a place where she gets to sort of be openly bisexual, openly lesbian, openly, whatever she wants,” Fahs said.

    Solanas eventually moved to the Chelsea Hotel, which had long been home to artists, writers, musicians and other people who didn't quite fit into mainstream society. Solanas did odd jobs and sex work while she pursued her career as a writer and obsessed over “SCUM.”

    She wrote and obsessively revised “SCUM” between 1965 and 1967, according to Nicole Dezelon, associate director of learning at the Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh.

    “Initially, she self-published the document and sold mimeographed copies to men for $2.50, but women could have it for a dollar, which I think just sums up the philosophy of Valerie Solanas right there,” Dezelon said.

    While living at the Chelsea, she met and signed the rights to “SCUM” over to publisher Maurice Girodias.

    “She signed a contract with Girodias to publish ‘SCUM Manifesto,’ but as her paranoia worsened, she kind of misinterpreted the document and the contract and feared that she had signed away the rights to her future, her writings as well,” Dezelon said.

    It was during this time that she also met Andy Warhol and tried to get the artist to produce her play, “Up Your A**.” She gave Warhol one of her only copies of the play. Warhol reportedly discarded it and laughed at how explicit it was. But Solanas would not be deterred. She continued to follow up with Warhol about the buy money safe box, and he began feeling bad. He began giving her money and paid her $25 to act in his experimental film, “I, a Man.”

    But the more flippant Warhol became with Solanas, the more her paranoia heightened. When Warhol told Solanas he would give her a job as a typist at The Factory because of how well-typed her play was, she took the gesture to mean he was trying to steal her property, Dezelon said.

    “So she developed this theory that [Girodias] and Warhol were both conspiring to steal her work, but in reality the two men, they barely knew one another,” Dezelon added.

    The Shooting of Andy Warhol Amid a Changing America

    In early 1968, Warhol moved out of the Factory in Midtown and into a new place in Union Square, which many still called his Factory. As the artist marked a period of change for himself, America was seeing its own revolution.

    The Vietnam War, which was still raging, divided America into Hawks and Doves, or those who supported the fighting and those who didn’t. Students protested on campuses and cities across the country. In February 1968, sanitation workers went on strike in Memphis. It became a watershed moment for the Civil Rights movement.

    That March, President Lyndon B. Johnson announced he would not seek reelection, opening the door for New York Senator Robert F. Kennedy as the Democratic favorite. In April, Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis by White Supremacist James Earl Ray; two days after King’s killing, the Black Panthers and Oakland Police engaged in a shootout that saw 17-year-old Bobby Hutton shot dead as he tried to surrender.

    New York City saw its fair share of upheaval as well. Students protested the war and that February, sanitation workers went on strike, demanding better wages and leaving the streets of the five boroughs piled high with trash for nine days. That spring, the musical “Hair” introduced audiences to sex, drugs and nudity on stage.

    “In the '60s, America was in tumult. There was a lot of rage in the air, along with the hippy dippy love fest that was the counter to that. And there were assassinations left and right,” Musto said. “Things seem to be helter-skelter and out of control. And it set the scene for Valerie Solanas, for somebody that unhinged to claim center stage, in such a dark, dangerous way.”

    On June 3, 1968, Solanas showed up at Girodias’ office that morning. He was not there and she allegedly told his secretary she was planning to kill her boss. She then went to Union Square and waited for Warhol outside his office.

    Warhol arrived at the office later that afternoon. Solanas and Warhol rode the elevator together up to his office, where a group of people were already congregated. As those people began speaking to Solanas, she reached for something.

    “All of a sudden she pulls out a gun and starts shooting for no real reason,” Gopnik said.

    Solanas used a .32-caliber pistol to open fire. She eventually struck Warhol, hitting him with a bullet that ripped through many of his major organs.

    “Warhol falls to the ground, cowering, he smashes into a desk, he smashes his head. And eventually she comes right up, presses the gun against his side just under his armpit and shoots. The bullet pierces all sorts of organs,” Gopnik said.

    Solanas also shot London art critic Mario Amaya who was in the office that day. A bullet grazed his back. He was discharged from the hospital later that day. Solanas also aimed at Fred Hughes, Warhol's business manager, who pleaded for his life. As begged to not be shot, the elevators abruptly opened.

    “Solanas flees the scene of the crime and rides down the elevator. So you couldn't get any more cinematic than that,” Dezelon said.

    Three hours after the shooting, Solanas surrendered to the NYPD near Times Square, telling a traffic cop that Warhol “had too much control over my life.”

    Solanas quickly became the center of the New York media’s attention.  The New Cheap homes for sale in texas Daily News put on their front page the next day with the headline, “Actress Shoots Warhol.” Solanas demanded a retraction after seeing it, reportedly telling the paper, “I'm a writer, not an actress.” The Daily News issued the retraction and changed the headline for the later edition of the June 4, 1968 paper.

    The Aftermath of the Shooting of Andy Warhol

    It took nearly 20 minutes for the ambulance to arrive following the first shots inside the office. Warhol was shot just over a month before New York City would implement its 911 system.

    Warhol was rushed to Columbus–Mother Cabrini Hospital with a ruptured stomach, liver, spleen and lungs. It was unclear if he would make it and was pronounced clinically dead.

    Doctors massaged his heart and he was then operated on for five hours by Italian immigrant Dr. Giuseppe Rossi.

    “My parents had just recently immigrated to the United States and my father was a working doctor and wasn't as plugged into the visual arts, fine arts scene, certainly not enough for him to recognize the name and immediately know who he was operating on,” Dr. Rossi’s son, Roberto, told Inside Edition Digital.

    Dezelon said that Warhol spent two months in the hospital. “His injuries were so severe that he had to wear a surgical corset for the rest of his life,” Dezelon said.

    Two days after Warhol was shot, on June 5, Robert Kennedy was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan as he spoke to supporters inside the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles.

    While recovering in the hospital, Warhol heard the news that Kennedy had been killed. The news was so surreal that he thought he was dreaming, according to Gopnik.

    Warhol was eventually released from the hospital, but he never forgot what Dr. Rossi had done for him.

    “The presence Andy Warhol had in our lives was a very dutiful orchid sent pretty much every holiday season with a thank you note. So we always got an orchid from Andy Warhol around Christmas time thanking my dad. ‘To Dr. Rossi, thanks so much.’ And that's the extent of it. My father really did not dwell on this much,” Rossi said.

    Warhol also gifted the Rossis with a series of paintings of his infamous Campbell’s Soup cans, something that Roberto The valerie solanas said was stashed under his parents’ bed because there was no room in the apartment for them to be hung.

    The family auctioned the paintings in 2017 for an undisclosed amount.

    “We just made the choice that if we weren't going to put them up and we were going to be keeping them in storage, wherever it was anyway, that there might be people out there who may want to be putting them up,” Rossi said.

    Following the shooting, Warhol chose not to press charges against his would-be assassin.

    According to Fahs, Warhol said his reasoning was because Solanas was “acting in her nature” and that is who she was.

    “Warhol, for all of his limitations, had this ability to take people for who they were and truly allow them to be extremely weird or eccentric or even violent,” Fahs added.

    Appearing before a judge, Solanas said what she did to Warhol was “a moral act. And I consider it immoral that I missed. I should have done target practice.”

    Solanas was charged with attempted murder, assault and illegal possession of a gun. She was later declared mentally unstable and a paranoid schizophrenic.

    Months after the shooting, the SCUM Manifesto was officially published by Girodias and his company Olympia.

    “The manifesto would not have been published by Girodias or probably by any other major publisher if it didn't have this sensationalistic story around it,” Fahs said.

    In June 1969, a year after the shooting, Solanas was deemed competent and was able to stand trial. Refusing an attorney, she represented herself and pleaded guilty to reckless assault with intent to harm. She was sentenced to three years in prison, with one year of time served.

    While in prison, Solanas tried to get in touch with Warhol in a series of letters.

    “She would write him letters like ‘Dear Toad,’ and these hilarious, hateful, strange sort of letters,” Fahs large glass piggy bank vintage to Lead Their Own Lives But Always Together

    Warhol continued to make his art and be a fixture of New York City nightlife as he recovered from the shooting. He showed off the scars he sustained from his life-saving surgery to photographer friends and documented his body’s recovery himself.

    All the while, as Solanas served her time in prison, she split the feminist movement of the 1960s into two.

    “This shooting didn't just have an impact in terms of the Warhol scene or the art world or that thing. It also had a huge impact on the entire history of the feminist movement from that point forward, which largely then divides between radical and liberal feminism,” Fahs said. “And we get to see the birth of very different political priorities from that point forward as well.”

    Fahs said that some women inside the National Organization for Women saw Valerie's Solanas shooting Andy Warhol as “a symbol of women being pushed to the edge.”

    “It's a symbol of women's anger,” Fahs said of their take on the shooting. “’We need to see this as a feminist cause. We need to rush to her aid. We need to provide legal counsel. She is one of us.’”

    Others inside the organization said violence had no place in the group and didn’t see Solanas as relevant, according to Fahs.

    Solanas was released from prison in 1971 and continued to stalk Warhol, according to Dezelon. The idea of her out of prison frightened Warhol.

    “The shooting mercifully did not end Andy's life, but it did alter it irrevocably, because he was nervous and afraid ever since that happened, that it could happen again. And if he ever saw someone that reminded him even vaguely of Valerie, he was wary of them. He was terrified of another Valerie Solanas,” Musto said. “Andy was a public figure. He depended on going out, meeting people in restaurants, going to nightclubs. He was always wary from that point on, to try to prevent another shooting. It certainly could have happened again with another crackpot.”

    By the mid-1970s Solanas was out of prison, and found herself homeless in New York City. She had several breakdowns and mental health episodes, according to Fahs.

    “She becomes completely consumed with a paranoid idea that her uterus has a uterine transmitter that's communicating messages to the mob,” Fahs said. “At one point, she tries to dig that transmitter out of her body with a fork. It was really violent, terrible disintegration of the self.”

    She was arrested again in November 1971 for stalking Warhol and went back to prison several times before moving out of New York. She lived in Arizona and San Francisco, where she began writing again, publishing what she believed was the purest form of the SCUM manifesto.

    While living in San Francisco, Solanas resided in a single-occupancy hotel, Fahs said.

    “One of those little welfare hotels that they had at the time,” Fahs said. “And she sort of gets into drugs and is prostituting, again.”

    The Legacies of Andy Warhol and Valerie Solanas

    Warhol would take a fear of hospitals from his near-death experience. He continued to face a series of health problems in the wake of the shooting.

    “His body had been damaged by the shooting, there's no doubt about that, he actually had to have follow up surgery…he had infections or all sorts of problems. And he for a while at least is taking speed every day, he's addicted to or he takes a lot of Valium, he's on downers, he's on uppers, he's part of the party scene. None of that's great for your body,” Gopnik said.

    Warhol suffered from an infected gallbladder but wanted to find a holistic cure. However, his condition became so bad that despite his fear of hospitals, he went under the knife in February 1987 for gallbladder surgery.

    “What people call a routine gallbladder operation that Andy underwent in 1987 wasn't really routine at all. It was tricky, it wasn't beyond the skills of this very talented surgeon, but it wasn't straightforward at all. Andy has simply left his illness go too long, his gallbladder was too rotten, there was too much infection,” Gopnik said.

    Warhol’s heart gave out on Feb. 22, 1987. He was 58. Some say his death was a result of the shooting.

    “Somewhere around 4 best business twitter accounts to follow in the morning, his heart stopped. They tried to revive him, they tried again and again. They did find his heartbeat again I think two times, they did CPR, they inject him full of all sorts of emergency drugs to bring him back to life. But in the end, frankly, his heart just stopped,” Gopnik said.

    Musto eulogized Warhol in The Village Voice, where he declared “The Death of Downtown” because of the artist’s death.

    “One of the impetus for that was not only that the clubs were kind of tired or closing, but our leader was gone. He was the leader of the scene. He was a leader of the nightlife scene, the art scene, the magazines, everything,” Musto said. “He really was like the unofficial mayor of New York.”

    Solanas was told the news by a friend and former Factory alum, Ultra Violet.

    “Ultra Violet calls Valerie Solanas and says, ‘Did you hear the news about Andy Warhol?’ And Valerie had not heard,” Fahs said. “It was kind of like the reaction was basically like, ‘Oh, he died? Yea. Let me ask you some questions about the copyright for the SCUM Manifesto. How do I get to the Library of Congress and get the copy?’”

    “Andy always felt everyone on Earth will ultimately have their own TV show and be famous for 15 minutes,” Musto said. “Tragically enough, Valerie Solanas became famous as a result of shooting Andy Warhol. But it also made him more famous in a way he didn't want. It did generate a lot of publicity, but it's not the kind of publicity he relished. He wanted things to be happy. He loved gossip. He liked being a bitchy queen, believe me, but that's about as mean as he got.”

    Just over a year after Warhol’s death, Solanas died of pneumonia at the Bristol Hotel in San Francisco, where she was living in squalor. Her body was found after the owner arrived looking for her due to delinquent rent payments, according to Biography. She was 52.

    “She's stuck in that world where she is forever linked to Andy Warhol instead of to herself, which is maybe the most horrifying outcome for somebody who always wanted to be self-defined and who never would have wanted to be defined according to being associated with a man,” Fahs said. “She is interesting in her own right.”

    The incident between Solanas and Warhol has been referenced many times over the years in pop culture.

    Lou Reed wrote two songs over the years to cheer up his mentor and close friend. In 1969, he released “Andy’s Chest,” and later in 1990, Reed and John Cale released “I Believe.” Both songs reference the near-death experience the artist had.

    Solanas was portrayed by Lili Taylor in the acclaimed 1996 film “I Shot Andy Warhol.” In 2017, Lena Dunham played Solanas in an episode of “American Horror Story: Cult.”

    Dezelon said that Solanas’ script she gave Warhol for her play, “Up You’re A**,” was found by the Andy Warhol Museum years later.

    The SCUM Manifesto continues to be published to this day, but its popularity pales in comparison to Warhol’s art, which is as popular today as it was when the artist created it.

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    Источник: https://www.insideedition.com/inside-the-many-tragedies-spawned-from-valerie-solanas-attempted-murder-of-andy-warhol-70636

    Our friend, Valerie Solanas

    Dear Valerie,

    This exhibition is dedicated to you. We like to think of it as a group of ideal friends, supportive colleagues, and brilliant minds coming together. You did not know each other, but your conversations unfold over time and still echo poignantly with our present. Your strong and powerful voices were never afraid to embrace fragility. 

    Ellen writes somewhere that “when a body loves it shows an admirable frailty.” Close friends and collaborators that informed her work, she called the circle of “magical intuitive co-operation.” Her struggles with her last work Pinochet Porn became, in part, her friends' struggles too, and after she passed away it was these friends that finished the tale of her beloved characters. In a way, she had created something larger than all parts involved; political in intent, figurative, precise, dramatic, emotional, and “adult in subject matter.” Is tragedy a choice, she asks. 

    When Chiara reads your Manifesto, she mimics the political rhetorics we live in today with such precision, as if she knew what ugly mess was coming our way. And when she channels the spirits of various women in history that voiced their dissent, she is not only mixing spiritism and politics. She reveals a motley crew of relentless minds—activists, terrorists, freak-show performers, philosophers—who collectively represent the fears of a bourgeois society.

    In voice-over, Carole explains that since your Manifesto was no longer available in French or English, she and Delphine decided to transform several passages of the book into sound and image. The Manifesto as a true utopia that inverts power relations to denounce a situation that has become normality: the state of permanent war, waged by men throughout the world. This is almost too clear in the passages of live images from the news broadcast on the television screen behind them.

    And Pauline says it best in her own words: “Shortly after it was published in 1968 the SCUM Manifesto by Valerie Solanas fell into my hands. Intrigued by the egalitarian feminist principles set forth in the Manifesto, I wanted to incorporate them in the structure of a new piece that I was composing. The women’s movement was surfacing and I felt the need to express my resonance with this energy. Marilyn Monroe had taken her own life. Valerie Solanas had attempted to take the life of Andy Warhol. Both women seemed to be desperate and caught in the traps of inequality: Monroe needed to be recognized for her talent as an actress. Solanas wished to be supported for her own creative work. To Valerie Solanas and Marilyn Monroe in Recognition of Their Desperation had its premiere in 1970. Though everyone knew Marilyn Monroe hardly anyone recognized Valerie Solanas or took her Manifesto seriously. I brought the names of these two women together in the title of the piece to draw attention to their inequality and to dedicate the piece.”

    This exhibition is our tribute to strength and fragility, politics and aesthetics, wilfulness and clarity. This exhibition is for you.

    Thank you Valerie Solanas, we miss you.

     

    Ellen Cantor, Chiara Fumai, Pauline Oliveros, Carole Roussopoulos & Delphine Seyrig

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      Источник: https://www.e-flux.com/announcements/275802/our-friend-valerie-solanas/

      Valerie Solanas

      Valerie Solanas (9 April 1936 – 26 April 1988) was an American feminist. She is notable for writing SCUM Manifesto and having shot Andy Warhol.

      Quotes[edit]

      SCUM MANIFESTO (1967)[edit]

      (This is from a photocopy by Northwestern University of the 1967 original.)

      • "Life" in this "society" being, at best, an utter bore and no aspect of "society" being at all relevant to women, there remains to civic-minded, responsible, thrill-seeking females only to overthrow the government, eliminate the money system, institute complete automation and eliminate the male sex.
      • It is now technically feasible to reproduce without the aid of males (or, for that matter, females) and to produce only females. We must begin immediately to do so. Retaining the male has not even the dubious purpose of reproduction.
      • The male is a biological accident: the y(male) gene is an incomplete x(female) gene, that is, has an incomplete set of chromosomes. In other words, the male is an incomplete female, a walking abortion. To be male is to be deficient, emotionally limited; maleness is a deficiency disease and males are emotional cripples.
        • p. [1] ("y(male)" & "x(female)" spaceless in original).
      • The male is completely egocentric, trapped inside himself, incapable of empathizing or identifying with others, or love, friendship, affection or tenderness. He is a completely isolated unit, incapable of rapport with anyone. His responses are entirely visceral, not cerebral; his intelligence is a mere tool in the services of his drives and needs; he is incapable of mental passion, mental interaction; he can't relate to anything other than his own physical sensations. He is a half-dead, unresponsive lump, incapable of giving or receiving pleasure or happiness; consequently, he is at best an utter bore, an inoffensive blob, since only those capable of absorption in others can be charming.
      • He ["the male"] is trapped in a twilight zone halfway between humans and apes, and is far worse off than apes, because he is, first of all, capable of a large array of negative feelings that the apes aren't - hate, jealousy, contempt, disgust, guilt, shame, disgrace, doubt - and, secondly, he is aware of what he is and isn't.
        • p. [1] (hyphens so in original (en-dashes probably not available on most typewriters in 1967)).
      • To call a man an animal is to flatter him; he's a machine, a walking dildo. It's often said that men use women. Use them for what? Surely not pleasure.
      • Eaten up with guilt, shame, fears and insecurities and obtaining, if he's lucky, a barely perceptible physical feeling, the male is, nonetheless, obsessed with screwing; he'll swim a river of snot, wade nostril-deep through a mile of vomit, if he thinks there'll be a friendly pussy awaiting him. He'll screw a woman he despises, any snaggle-toothed hag, and, further, pay for the opportunity. Why? Relieving physical tension isn't the answer, as masturbation suffices for that. It's not ego satisfaction; that doesn't explain screwing corpses and babies.
        • pp. [1]–2 (page break between "pay for" & "the opportunity") (commas in "he despises, any snaggle-toothed hag, and, further, pay for" presumed despite horizontal line truncation in source, due to consistency with copy of same edition from The Andy Warhol Museum (Jansen, Sharon L., Reading Women's Worlds from Christine de Pizan to Doris Lessing: A Guide to Six Centuries of Women Writers Imagining Rooms of Their Own (N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 1st ed. Apr., 2011 ISBN 978-0-230-11066-3, p. 143 (author a teacher)).
      • Completely egocentric, unable to relate, empathize or identify and consisting of a vast, pervasive, diffuse sexuality, the male is psychically passive. He hates his passivity, so he projects it onto women, defines the male as active, then sets out to prove that he is ("prove he's a Man"). His main means of attempting to prove it is screwing (Big Man with a Big Dick tearing off a Big Piece). Since he's attempting to prove an error, he must "prove" it again and again. Screwing, then, is a desperate, compulsive attempt to prove he's not passive, not a woman; but he is passive and does want to be a woman.
      • Being an incomplete female, the male spends middlesex federal savings bank locations life attempting to complete himself, become female. He attempts to do this by constantly seeking out, fraternizing with and trying to live through and fuse with the female and by claiming as his own all female characteristics - emotional strength and independence, forcefulness, dynamism, decisiveness, coolness, objectivity, assertiveness, courage, integrity, vitality, intensity, depth of character, grooviness, etc. - and projecting onto women all male traits - vanity, frivolity, triviality, weakness, etc. It should be said, though, that the male has one glaring area of superiority over the female - public relations. He has done a brilliant job of convincing millions of women that men are women and women are men.
        • p. 2 (hyphens (not en- or em-dashes) so in original).
      • The male claim that females find fulfillment through motherhood and sexuality reflects what males think they'd find fulfilling if they were female.
      • Women, in other words, don't have penis envy; men have pussy envy. When the male accepts his passivity, defines himself as a woman (Males as well as females think men are women and women are men), and becomes a transvestite he loses his desire to screw (or to do anything else, for that matter; he fulfills himself as a dragqueen) and gets his cock chopped off. He then derives a continuous diffuse sexual feeling from "being a woman." Screwing is, for a man, a defense against his desire to be female. Sex is, itself, a sublimation.
        • p. 2 ("Males" & "dragqueen" so in original).
      • Every man, deep down, knows he's a worthless peice of shit.
        • p. 2 ("peice" so in original, probably intended as "piece").
      • The male has a negative Midas Touch - everything he touches turns to shit.
        • p. 5 (hyphen (not en- or em-dash) so in original).
      • Our "society" is not a community, but merely a collection of isolated family units. Desperately insecure, fearing his woman will leave him if she's exposed to other men or to anything remotely resembling life, the male seeks to isolate her from other men and the valerie solanas what little civilization there is, so he moves her out to the suburbs, a collection of self-absorbed couples and their kids. Isolation, further, enables him to try to maintain his pretense of being an individual by being a "rugged individualist", a loner, equating non-co-operation and solitariness with individuality.
        • p. 7 (line break in "non-"/"co-operation").
      • A true community consists of individuals - not mere species members, not couples - respecting each others individuality and privacy while at the same time interacting with each other mentally and emotionally - free spirits in free relation to each other - and co-operating with each other to achieve common ends. Traditionalists say the basic unit of "society" is the family; "hippies" say the tribe; noone says the individual.
        • p. 7 (hyphens (not en- or em-dashes) so in original; "others" so in original, probably intended as "other's"; line break across "inter-"/"acting"; "noone" so in original, probably intended as "no one").
      • Although wanting to be an individual, the male is scared of anything about him that's the slightest bit different from other men; it causes him to suspect he's not really a "Man," that he's passive and totally sexual, a highly upsetting suspicion. If other men are A and he's not, he must be not a man; he must be a fag. So he tries to affirm his "Manhood" by being like all the other men. Differentness in other men, as well as in himself, threatens him; it means they're fags, who he must, at all costs, avoid, so he tries to ensure that all other men conform.
      • The male dares to be different to the degree that he accepts his passivity and his desire to be female, his fagginess. The farthest out male is the dragqueen, but he, although different from most men, is exactly like all other dragqueens; like the functionalist, he has an identity - a female; he tries to define all his troubles away - but still no individuality. Not completely convinced that he's a woman, highly insecure about being sufficiently female, he conforms compulsively to the man-made feminine stereotype, ending up as nothing but a bundle of stilted mannerisms.
        • p. 8 ("dragqueen", "dragqueens", & hyphens (not en- or em-dashes) so in original).
      • To be sure he's a "Man," the male must see to it that the female be clearly a "Woman," the opposite of a "Man," that is, the female must act like a faggot. And Daddy's Girl, all of whose female instincts were tromped out of her when little, easily and obligingly adapts herself to the role.
      • The male is just a bundle of conditioned reflexes, is incapable of a mentally free response, is tied to his early conditioning, is determined completely by his past experiences. His earliest experiences are with his mother, and he is throughout his life tied to her. It never becomes completely clear to the male that he is not part of his mother, that he is him and she is her.
      • His greatest need is to be guided, sheltered, protected and admired by Mama (Men expect women to adore what men shrink from in horror - themselves), and, being completely physical, he yearns to spend his time - that's not spent "out in the world" grimly defending against his passivity - in wallowing in basic animal activities - eating, sleeping, shitting, relaxing and being soothed by Mama. Passive, rattle-headed Daddy's Girl, ever eager for approval, for a pat on the head, for the "respect" of any passing piece of garbage, is easily reduced to Mama, mindless administrator to physical needs, soother of the weary, apey brow, booster of the puny ego, appreciator of the contemptible, a hot water bottle with tits.
        • pp. 5–6 (capitalization of "Men" so in original; hyphens (not en- or em-dashes) so in original; page break between "soother of" & "the weary").
      • [T]he male . tries to convince himself and women - he's succeeded best at convincing women - that the female function is to bear and raise children and relax, comfort and boost the egos of the male, that her function is such as to make her interchangeable with every other female. In actual fact, the female function is to relate, groove, love and be herself, irreplacable by anyone else; the male function is to produce sperm. We now have sperm banks.
        • p. 6 (hyphens (not en- or em-dashes); "the egos of the male" so in original & "irreplacable" so in original).
      • In actual fact, the female function is to explore, discover, invent, solve problems crack jokes, make music - all with love. In other words, create a magic world.
      • Love can't flourish in a "society" based on money and meaningless work, but rather requires complete economic, as well as personal, freedom, leisure time and the opportunity to engage in intensely absorbing, emotionally satisfying activities which, when shared with those you respect, lead to deep friendship, but which our "society" provides practically no opportunity to engage in.
      • Love is not dependency or sex, but is friendship, and, therefore, love can't exist between two males, between a male and a female or between two females, one or both of whom is a mindless, insecure, pandering male; like conversation it can exist only between two secure, free-wheeling, independent, groovy female females, as friendship is based on [respect, not contempt.]
        • p. 10 ("respect, not contempt." (not bracketed in original) not certain in original due to truncation of bottom of photocopy page but consistent with it).
      • Sex is the refuge of the mindless. And the more mindless the woman, the more deeply embedded in the male "culture," in short, the nicer she is, the more sexual she is. The nicest women in our "society" are the valerie solanas sex maniacs.
      • Sex is not part of a relationship, but is, to the contrary, a solitary experience as well as being non-creative and a gross waste of time. The female can easily - far more easily than she may think - condition her sex drive away, leaving her completely cool and cerebral and free to pursue truly worthy relationships and activities; but the male, who seems to dig women sexually and who seeks constantly to arouse them, stimulates the highly-sexed female to frenzies of lust, throwing her into a sex bag from which few women ever escape. The lecherous male excites the lustful female; he has to - when the female transcends her body, rises above animalism, the male, whose ego consists of his cock, will disappear.
        • p. 12 (hyphens (not en- or em-dashes) so in original; line break across "highly-"/"sexed").
      • [M]any females would, even assuming complete economic equality between the sexes, prefer residing with males or peddling their asses on the street, thereby having most of their time for themselves, to spending many hours of their days doing boring, stultifying, non-creative work for somebody else, functioning as less than animals, as machines, or, at best - if able to get a "good" job - co-managing the shitpile. What will liberate women, therefore, from male control is the total elimination of the money-work system, not the attainment of economic equality with men within it.
        • p. 3 (hyphens (not en- or em-dashes) so in original).

      "A Young Girl's Primer" (1966)[edit]

      • Being fresh out of college, I found myself in the typically feminine dilemma of carving out for myself in a male world a way of life appropriate to a young woman of taste, cultivation and sensitivity. There must be nothing crass—like work. However, a girl must survive. So, after a cool appraisal of the social scene, I finally hit upon an excellent-paying occupation, challenging to the ingenuity, dealing on one's own terms with people and affording independence, flexible hours, great stability the valerie solanas, most important, a large amount of leisure time, an occupation highly appropriate to female sensibilities. I contemplate my good fortune as I begin work for the day: "Pardon me, Sir, do you have fifteen cents?"
      • That's conversation. I charge six bucks an hour for that.
      • This job offers broad online business checking account no fees for travel—around and around and around the block. And to think—some girls settle for Europe.

      External links[edit]

      Источник: https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Valerie_Solanas

      Valerie Solanas was more than just the woman who shot Andy Warhol

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      Valerie Solanas

      On what would have been her birthday, we unpack the complexity of the feminist author’s legacy

      She was once declared “the Robespierre of feminism” by the celebrated writer, activist, and chronicler of American life, Norman Mailer. She was championed by the National Organisation for Women and hailed as “one of the most important spokeswomen of the feminist movement” by the radical lawyer Florynce Kennedy. But you’re more likely to know Valerie Solanas as the maniac who shot Andy Warhol.

      She wasn’t a prolific writer, but her most notable work, the SCUM Manifesto, is one of the most uncompromising and controversial feminist tracts you’ll ever read. In what was initially a self-published text, Solanas called for the elimination of the male sex and the money system. It’s extreme and polarising, but it’s also acerbic, prophetic, and deeply relevant. She had something vital and prescient to say, but history has a way of subjugating women who refuse to behave. As the philosopher, Avital Ronell observed, when you’re a woman “your scream might be noted as part of an ensemble of subaltern feints – the complaint, the nagging, the chattering, the nonsense by which women’s speech has been largely depreciated”. The weight of history has reduced Valerie Solanas – with her righteous anger and searing intellect – to the caricature of a ‘schizo dyke’ and failed assassin.

      Today marks the would-be birthday of Solanas, who was born in 1936. Without absolving or condoning her near-fatal attack on Warhol, I’d like to attempt to reconsider the life of Valerie Solanas with the same level of understanding and mitigation that’s been shown to so many of her male peers.

      HER EARLY LIFE WAS TAINTED BY ABUSE AND HARDSHIP

      In her brilliant study of art and alienation, The Lonely City, Olivia Laing reveals Solanas as a profoundly alienated figure, ‘radicalised by the circumstances of her own life’ and terminally alone. Growing up in New Jersey, Solanas’s youth was coloured by every shade of hardship. She was poor, she was abused, and she’d already given birth to two children by the time she was 16 (one by her alcoholic father and one by a sailor on leave – both babies were taken and raised elsewhere). As a teenager in the 1950s – an era of conformity and conservatism in American life – she suffered extreme bullying for defiantly coming out as a lesbian at high school. After graduating from the University of Maryland as a psychology major, she drifted around the country and ended up in New York, where she scraped by in the city’s boarding houses and welfare hostels – waitressing, begging, selling sex, and hustling.

      The cumulative trauma of her young life placed her totally at odds with society – she’d experienced firsthand the brutality and inhumanity of the existing economic and social structures. And, having been exposed to the very worst aspects of the world around her, she was eternally and chronically unable to participate in it. That’s the emotional and psychological space from where, in the mid-1960s, she began writing what would become the SCUM Manifesto.

      THE SCUM MANIFESTO IS A VITRIOLIC ATTACK ON MALE-PRIVILEGE

      The SCUM Manifesto starts as it means to go on. The opening paragraph states, “Life in this society being, at best, an utter bore top cash rewards credit cards 2018 no aspect of society being at all relevant to women, there remains to civic-minded, thrill-seeking females only to overthrow the government, eliminate the money system, institute complete automation, and destroy the male sex.”

      She’s vitriolic about the structural violence enacted on women by men, and she makes it clear she’s not seeking a place within this existing structure – she wants to smash it up and start again. “SCUM wants to destroy the system, not attain certain rights within it.” There’s no compromise and certainly no prisoners.

      To what extent she intended the entire manifesto to be taken literally and how much is pure provocation is debatable. But, despite what at times seems like hyperbole, it’s truly brilliant and relevant. Solanas’s concerns are legitimate, and it’s impossible not to be roused by the valerie solanas war cries. The SCUM Manifesto is the product of an engaged, erudite, and energetic mind writing with purpose and clarity – not the rantings of a “loony psycho-bitch.” It’s extreme and violent, but it’s also witty, provoking, and prescient.

      “The SCUM Manifesto is the product of an engaged, erudite, and energetic mind writing with purpose and clarity – not the rantings of a ‘loony psycho-bitch’”

      SHE WAS REJECTED EVEN BY THE OUTSIDERS

      Solanas was confrontational, not conventionally easy on the eye, and really fucking furious. Nothing about her was particularly ingratiating but, although she detested society at large, she desperately wanted human connection.

      She sought out Warhol and, in her own aggressive and odd way, tried to befriend him; pushing through his entourage and barging her way onto his table in the back of Max’s Kansas City. He was bemused by her brazenness and her quick wit and, for a time, they had a tenuous friendship of sorts. He apparently recorded some of their conversations and appropriated some of her lines for dialogue in his films. They even discussed staging Solanas’s play Up Your Ass – a critique of everyday sexism, as viewed through the eyes of a hustling, man-hating prostitute.

      No doubt she saw Warhol’s celebrity as a way of lending her work more exposure but also recognised their shared attraction towards inversion and oddity. They were both anomalies in their unique ways.

      But she was never going to assimilate easily into the Factory. Her appearance was totally at odds with the 1960s ideals of high-femme beauty fetishised by Warhol. Once the novelty of her presence wore off, he perhaps began to find her too abrasive and her political agenda too extreme. She made people uneasy. Rejected even by the so-called outsiders, she didn’t fit in anywhere. As Laing says, she was “an outlier and anomaly even amid the flamboyant freak show of the Factory”.

      Despite this, Solanas wasn’t afraid to make a nuisance of herself. Social psychologist Erving Goffman once observed that most people’s lives are guided by the desire to avoid embarrassment – a condition he referred to as ‘wearing the leper’s bell’. Solanas, however, ran in the opposite direction. She continued to pursue and harass Warhol, long after he’d stopped accepting her calls. Though she wasn’t a natural exhibitionist, she was emboldened by a total commitment to the ideology she’d forged in the harrowing circumstances of her own experience.

      THE CASE OF WARHOL VS SOLANAS

      Having lost interest in the idea of being involved with Up Your Ass, Warhol also lost – or threw away – the manuscript Solanas had given him (referring to the script, he’d remarked bitchily, ”You typed this yourself? Why don’t you work for us as a receptionist?”). He offered her a role rockland nissan route 303 blauvelt ny his film I, a Man, but it didn’t make amends for discarding and deriding her play. Ronell describes the encounter between Solanas and Warhol as a case of the “low-tech writing apparatus” of the author coming up against “the reproductive panache of the Warhol machine”. Ultimately, the exchange amounted to not having being valued by Warhol. “She said time and time again Warhol hadn’t paid her enough attention,” writes Ronell. “She lacked credit and credibility… She was bereft, exploited, chronically undervalued.” Warhol was, in her eyes, the last in a series of men to subjugate and undermine her.

      The dreadful culmination of events came in the summer of 1968 when Solanas was suffering from increasing mania and paranoia. On Monday 3 June, after plaguing him with phone calls and threats for several months, she emerged from the elevator into the Factory, pulled a 32. Beretta out of her bag, and fired at Andy Warhol as he chatted on the phone. He was rushed to a hospital where he underwent emergency surgery and, despite being clinically dead for 90 seconds on the operating table, his life was saved. Solanas’s life and legacy were condemned.

      “ACTRESS SHOOTS ANDY WARHOL” WASN’T THE HEADLINE SHE WAS HOPING FOR

      Typically, her big moment didn’t quite work out how she might’ve envisaged. After fudging her arrest  (handing herself into a low-level traffic cop in Times Square) she finally found herself the centre of attention. Solanas urged reporters to read her manifesto, claiming, ”It’ll tell you what I am!” Apparently, none of them bothered, because the Daily News headline wrongly claimed: “ACTRESS SHOOTS ANDY WARHOL”.

      In the immediate aftermath of her arrest, she received support from the feminist movement but she quickly and systematically rejected and alienated herself from all those who sort to join her cause, somehow unable to keep the followers she’d been seeking. People always distanced themselves eventually. And by the summer of 1969, when she was sentenced to three years in prison, the story had become as marginal as her very existence had been prior to committing the crime. The world had moved on, and the conclusion of the trial appeared in the New York Times alongside a notice informing readers of a change in the city’s garbage collection schedule.

      Both Solanas and Warhol may have been “in the dumps” to see the status of their story reduced to actual trash, but Ronell points out 12 month high yield cd strangely appropriate correlation of these two headlines. “The garbage pile is where we wanted to land,” she says. “It’s the place from which Solanas was signalling, culturally rummaging … After all, one meaning of ‘scum’ throws us into garbage and we do not want to lose a sense of the chase bill pay site to which Solanas relentlessly points and from which she speaks.”

      SHE’S MUCH MORE THAN THE LABEL ‘SCHIZO DYKE’ PRESENTS HER

      Admittedly, attempting to murder one of the most high profile artists of all time will cast a long shadow across your biography. But there does seem to be a huge disparity regarding the level of compassion Solanas has been granted compared with male writers and artists who’ve committed comparable (and often, arguably, worse) violent crimes.

      In a statement issued on Facebook, the writer Chavisa Woods pointed out the unfair bias towards our judgement of Solanas. She draws a parallel with William Burroughs, who shot and killed his wife while they played an ill-conceived ‘game’ which involved him firing an apple off her head with a rifle, while high. Woods also highlights the cases of Pablo Neruda, Charles Bukowski, and Louis Althusser – all high-profile and revered figures known to have committed violence against women. Yet it doesn’t darken their door in the same way as Solanas’s crime has come to define her. In the case of Louis Althusser, the fact he strangled his wife to death only makes an appearance in the fourth paragraph of his Wikipedia entry. Burroughs received a suspended sentence, and Althusser was declared unfit to stand trial.

      Despite being diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia, Solanas was given a three-year custodial sentence, during which time her womb was removed against her will, and she was moved between various brutal prisons and hospitals for the criminally insane. If the first half of her story was marked by loneliness and hardship, her life after prison was one of absolute isolation and deprivation. She died in San Francisco on 25 April 1988, destitute and despised.

      Pity is probably the last thing she would want, which makes the pitiable story of Valerie Solanas all the more poignant. There have been attempts to tell her story with varying degrees of sympathy (she’s inspired several plays, a film called I Shot Andy Warhol, a Velvet Underground song, a novel, and an episode of American Horror Story in which she was played by Lena Dunham). But she’s largely immortalised as a ‘schizo dyke’ and defined by her attempt – and failure – to kill Andy Warhol.

      Solanas is an icon of alienation; one of life’s uneven remainders, chronically unable to fit in. When your temperament is stubborn and perverse, and when your initiation into the world around you is so violent and unkind, it must mark you with the burden of terrible loneliness. As the SCUM Manifesto testifies to, Solanas was acutely aware of injustice in a way that others were not yet awaked to.

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      Valerie Solanas and Andy Warhol newspaper <a href=victoria f on the bachelor 2020 src="https://dazedimg-dazedgroup.netdna-ssl.com/640/azure/dazed-prod/1260/5/1265460.jpg">

      Art & PhotographyFeatureAndy WarholFeminismBooksNew York

      Источник: https://www.dazeddigital.com/art-photography/article/43949/1/valerie-solanas-more-than-the-woman-who-shot-andy-warhol-scum-manifesto-feminism

      Valerie Solanas

      American radical feminist, author, stalker and attempted murderer

      Valerie Solanas

      Valerie Solanas.jpg

      Solanas at The Village Voice offices in February 1967

      Born(1936-04-09)April 9, 1936

      Ventnor City, New Jersey, U.S.

      DiedApril 25, 1988(1988-04-25) (aged 52)

      San Francisco, California, U.S.

      CitizenshipUnited States
      OccupationWriter
      MovementRadical feminism
      Criminal charge(s)Attempted murder, assault, and illegal possession of a gun, plead to reckless assault with intent to harm
      Criminal penalty3 years incarceration
      Criminal statusdeceased
      Children1
      Writing career
      SubjectRadical feminism
      Notable worksSCUM Manifesto (1967)
      Up Your Ass, a play (wr. 1965, prem. 2000, publ. 2014)
      Solanas-signature.png

      Valerie Jean Solanas (April 9, 1936 – April 25, 1988) was an American radical feminist known for the SCUM Manifesto, which she self-published in 1967, and for her attempt to murder Andy Warhol in 1968.

      Solanas had a turbulent childhood, reportedly suffering sexual abuse from both her father and grandfather, and experiencing a volatile relationship with her mother and stepfather. She came out as a lesbian in the 1950s. After graduating with a degree in psychology from the University of Maryland, College Park, Solanas relocated to Berkeley, where she began writing the SCUM Manifesto, which urged women to "overthrow the government, eliminate the money system, institute complete automation and eliminate the male sex."

      In New York City, she asked pop artistAndy The valerie solanas to produce her play Up Your Ass, but he claimed to have lost her script, hiring her to perform in his film, I, a Man, by way of breakfast at tiffanys wall art. At this time, a Parisian publisher of censored works, Maurice Girodias, offered her a contract which she interpreted as a conspiracy between him and Warhol to steal her future writings.

      On June 3, 1968, she went to The Factory, and shot Warhol and art critic Mario Amaya, and attempted to shoot Warhol's manager, Fred Hughes. Solanas then turned herself in to the police. She was charged with attempted murder, assault, and illegal possession of a gun. She was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and pleaded guilty to "reckless assault with intent to harm," serving a three-year prison sentence, including treatment in a psychiatric hospital. After her release, she continued to promote the SCUM Manifesto. She died in 1988 of pneumonia in San Francisco.

      Early life[edit]

      Solanas was born in 1936 in Ventnor City, New Jersey, to Louis Solanas and Dorothy Marie Biondo.[1][2][3][4] Her father was a bartender and her mother a dental prosperity bank usa online She had a younger sister, Judith Arlene Solanas Martinez.[6] Her father was born in Montreal to parents who immigrated from Spain and her mother was an Italian-American of Genoan and Sicilian descent born in Philadelphia.[5]

      Solanas said that her father regularly sexually abused her.[7] Her parents divorced when she was young, and her mother remarried shortly afterwards.[8] Solanas disliked her stepfather and began rebelling against her mother, becoming a truant. As a child, she wrote insults for children to use on one another, for the cost of a dime. She beat up a boy in high school who was bothering a younger girl, and also hit a nun.[3] Because of her rebellious behavior, in 1949 her mother sent her to be raised by her grandparents. Solanas said that her grandfather was a violent alcoholic who often beat her. When she was 15, she left her grandparents and became homeless.[9] In 1953, she gave birth to a son, fathered by a married sailor.[10][a] The child, named David (later David Blackwell by adoption), was taken away from Solanas and she never saw him again.[12][13][14][b]

      Despite this, she graduated from high school on time and earned a degree in psychology from the University of Maryland, College Park, where she was in the Psi Chi Honor Society.[15][16] While at the University of Maryland, she hosted a call-in radio show where she gave advice on how to combat men.[7] She was also an open lesbian, despite the conservative cultural climate of the 1950s.[17]

      She attended the University of Original victoria secret angels Graduate School of Psychology, where she worked in the animal research laboratory,[18] before dropping out and moving to attend Berkeley for a few courses. It was during this time that she began writing the SCUM Manifesto.[13]

      New York City and the Factory[edit]

      In the mid-1960s Solanas moved to New York City, where she supported herself through begging and prostitution.[17][19] In 1965 she wrote two works: an autobiographical[20] short story, "A Young Girl's Primer on How to Attain the Leisure Class," and a play, Up Your Ass,[c] about a young prostitute.[17] According to James Martin Harding, the play is "based on a plot about a woman who 'is a man-hating hustler and panhandler' and who . ends up killing a man."[21] Harding describes it as more a "provocation than . a work of dramatic literature"[22] and "rather adolescent and contrived."[21] The short story was published in Cavalier magazine in July 1966.[23][24]Up Your Ass remained unpublished until 2014.[25]

      In 1967, Solanas encountered Andy Warhol outside his studio, The Factory, and asked him to produce her play. He accepted the script for review, told Solanas it was "well typed," and promised to read it.[18] According to Factory lore, Warhol, whose films were often shut down by the police for obscenity, thought the script was so pornographic that it must have been a police trap.[26][27] Solanas contacted Warhol about the script, and was told that he had lost it. He also jokingly offered her a job at the Factory as a typist. Insulted, Solanas demanded money for the lost manuscript. Instead, Warhol paid her $25 to appear in his film I, a Man.[18]

      In her role in I, a Man, she leaves the film's title character (played by Tom Baker) to fend for himself, explaining "I gotta go beat my meat" as she exits the scene.[28] Solanas was satisfied with her experience working with Warhol and her performance in the film, and brought Maurice Girodias to see it. Girodias described her as being "very relaxed and friendly with Warhol." Solanas also had a nonspeaking role in Warhol's film Bikeboy, in 1967.[27]

      SCUM Manifesto[edit]

      Main article: SCUM Manifesto

      In 1967, Solanas self-published her best-known work, the SCUM Manifesto, a scathing critique of patriarchal culture. The manifesto's opening words are:

      "Life" in this "society" being, at best, an utter bore and no aspect of "society" being at all relevant to women, there remains to civic-minded, responsible, thrill-seeking females only to overthrow the government, eliminate the money system, institute complete automation and eliminate the male sex.[29][30]

      Some authors have argued that the Manifesto is a parody of patriarchy and a satirical work and, according to Harding, Solanas described herself as "a social propagandist,"[31] but Solanas denied that the work was "a put on"[32] and insisted that her intent was "dead serious."[32] The Manifesto has been translated into over a dozen languages and is excerpted in several feminist anthologies.[33][34][35][36]

      While living at the Chelsea Hotel, Solanas introduced herself to Maurice Girodias, the founder of Olympia Press and a fellow resident of the hotel. In August 1967, Girodias and Solanas signed[37] an informal contract stating that she would give Girodias her "next writing, and other writings."[38] In exchange, Girodias paid her $500.[38][39][40] She took this to mean that Girodias would own her work.[40] She told Paul Morrissey that "everything I write will be his. He's done this to me . He's screwed me!"[40] Solanas intended to write a novel based on the SCUM Manifesto, and believed that a conspiracy was behind Warhol's failure to return the Up Your Ass script. She suspected that he was coordinating with Girodias to steal her work.

      Shooting[edit]

      Andy Warhol, one of her two victims

      On May 31, 1968, Solanas went to writer Paul Krassner to ask him for $50, which he loaned to her.[41] Krassner later speculated that Solanas could have used the money to buy the gun she used to shoot Warhol, as the shooting occurred just three days later.[41]

      According to an unquoted source in The Outlaw Bible of American Literature, on June 3, 1968, at 9:00 a.m., Solanas arrived at the Chelsea Hotel, where Girodias lived. She asked for him at the desk but was told he was gone for the weekend. She remained for three hours before heading to the Grove Press, where she asked for Barney Rosset, who was also not available.[42]

      In her 2014 biography Valerie Solanas, Breanne Fahs argues that it is unlikely that Solanas appeared at the Chelsea Hotel looking for Girodias.[43] Fahs states that Girodias may have fabricated the account in order to boost sales of the SCUM Manifesto, which he had published. Fahs states that "the more likely story . places Valerie at the Actor's Studio at 432 West Forty-Fourth Street early that morning." Actress Sylvia Miles states that Solanas appeared at the Actor's Studio looking for Lee Strasberg, asking to leave her play for him.[44] Miles said that Solanas "had a different look, a bit tousled, like somebody whose appearance is the last thing on her mind."[43] Miles told Solanas that Strasberg would not be in until the afternoon. Miles said that she accepted a copy of the play from Solanas and then "shut the door because I knew she was trouble. I didn't know what sort of trouble, but I knew she was trouble."[43]

      Fahs records that Solanas then traveled to producer Margo Feiden's (then Margo Eden) residence in Crown Heights, Brooklyn, as Solanas believed that Feiden would be willing to produce her play. As related to Fahs, Solanas talked to Feiden for almost four hours, trying to convince her to produce the play and discussing her vision for a world without men. Throughout this time, Feiden repeatedly refused to produce Solanas's play. According to Feiden, Solanas then pulled out her gun, and when Feiden again refused to commit to producing the play, Solanas responded, "Yes, you will produce the play because I'll shoot Andy Warhol and that will make me famous and the play famous, and then you'll produce it." As she was leaving Feiden's residence, Solanas handed Feiden a copy of her play (a partial copy of an earlier draft of Up Your Ass[45]) and other personal papers.[46]

      Fahs describes how Feiden then "frantically called her local police precinct, Andy Warhol's precinct, police headquarters in Lower Manhattan, and the offices of Mayor John Lindsay and Governor Nelson Rockefeller to report what happened and inform them that Solanas was on her way at that very moment to shoot Andy Warhol."[47] In some instances, the police responded that "You can't arrest someone because you believe she is going to kill Andy Warhol," and even asked Feiden "Listen lady, how would you know what a real gun looked like?"[47] In a 2009 interview with James Barron of The New York Times, Feiden said that she knew Solanas intended to kill Warhol, but could not prevent it.[26][d][49][50] (A New York Times assistant Metro editor responded to an online comment regarding the story, saying that the Times "does not present the account as definitive.")[48]

      Fahs additionally cites Assistant District Attorney Roderick Lankler's handwritten notes on the case, written on June 4, 1968, which begin with Margo Feiden's stage name, "Margo Eden," address, and telephone numbers at the top of the page.[51]

      Later that day, Solanas arrived at the Factory and waited outside. Morrissey arrived and asked her what she was doing there, and she replied "I'm waiting for Andy to get money."[52] Morrissey tried to get rid of her by telling her that Warhol was not coming in that day, but she told him she would wait. At 2:00 p.m. she went up into the studio. Morrissey told her again that Warhol was not coming in and that she had to leave. She left but rode the elevator up and down until Warhol finally boarded it.[42]

      She entered The Factory with Warhol, who complimented her on her appearance as she was uncharacteristically wearing makeup. Morrissey told her to leave, threatening to "beat the hell"[52] out of her and throw her out otherwise. The phone rang and Warhol answered while Morrissey went to the bathroom. While Warhol was on the phone, Solanas fired at him three times. Her first two shots missed, but the third went through both lungs, his spleen, stomach, liver, and esophagus.[42] She then shot art critic Mario Amaya in the hip. She tried to shoot Fred Hughes, Warhol's manager, in the head, but her gun jammed.[53] Hughes asked her to leave, which she did, leaving behind a paper bag with her address book on a table.[53] Warhol was taken to Columbus–Mother Cabrini Hospital, where he underwent a successful five-hour operation.[42][54]

      Later that day, Solanas turned herself in, gave up her gun, and confessed to the shooting,[55] telling a police officer that Warhol "had too much control in my life."[56] She was fingerprinted and charged with felonious assault and possession of a deadly weapon.[57] The next morning, the New York Daily News ran the front-page headline "Actress Shoots Andy Warhol." Solanas demanded a retraction of the statement that she was an actress. The Daily News changed the headline in its later edition and added a quote from Solanas stating "I'm a writer, not an actress."[56] At her arraignment in Manhattan Criminal Court she denied shooting Warhol because he wouldn't produce her play but said "it was for the opposite reason,"[58] that "he has a legal claim on my works."[58] Solanas told the judge that "it's not often that I shoot somebody. I didn't do it for nothing. Warhol had tied me up, lock, stock, and barrel. He was going to do something to me which would have ruined me."[57] She told the judge she wanted to represent herself[57] and she declared that she "was right in what I did! I have nothing to regret!"[57] "The judge struck her comments from the court record"[57] and had her admitted to Bellevue Hospital for psychiatric observation.[57]

      Trial[edit]

      I consider that a moral act. And I consider it immoral that I missed. I should have done target practice.

      — Valerie Solanas on her assassination attempt on Andy Warhol[59][60]

      After a cursory evaluation, Solanas was declared mentally unstable and transferred to the prison ward of Elmhurst Hospital.[61] Solanas appeared at New York Supreme Court on June 13, 1968. Florynce Kennedy represented her and asked for a writ of habeas corpus, arguing that Solanas was being held inappropriately at Elmhurst. The judge denied the motion and Solanas returned to Elmhurst. On June 28, Solanas was indicted on charges of attempted murder, assault, and illegal possession of a gun. She was declared "incompetent" in August and sent to Matteawan State Hospital for the Criminally Insane.[62] That same month, Olympia Press published the SCUM Manifesto with essays by Girodias and Krassner.[57]

      In January 1969, Solanas underwent psychiatric evaluation and was diagnosed with chronic paranoid schizophrenia.[7] In June, she was finally deemed fit to stand trial. She represented herself without an attorney and pleaded guilty to "reckless assault with intent to harm."[63][64] She was sentenced to three years in prison, with one year of time served.[63][64]

      After murder attempt[edit]

      The shooting of Warhol propelled Solanas into the public spotlight, prompting a flurry of commentary and opinions in the media. Robert Marmorstein, writing in The Village Voice, declared that Solanas "has dedicated the remainder of her life to the avowed purpose of eliminating every single male from the face of the earth."[32]Norman Mailer called her the "Robespierre of feminism."[65]

      Ti-Grace Atkinson, the New York chapter president of the National Organization for Women (NOW), described Solanas as "the first outstanding champion of women's rights"[65] and "a 'heroine' of the feminist movement,"[66][67] and "smuggled [her manifesto] . out of the mental hospital where Solanas was confined."[66][67] According to Betty Friedan, the NOW board rejected Atkinson.[67] Atkinson left NOW and founded another feminist organization.[68] According to Friedan, "the media continued to treat Ti-Grace as a leader of the women's movement, despite its repudiation of her."[69]

      Another NOW member, Florynce Kennedy, who had represented her in court, called Solanas "one of the most important spokeswomen of the feminist movement."[18][70]

      English professor Dana Heller argued that Solanas was "very much aware of feminist organizations and activism,"[71] but "had no interest in participating in what she often described as 'a civil can you deposit checks at suntrust atm club.'"[71] Heller also stated that Solanas could "reject mainstream liberal feminism for its blind adherence to cultural codes of feminine politeness and decorum which the SCUM Manifesto identifies as the source of women's debased social the valerie solanas and Warhol[edit]

      After Solanas was released from the New York State Prison for Women in 1971,[72] she stalked Warhol and others over the telephone and was arrested again in November 1971.[64] She was subsequently institutionalized several times and then drifted into obscurity.[73]

      The attack had a profound impact on Warhol and his art, and security at the Factory scene became much stronger afterward. For the rest of his life, Warhol lived in fear that Solanas would attack him again. "It was the Cardboard Andy, not the Andy I could love and play with," said close friend and collaborator Billy Name. "He was so sensitized you couldn't put your hand on him without him jumping. I couldn't even love him anymore, because it hurt him to touch him."[74]

      Later life[edit]

      Solanas died in 1988 of pneumonia at the Bristol Hotel in San Francisco.

      Solanas may have intended to write an eponymous autobiography.[75] In a 1977 Village Voice interview,[76] she announced a book with her name as the title.[77] The book, possibly intended as a parody, was supposed to deal with the "conspiracy" that led to her imprisonment.[76] In a corrective 1977 Village Voice interview, Solanas said the book would not be autobiographical other than a small portion and that it would be about many things, include proof of statements in the manifesto, and would "deal very intensively with the subject of bullshit," but she said nothing about parody.[59]

      In the mid-1970s, in New York City, according to Heller, Solanas was "apparently homeless",[78] "continued to defend her political beliefs and the SCUM Manifesto",[78] and "actively promoted" her new Manifesto revision.[78]

      A decade later, Ultra Violet tracked down Solanas in northern California and interviewed her over the phone.[79] According to Ultra Violet, Solanas was then known as Onz Loh. Solanas stated that the August 1968 version of the manifesto had many errors, unlike her own printed version of October 1967, and that the book had not sold well. She also said that, until told by Violet, she was unaware of Warhol's death.[80][e]

      Death[edit]

      The grave of Valerie Jean Solanas at Saint Marys Catholic Church Cemetery, Fairfax County, Virginia

      On April 25, 1988, at the age of 52, Solanas died of pneumonia at the Bristol Hotel in the Tenderloin district of San Francisco.[82] A building superintendent at the hotel, not on duty that night, had a vague memory of Solanas: "Once, he had to enter her room, and he saw her typing at her desk. There was a pile of typewritten pages beside her. What she was writing and what happened to the manuscript remain a mystery.".[12][83] Her mother burned all her belongings posthumously.[12]

      Legacy[edit]

      Popular culture[edit]

      Composer Pauline Oliveros released "To Valerie Solanas and Marilyn Monroe in Recognition of The valerie solanas Desperation" in 1970. In the work Oliveros seeks to explore how "Both women seemed to be desperate and caught in the traps of inequality: Monroe needed to be recognized for her talent as an actress. Solanas wished to be supported for her own creative work."[84][85]

      Actress Lili Taylor played Solanas in the film I Shot Andy Warhol (1996), which focused on Solanas's assassination attempt on Warhol (played by Jared Harris). Taylor won Special Recognition for Outstanding Performance at the Sundance Film Festival for her role.[86] The film's director, Mary Harron, requested permission to use songs by The Velvet Underground, but was denied by Lou Reed, who feared that Solanas would be glorified in the film. Six years before the film's release, Reed and John Cale included a song about Solanas, "I Believe," on their concept album about Warhol, Songs for Drella (1990). In "I Believe," Reed sings, "I believe life's serious enough for retribution. I believe being sick is no excuse. And I believe I would've pulled the switch on her myself." Reed believed Solanas was to blame for Warhol's death from a gallbladder infection 20 years after she shot him.[87]

      Up Your Ass by Solanas was rediscovered in 1999 and produced in 2000 by George Coates Performance Works in San Francisco. The copy Warhol had lost was found in a trunk of lighting equipment owned by Billy Name. Coates learned about the rediscovered manuscript while at an exhibition at The Andy Warhol Museum marking the 30th anniversary of the shooting. Coates turned the piece into a musical with an all-female cast. Coates consulted with Solanas's sister, Judith, while writing the piece, and sought to create a "very funny satirist" out of Solanas, not just showing her as Warhol's attempted assassin.[12][88]

      Solanas's life has inspired three plays. Valerie Shoots Andy (2001), by Carson Kreitzer, starred two actors playing a younger (Heather Grayson) and an older (Lynne McCollough) Solanas.[89]Tragedy in Nine Lives (2003), by Karen Houppert, examined the encounter between Solanas and Warhol as a Greek tragedy and starred Juliana Francis as Solanas.[88] Most recently, in 2011, Pop!, a musical by Maggie-Kate Coleman and Anna K. Jacobs, focused mainly on Warhol (played by Tom Story). Rachel Zampelli played Solanas and sang "Big Gun," described as the "evening's strongest number" by The Washington Post.[90]

      Swedish author Sara Stridsberg wrote a semi-fictional novel about Solanas called Drömfakulteten (English: The Dream Faculty), published in 2006. The book's narrator visits Solanas toward the end of her life at the Bristol Hotel. Stridsberg was awarded the Nordic Council's Literature Prize for the book.[91] The novel was later translated into and published in English under the title Valerie, or, The Faculty of Dreams: A Novel in 2019.[92]

      Solanas was featured in a 2017 episode of the FX series American Horror Story: Cult, "Valerie Solanas Died for Your Sins: Scumbag." She was played by Lena Dunham.[93] The episode portrayed Solanas as the instigator of most of the Zodiac Killer murders.

      Influence and analysis[edit]

      Author James Martin Harding explained that, by declaring herself independent from Warhol, after her arrest she "aligned herself with the historical avant-garde's rejection of the traditional structures of bourgeois theater,"[94] and that her anti-patriarchal "militant hostility. pushed the avant-garde in radically new directions."[95] Harding believed that Solanas's assassination attempt on Warhol was its own theatrical performance.[96] At the shooting, she left on a table at the Factory a paper bag containing a gun, her address book, and a sanitary napkin.[97] Harding stated that leaving behind the sanitary napkin was part of the performance,[98] and called "attention to basic feminine experiences that were publically [sic] taboo and tacitly elided within avant-garde circles."[99]

      Feminist philosopher Avital Ronell compared Solanas to an array of people: Lorena Bobbitt; a "girl Nietzsche"; Medusa; the Unabomber; and Medea.[100] Ronell believed that Solanas was threatened by the hyper-feminine women of the Factory that Warhol liked and felt lonely because of the rejection she felt due to her own butchandrogyny. She believed Solanas was ahead of her time, living in a period before feminist and lesbian activists such as the Guerrilla Girls and the Lesbian Avengers.[65]

      Solanas has also been credited with instigating radical feminism.[60]Catherine Lord wrote that "the feminist movement would not have happened without Valerie Solanas."[3] Lord believed that the reissuing of the SCUM Manifesto and the disowning of Solanas by "women's liberation politicos" triggered a wave of radical feminist publications. According to Vivian Gornick, many of the women's liberation activists who initially distanced themselves from Solanas changed their minds a year later, developing the first wave of radical feminism.[3] At the same time, perceptions of Warhol were transformed from largely nonpolitical into political martyrdom because the motive for the shooting was political, according to Harding and Victor Bockris.[101] Solanas's idiosyncratic views on gender are a major focus of Andrea Long Chu's 2019 book, Females.[citation needed]

      Breanne Fahs describes Solanas as a contradiction that "alienates her from the feminist movement." Fahs argues that Solanas never wanted to be "in movement" but nevertheless fractured the feminist movement by provoking NOW members to disagree about her case. Many contradictions are seen in her lifestyle as a lesbian who sexually serviced men, her claim to be asexual, a rejection of queer culture, and a non-interest in working with others despite a dependency on others. Fahs also brings into question the contradictory stories of Solanas's life. She is described as a victim, a rebel, and a desperate loner, yet Solanas's cousin says she worked as a waitress in her late 20s and 30s, not primarily as a prostitute, and friend Geoffrey LaGear said she had a "groovy childhood." Solanas also kept in touch with her father throughout her life, despite claiming that he sexually abused her. Fahs believes that Solanas embraced these contradictions as a key part of her identity.[11]

      In 2018, The New York Times started a series of delayed obituaries, of significant individuals whose importance the paper's obituary writers had not recognized at the time of their deaths. In June 2020, they started a series of obituaries on LGBTQ individuals, and on June 26, they profiled Solanas.[102]

      Works[edit]

      Notes[edit]

      1. ^Solanas's cousin claimed the man was a sailor, and that Solanas may have also given birth to a second child before leaving home.[11]
      2. ^Lord stated that Solanas and her son lived with "a middle-class military couple outside of Washington, D.C." before she went to the University of Maryland. This couple might have paid for her college tuition, according to Lord.[3]
      3. ^The original title of the work is Up Your Ass, or, From the Cradle to the Boat, or, The Big Suck, or, Up from the Slime.[3][11]
      4. ^"The Times does not present Ms. Fieden's account as definitive. [but] consider[s] this just one angle of the story".[48]
      5. ^Violet objected to assassination;[81] for a possible contrast in her views, see Violet (1990), p. 241 for another near-killing of Andy Warhol.
      6. ^Although Up Your Ass was written in 1965, it was not produced as a play until 2000, and was not published until 2014 (as a Kindle ebook).[103]

      References[edit]

      1. ^State of California. California Death Index, 1940–1997. Sacramento, CA: State of California Department of Health Services, Center for Health Statistics.
      2. ^Violet (1990), p. 184
      3. ^ abcdefgLord (2010)
      4. ^Harron (1996), p. xi
      5. ^ abFahs (2014), p. 3
      6. ^Jansen (2011), p. 141
      7. ^ abcWatson (2003), pp. 35–36
      8. ^Solanas (1996), p. 48
      9. ^Buchanan (2011), p. 132
      10. ^Fahs (2014), pp. 23–24
      11. ^ abcFahs (2008)
      12. ^ abcdCoburn, Judith (January 11, 2000). "Solanas Lost and Found". The Village Voice. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
      13. ^ abJobey, Liz, Liz (August 24, 1996). "Solanas and Son". The Guardian.
      14. ^Hewitt (2004), p. 602
      15. ^Heller (2008), p. 154
      16. ^Regarding the honor society: Jansen (2011), p. 152
      17. ^ abcHeller (2001)
      18. ^ abcdNickels (2005), pp. 15–16
      19. ^Hamilton (2002), pp. 264–
      20. ^Solanas (1968), p. 89
      21. ^ abHarding (2010), p. 168
      22. ^Harding (2010), p. 169
      23. ^Watson (2003), p. 447
      24. ^Solanas, Valerie (July 1966). "For 2¢: pain". Cavalier: 38–40, 76–77.
      25. ^Solanas, Valerie (March 31, 2014). Up Your Ass. VandA.ePublishing. ASIN B00JE6N2UG.
      26. ^ abBarron, James (June 23, 2009). "A Manuscript, a Confrontation, a Shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved July 6, 2009.
      27. ^ abKaufman, Ortenberg & Rosset (2004), p. 201
      28. ^Warhol, Andy (Director) (1967). I, a Man (Motion picture).
      29. ^Solanas (1967), p. 1
      30. ^DeMonte (2010), p. 178
      31. ^Harding (2010), p. 152, citing Frank (1996), p. 211
      32. ^ abcMarmorstein (1968), p. 9
      33. ^Hewitt (2004), p. 603
      34. ^Morgan (1970), pp. 514–519
      35. ^See also Rich (1993), p. 17
      36. ^Heller (2008), p. 165, citing as excerpting SCUM Manifesto Kolmar, Wendy, & Frances Bartkowski, eds., Feminist Theory: A Reader (Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield, 2000), & Albert, Judith Clavir, & Stewart Edward Albert, eds., The Sixties Papers: Documents of a Rebellious Decade (1984).
      37. ^Harron (1996), p. xxi
      38. ^ abKaufman, Ortenberg & Rosset (2004), p. 202
      39. ^Watson (2003), p. 334
      40. ^ abcBaer (1996), p. 51
      41. ^ abKrassner, Paul (September 10, 2009). "Brain Damage Control: Phil Spector, Valerie Solanas and Me". High Times. Archived from the original on May 14, 2012.
      42. ^ abcdKaufman, Ortenberg & Rosset (2004), pp. 202–203
      43. ^ abcFahs (2014), p. 133
      44. ^Fahs (2014), pp. 133–134
      45. ^Fahs (2014), footnote 198
      46. ^Fahs the valerie solanas, pp. 134–137
      47. ^ abFahs (2014), p. 137
      48. ^ abCollins, Nicole (assistant metropolitan editor), comment 3, June 23, 2009, 10:03 a.m., as accessed June 13, 2013.
      49. ^"Ghomeshi, Jian, host, Q: The Podcast, from CBC Radio 1". Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2009., as accessed November 18, 2012 (interview of Margo Feiden overall approx. 1:14–18:56 from start) (fragment approx. 5:06–5:45 from start) (based on cbc.ca link before archive.org link provided here).
      50. ^O'Brien, Glenn (March 24, 2009). "History Rewrite". Interview Magazine: 1–3. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
      51. ^Fahs (2014), p. 347
      52. ^ abKaufman, Ortenberg & Rosset (2004), p. 203
      53. ^ abHarding (2010), pp. 151–173
      54. ^Dillenberger (2001), p. 31
      55. ^Baer (1996), p. 53
      56. ^ abHarding (2010), p. 152
      57. ^ abcdefgKaufman, Ortenberg & Rosset (2004), p. 204
      58. ^ abFaso, Frank; Lee, Henry (June 5, 1968). "Actress defiant: 'I'm not sorry'". New York Daily News. 49 (297). p. 42.
      59. ^ ab"Valerie Solanas replies". The Village Voice. XXII (31): 29. August 1, 1977.
      60. ^ abThird (2006)
      61. ^Fahs (2014), p. 198
      62. ^Fahs (2014), p. 221
      63. ^ abJansen (2011), p. 153
      64. ^ abcSolanas (1996), p. 55
      65. ^ abcNickels (2005), p. 17
      66. ^ abFriedan (1976), p. 109
      67. ^ abcFriedan (1998), p. 138
      68. ^Willis (1992), p. 124
      69. ^Friedan (1998), p. 139
      70. ^Solanas (1996), p. 54
      71. ^ abcHeller (2008), p. 160
      72. ^Buchanan (2011), p. 48
      73. ^Solanas (1996), pp. 55–56
      74. ^Making the Scene: Factory Made: Warhol and the Sixties by Steven WatsonArchived April 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Dennis Drabelle, The Washington Post book review, November 16, 2003.
      75. ^Winkiel (1999), p. 74
      76. ^ abHeller (2008), p. 151
      77. ^Smith, Howard, & Brian Van der Horst, Valerie Solanas Interview, in Scenes (col.), in The Village Voice (New York, N.Y.), vol. XXII, no. 30, July 25, 1977, p. 32, col. 2.
      78. ^ abcHeller (2008), p. 164
      79. ^Violet (1990), p. v
      80. ^Violet (1990), pp. 183–189
      81. ^Violet (1990), p. 189
      82. ^Watson (2003), p. 425
      83. ^Harron (1996), p. xxxi
      84. ^Oliveros, Pauline (September 1970). "To Valerie Solanas and Marilyn Monroe in Recognition of Their Desperation (1970)". Deep Listening. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
      85. ^"Pauline Oliveros". Roaratorio. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
      86. ^B. Ruby Rich (1996). "I Shot Andy Warhol". Archives. Sundance Institute. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
      87. ^Michael Schaub (November 2003). "The 'Idiot Madness' of Valerie Solanis". Bookslut. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
      88. ^ abCarr, C. (July 22, 2003). "SCUM Goddess". The Village Voice. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
      89. ^Genzlinger, Neil (March 1, 2001). "Theater Review; A Writer One Day, a Would-Be Killer the Next: Reliving the Warhol Shooting". The New York Times. New York City. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
      90. ^Marks, Peter (July 19, 2011). "Theater review: 'Pop!' paints bold portrait of Warhol and his inner circle". The Washington Post. Washington DC: Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
      91. ^"Sara Stridsberg wins the Literature Prize". News. Norden. 2007. Archived from the original on May 7, 2014. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
      92. ^"Valerie | Sara Stridsberg | Macmillan". Us.macmillan.com. 2019. Retrieved August 7, 2019.
      93. ^Bradley, Laura (August 29, 2017). "How American Horror Story: Cult Will Change the A.H.S. Game". Vanity Fair. New York City: Condé Nast. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
      94. ^Harding (2010), p. 153
      95. ^Harding (2010), pp. 29, 30, homes for sale in willow valley arizona, 33, 153
      96. ^Harding (2010), chap. 6 esp. pp. 151–158 and see pp. 21, 24, 26, 29, 63 & 178
      97. ^Harding (2010), p. 151
      98. ^Harding (2010), pp. 151–153
      99. ^Harding (2010), pp. 152, 153
      100. ^Ronell (2004)
      101. ^Harding (2010), p. 172, citing Bockris, Victor, The Life and Death of Andy Warhol, op. cit., p. 236.
      102. ^Bonnie Wertheim (June 26, 2020). "Overlooked No More: Valerie Solanas, Radical Feminist Who Shot Andy Warhol". The New York Times.
      103. ^Solanas, Valerie (March 31, 2014). Up Your Ass. VandA.ePublishing. ASIN B00JE6N2UG.

      Bibliography[edit]

      • Baer, Freddie (1996). "About Valerie Solanas". In Valerie Solanas (ed.). SCUM Manifesto. Edinburgh: AK Press. pp. 48–57. ISBN .
      • Buchanan, Paul D. (2011). Radical Feminists: A Guide to an American Subculture. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood. ISBN .
      • Chu, Andrea Long (Winter 2018). "On Liking Women". N Plus One (30). Retrieved August 10, 2019.
      • DeMonte, Alexandra (2010). "Feminism: second-wave". In Roger Chapman (ed.). Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe. ISBN .
      • Dillenberger, Jane Daggett (2001). The Religious Art of Andy Warhol. New York: Continuum. ISBN .
      • Fahs, Breanne (Fall 2008). "The radical possibilities of Valerie Solanas". Feminist Studies. 34 (3): 591–617. JSTOR 20459223.
      • Fahs, Breanne (2014). Valerie Solanas: The Defiant Life of the Woman Who Wrote SCUM (and Shot Andy Warhol). New York: The Feminist Press. ISBN .
      • Frank, Marcie (1996). "Popping off Warhol: from the gutter to the underground and beyond". In Doyle, Jennifer; Flatley, Jonathan; Muñoz, José Esteban (eds.). Pop Out: Queer Warhol. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 210–223. ISBN .
      • Friedan, Betty (1976). It Changed My Life: Chase business credit card contact us on the Women's Movement. New York: Random House. ISBN .
      • Friedan, Betty (1998) [1963]. It Changed My Life: Writings on the Women's Movement. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN .
      • Hamilton, Neil A. (2002). Rebels and Renegades: a Chronology of Social and Political Dissent in the United States. Taylor & Francis. ISBN .
      • Harding, James Martin (2010). Cutting Performances: Collage Events, Feminist Artists, and the American Avant-Garde. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN .
      • Harron, Mary (1996). "Introduction: on Valerie Solanas". In Harron, Mary; Minahan, Daniel (eds.). I Shot Andy Warhol. New York: Grove Press. pp. vii–xxxi. ISBN .
      • Heller, Dana (2001). "Shooting Solanas: radical feminist history and the technology of failure". Feminist Studies. 27 (1): 167–189. doi:10.2307/3178456. JSTOR 3178456.
      • Heller, Dana (2008). "Shooting Solanas: radical feminist history and the technology of failure". In Hesford, Victoria; Diedrich, Lisa (eds.). Feminist Time against Nation Time: Gender, Politics, and the Nation-State in an Age of Permanent War. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. pp. 151–168. ISBN .
      • Hewitt, Nancy A. (2004). "Solanas, Valerie". In Ware, Susan; Braukman, Stacy Lorraine (eds.). Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary Completing the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN .
      • Jansen, Sharon L. (2011). Reading Women's Worlds from Christine de Pizan to Doris Lessing: A Guide to Six Centuries of Women Writers Imagining Rooms of Their Own. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN .
      • Kaufman, Alan; Ortenberg, Neil; Rosset, Barney, eds. (2004). The Outlaw Bible of American Literature. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN .
      • Lord, Catherine (2010). "Wonder waif meets super neuter". October. 132 (132): 135–136. doi:10.1162/octo.2010.132.1.135. S2CID 57566909.
      • Marmorstein, Robert (June 13, 1968). "A winter memory of Valerie Solanis [sic]: scum goddess". The Village Voice. XIII (35): 9–10, 20.
      • Morgan, Robin (1970). Sisterhood is Powerful: An Anthology of Writings From the Women's Liberation Movement. New York: Random House. ISBN .
      • Nickels, Thom (2005). Out in History: Collected Essays. STARbooks Press. ISBN .
      • Rich, B. Ruby (1993). "Manifesto destiny: drawing a bead on Valerie Solanas". Voice Literary Supplement. 119: 16–17.
      • Ronell, Avital (2004). "Deviant payback: the aims of Valerie Solanas". In Valerie Solanas (ed.). SCUM Manifesto. London: Verso. pp. 1–32. ISBN .
      • Solanas, Valerie (1967). SCUM Manifesto. self-published.
      • Solanas, Valerie (1968). SCUM Manifesto. Olympia Press.
      • Solanas, Valerie (1996). SCUM Manifesto. San Francisco, CA: AK Press. ISBN .
      • Third, Amanda (2006). "'Shooting from the hip': Valerie Solanas, SCUM and the apocalyptic politics of radical feminism". Hecate. 32 (2): 104–132.
      • Violet, Ultra (1990). Famous for 15 Minutes: My Years with Andy Warhol. New York: Avon Books. ISBN .
      • Watson, Steven (2003). Factory Made: Warhol and the Sixties (1st ed.). New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN .
      • Willis, Ellen (1992). "Radical feminism and feminist radicalism". In Ellen Willis (ed.). No More Nice Girls: Countercultural Essays. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 117–150. ISBN .
      • Winkiel, Laura (1999). "The "sweet assassin" and the performative politics of SCUM Manifesto". In Patricia Juliana Smith (ed.). The Queer Sixties. New York: Routledge. pp. 62–86. ISBN .

      External links[edit]

      • Quotations related to Valerie Solanas at Wikiquote
      • Media related to Valerie Solanas at Wikimedia Commons
      • Valerie Solanas The Defiant Life of the Woman Who Wrote SCUM (and Shot Andy Warhol), by Breanne Fahs (2014)
      • About Valerie Solanas, by Freddie Baer (1999)
      • Whose Soiree Now?, by Alisa Solomon (The Village Voice, February 2001)
      • Valerie Jean Solanas (1936–88) (Guardian Unlimited, March 2005)
      • Valerie Solanas bibliography at the Wayback Machine (archived August 17, 2005)
      • Valerie Solanas at IMDb
      • "The Shot That Shattered the Velvet Underground," written June 6, 1968, from The Village Voice archives.
      Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valerie_Solanas

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